Renaud Piarroux

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Renaud Piarroux
Born (1960-09-27) September 27, 1960 (age 59)
NationalityFrench
Education
Pediatric Residency, 1990


Infectious Disease Residency, 1993


PhD Microbiology & Cellular Biology, University of Aix-Marseille, 1995[1]
SpouseMartine Piarroux

Renaud Piarroux (born 27 September 1960) is a pediatrician specializing in infectious diseases and tropical medicine. From 2008 to 2017, he has been a Full Professor of Parasitology and Mycology at the University of Aix-Marseille in Marseille, France, and Head of Parasitology and Mycology at Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille.[2] Since 2017, he has been a Full Professor of Parasitology and Mycology at the Sorbonne University in Paris,[3] France, and Head of Parasitology and Mycology at Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris.[4] Over the years, Piarroux has taken part in several missions and research projects in Africa, including the study of the dynamics of cholera epidemics in Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo[5][6][7][8][9][10] and Guinea,[11] prevention and management of parasitic diseases in Morocco, and a program to fight against waterborne diseases in Ivory Coast.[12][13]

Piarroux has been the Regional Representative of the Franche-Comté region of France and responsible for various missions with Médecins du Monde (MDM) (Doctors of the World) in Grand Comoros[14] and the Democratic Republic of Congo. He also worked on the analysis of risks of epidemics and assessing health priorities after natural disasters and conflicts including:

In these risk analyses he studied how cholera spreads through regions and communities.

In November 2010 he was called in by the Haitian government and French Embassy to investigate the origin and course of the world's largest cholera epidemic of recent times,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] and to assist authorities in creating an effective control program. These activities were highlighted in the book Deadly River (Cornell University Press, 2016), authored by Ralph R. Frerichs.[24]

Piarroux is an ongoing member of the travel-related and imported diseases committee of the French Ministry of Health.[25] He is a founding member of the Global Alliance Against Cholera (GAAC), started in the eastern part of DR Congo, that has since expanded to other cholera-affected countries.[26] He has been awarded the French Legion of Honour in 2017.[27]

Life and career[edit]

Renaud Piarroux was born in Cherbourg, France, the son of painter Jean Piarroux and medical pathologist Marie-Claude Deleval.

Following graduation, he became Assistant Professor of Parasitology at Besançon University Hospital, where he created the Parasitology-Mycology Department and became a Full Professor in 2001. He was director of Santé et Environnement Rural Franche-Comté, and the EA2276 research team at Franche-Comté University from 2004 to 2007.[28][29]

In Besançon, his academic publication subjects included: Farmer's lung, the relationship between mold and asthma, unhealthy dwellings, cholera, echinococcosis (a local parasitic disease).[30] Following a move in 2008 to Marseille, his work focused on three subjects:[31]

His interest in cholera epidemics started in 1994 while working as a volunteer pediatrician in Goma, Zaire during an extensive cholera outbreak following the Rwandan genocide.[33] He next encountered cholera while working with MDM in Grand Comorro in 1998.[34] There, he created a surveillance system that with rapid follow-up and simple interventions eventually brought the outbreak under control.

Piarroux next helped in defining cholera control priorities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, with the help of a local epidemiologist, who became his student, Dr. Didier Bompangue.[35] They observed that cholera regularly came back from the lake area in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.[36] Enlarging his study in time and space, and using genetic analysis he concluded that only a few towns play the role of amplifier,[37] and that cholera was linked to human mobility.[38]

In 2010 Piarroux was asked by the French government to investigate the Haiti cholera epidemic; questions arose in the scientific community as Haiti had never been hit by cholera before.[39] His investigation led to the controversial conclusion[40] that the epidemic was imported by United Nations soldiers in a Nepalese UN peacekeeping camp near Mirebalais in the center of Haiti.[41] His findings ran counter to the more popular Haitian environmental cholera paradigm. Pr Rita Colwell, the main proponent of the environmental theory, postulated it was a "perfect storm" of three converging factors, an earthquake followed by a hot summer and then a Hurricane that triggered the explosive epidemic.[42] Piarroux agreed that some vibrios are living in coastal waters, but argued that in Haiti (as in Democratic Republic of Congo), cholera didn't come ex nihilo from coastal water,[43][44][45][46] and further that the storm came after the epidemics had started.[47] Other scientists demonstrated that the cholera in Haiti originated from Nepal.[48][49] Human mobility was thus key to disease transmission in Haiti. This was important information for formulating an effective elimination strategy.[50][51] Details of the political and scientific controversies are presented in Deadly River by Ralph R. Frerichs (Cornell University Press, 2016). Following the publication of a long time United Nations Special Rapporteur, Philip Alston,[52][53] the Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon acknowledged the role of United Nations soldiers in the beginning of the Haitian cholera epidemics.[54][55] He presently defends a new approach based on an "intense effort to treat and prevent the disease, as well as a concerted effort to deliver material assistance to those most directly affected."[56]

Piarroux has three adult children, Raphael, Julie and Loïc, and is married to Martine Piarroux. The couple resides in Marseille.

Publications[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Isolement et caractérisation d'une séquence répétée des Leishmania de l'ancien monde : Application au diagnostic, à l'épidémiologie et à la taxonomie. Aix-Marseille 2. January 1995.
  2. ^ http://pharmacie.univ-amu.fr/umr-md3
  3. ^ https://www.iplesp.upmc.fr/fr/team/1
  4. ^ "Recherchez un médecin ou un service".
  5. ^ http://en.choleraalliance.org/files/Pdf/Plan%20strategique%20du%20cholera%20en%20RDC%202008-2012.pdf
  6. ^ Bompangue, D; Giraudoux, P; Handschumacher, P; Piarroux, M; Sudre, B; Ekwanzala, M; Kebela, I; Piarroux, R (2008). "Lakes as source of cholera outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo". Emerging Infect. Dis. 14 (5): 798–800. doi:10.3201/eid1405.071260. PMC 2600234. PMID 18439365.
  7. ^ Bompangue, D; Giraudoux, P; Piarroux, M; Mutombo, G; Shamavu, R; Sudre, B; Mutombo, A; Mondonge, V; Piarroux, R (2009). "Cholera epidemics, war and disasters around Goma and Lake Kivu: an eight-year survey". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 3 (5): e436. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000436. PMC 2677153. PMID 19436726.
  8. ^ Moore, S; Miwanda, B; Sadji, AY; Thefenne, H; Jeddi, F; Rebaudet, S; de Boeck, H; Bidjada, B; Depina, JJ; Bompangue, D; Abedi, AA; Koivogui, L; Keita, S; Garnotel, E; Plisnier, PD; Ruimy, R; Thomson, N; Muyembe, JJ; Piarroux, R (2015). "Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9 (6): e0003817. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003817. PMC 4482140. PMID 26110870.
  9. ^ Miwanda, B; Moore, S; Muyembe, JJ; Nguefack-Tsague, G; Kabangwa, IK; Ndjakani, DY; Mutreja, A; Thomson, N; Thefenne, H; Garnotel, E; Tshapenda, G; Kakongo, DK; Kalambayi, G; Piarroux, R (2015). "Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo". Emerging Infect. Dis. 21 (5): 847–51. doi:10.3201/eid2105.141233. PMC 4412219. PMID 25897570.
  10. ^ Floret, N; Viel, JF; Mauny, F; Hoen, B; Piarroux, R (2006). "Negligible risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters". Emerging Infect. Dis. 12 (4): 543–8. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051569. PMC 3294713. PMID 16704799.
  11. ^ Rebaudet, S; Mengel, MA; Koivogui, L; Moore, S; Mutreja, A; Kande, Y; Yattara, O; Sarr Keita, V; Njanpop-Lafourcade, BM; Fournier, PE; Garnotel, E; Keita, S; Piarroux, R (2014). "Deciphering the origin of the 2012 cholera epidemic in Guinea by integrating epidemiological and molecular analyses". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 8 (6): e2898. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002898. PMC 4046952. PMID 24901522.
  12. ^ "Fiche d'expérience".
  13. ^ http://www.solidarites.org/en/eclairage/1091-water-as-a-source-of-disease
  14. ^ Troeger, Christopher; Sallah, Kankoe; Chao, Dennis L.; Truillet, Romain; Gaudart, Jean; Piarroux, Renaud (2016-01-06). "Cholera Outbreak in Grande Comore: 1998–1999". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 94 (1): 76–81. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0397. ISSN 0002-9637. PMC 4710449. PMID 26572869.
  15. ^ http://en.choleraalliance.org/files/Pdf/Plan%20strategique%20du%20cholera%20en%20RDC%202008-2012.pdf
  16. ^ Bompangue, Didier; Giraudoux, Patrick; Piarroux, Martine; Mutombo, Guy; Shamavu, Rick; Sudre, Bertrand; Mutombo, Annie; Mondonge, Vital; Piarroux, Renaud (2009-05-19). "Cholera Epidemics, War and Disasters around Goma and Lake Kivu: An Eight-Year Survey". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3 (5): e436. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000436. ISSN 1935-2735. PMC 2677153. PMID 19436726.
  17. ^ Piarroux, R; Barrais, R; Faucher, B; et al. (July 2011). "Understanding the cholera epidemic, Haiti". Emerging Infect. Dis. 17 (7): 1161–8. doi:10.3201/eid1707.110059. PMC 3381400. PMID 21762567.
  18. ^ Gaudart, J; Rebaudet, S; Barrais, R; Boncy, J; Faucher, B; Piarroux, M; Magloire, R; Thimothe, G; Piarroux, R (2013). "Spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera during the first year of the epidemic in Haiti". PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 7 (4): e2145. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002145. PMC 3617102. PMID 23593516.
  19. ^ Bengtsson, L; Gaudart, J; Lu, X; Moore, S; Wetter, E; Sallah, K; Rebaudet, S; Piarroux, R (2015). "Using mobile phone data to predict the spatial spread of cholera". Sci Rep. 5: 8923. doi:10.1038/srep08923. PMC 4352843. PMID 25747871.
  20. ^ Baron, S; Lesne, J; Moore, S; Rossignol, E; Rebaudet, S; Gazin, P; Barrais, R; Magloire, R; Boncy, J; Piarroux, R (2013). "No Evidence of Significant Levels of Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the Haitian Aquatic Environment During the 2012 Rainy Season". PLoS Curr. 5. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.7735b392bdcb749baf5812d2096d331e. PMC 3783635. PMID 24077904.
  21. ^ Rebaudet, S; Gazin, P; Barrais, R; Moore, S; Rossignol, E; Barthelemy, N; Gaudart, J; Boncy, J; Magloire, R; Piarroux, R (2013). "The dry season in haiti: a window of opportunity to eliminate cholera". PLoS Curr. 5. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.2193a0ec4401d9526203af12e5024ddc. PMC 3712488. PMID 23873011.
  22. ^ Frerichs, RR; Boncy, J; Barrais, R; Keim, PS; Piarroux, R (2012). "Source attribution of 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (47): E3208, author reply E3209. doi:10.1073/pnas.1211512109. PMC 3511120. PMID 23047703.
  23. ^ Rebaudet, S; Gazin, P; Barrais, R; Moore, S; Rossignol, E; Barthelemy, N; Gaudart, J; Boncy, J; Magloire, R; Piarroux, R (2013). "The dry season in haiti: a window of opportunity to eliminate cholera". PLoS Curr. 5. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.2193a0ec4401d9526203af12e5024ddc. PMC 3712488. PMID 23873011.
  24. ^ Frerichs, Ralph R. (2016-05-01). Deadly River: Cholera and Cover-Up in Post-Earthquake Haiti. The Culture and Politics of Health Care Work. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9781501713583.
  25. ^ "Renaud Piarroux".
  26. ^ http://www.choleraalliance.org/gaac-advisory-council-members
  27. ^ http://www.legiondhonneur.fr/sites/default/files/lh20170416.pdf
  28. ^ http://www.univ-fcomte.fr/download/tout-l-u/document/magazines/mag/tout-l-u-82.pdf page 2 or http://www.gcsgrandest.fr/documents/IReSaP.pdf page 73
  29. ^ Leroy, Joel; Grenouillet, Frederic; Navellou, J.-C; Fagnoni, P; Muret, Patrice; Deconinck, Eric; Blasco, Gilles; Henon, T; Khayat, Norbert (2004-12-01). "Implementation of guidelines for the management of fungal infections at Besançon University Hospital". Journal de Mycologie Medicale. 14: 185–191.
  30. ^ Leroux, Luc (2016-08-29). "Renaud Piarroux, le médecin qui a tenu tête à l'ONU". Le Monde.fr.
  31. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Renaud_Piarroux/publications
  32. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Renaud_Piarroux/publications
  33. ^ Leroux, Luc (2016-08-29). "Renaud Piarroux, le médecin qui a tenu tête à l'ONU". Le Monde.fr.
  34. ^ "The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ http://africhol.org/content/dr-didier-bompangue
  36. ^ Dowell, Scott (July 2011). "Implications of the Introduction of Cholera to Haiti". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (7): 1299–1300. doi:10.3201/eid1707.110625. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 3381415. PMID 21762593.
  37. ^ Bompangue, Didier; Giraudoux, Patrick; Piarroux, Martine; Mutombo, Guy; Shamavu, Rick; Sudre, Bertrand; Mutombo, Annie; Mondonge, Vital; Piarroux, Renaud (2009-05-19). "Cholera Epidemics, War and Disasters around Goma and Lake Kivu: An Eight-Year Survey". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3 (5): e436. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000436. ISSN 1935-2735. PMC 2677153. PMID 19436726.
  38. ^ Moore, Sandra; Miwanda, Berthe; Sadji, Adodo Yao; Thefenne, Hélène; Jeddi, Fakhri; Rebaudet, Stanislas; de Boeck, Hilde; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Depina, Jean-Jacques (2015-06-25). "Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (6): e0003817. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003817. ISSN 1935-2735. PMC 4482140. PMID 26110870.
  39. ^ "Cholera in Haiti and the Modern "John Snow"".
  40. ^ "Loading" (PDF).
  41. ^ Piarroux, Renaud (July 2011). "Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (7): 1161–1168. doi:10.3201/eid1707.110059. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 3381400. PMID 21762567.
  42. ^ Knox, Richard (June 18, 2012). "Scientists Find New Wrinkle In How Cholera Got To Haiti". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  43. ^ Piarroux, R.; Faucher, B. (March 2012). "Cholera epidemics in 2010: respective roles of environment, strain changes, and human-driven dissemination". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 18 (3): 231–238. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03763.x. ISSN 1198-743X. PMID 22288560.
  44. ^ Baron, Sandrine; Lesne, Jean; Moore, Sandra; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Gazin, Pierre; Barrais, Robert; Magloire, Roc; Boncy, Jacques (2013). "No Evidence of Significant Levels of Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the Haitian Aquatic Environment During the 2012 Rainy Season". PLoS Currents. 5. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.7735b392bdcb749baf5812d2096d331e. ISSN 2157-3999. PMC 3783635. PMID 24077904.
  45. ^ Enserink, Martin (2010-11-05). "Haiti's Outbreak Is Latest in Cholera's New Global Assault". Science. 330 (6005): 738–739. doi:10.1126/science.330.6005.738. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21051601.
  46. ^ Enserink, Martin (2011-01-28). "Despite Sensitivities, Scientists Seek to Solve Haiti's Cholera Riddle". Science. 331 (6016): 388–389. doi:10.1126/science.331.6016.388. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21273460.
  47. ^ Deadly River by Ralph R. Frerichs (Cornell University Press, 2016). [p.213]
  48. ^ Sontag, Deborah (2012-03-31). "Haiti's Cholera Outraced the Experts and Tainted the U.N". The New York Times.
  49. ^ Frerichs, R.R.; Keim, P.S.; Barrais, R.; Piarroux, R. (July 2012). "Nepalese origin of cholera epidemic in Haiti". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 18 (6): E158–E163. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03841.x. ISSN 1198-743X. PMID 22510219.
  50. ^ Piarroux, Renaud (2016-09-07). "Opinion | the U.N.'s Responsibility in Haiti's Cholera Crisis". The New York Times.
  51. ^ "What the UN must do to wipe out cholera in Haiti - the Boston Globe".
  52. ^ "Philip Alston's Draft Report on the U.N. And the Haiti Cholera Outbreak". The New York Times. 2016-08-19.
  53. ^ Katz, Jonathan M. (2016-08-17). "U.N. Admits Role in Cholera Epidemic in Haiti". The New York Times.
  54. ^ "UN chief feels 'regret and sorrow' over Haiti cholera outbreak".
  55. ^ "Cholera in Haiti shows U.N. Must change its ways".
  56. ^ "Secretary-General, Addressing Caribbean Community Leaders, Pledges Support to Victims of Cholera in Haiti, Zika Virus throughout Region | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases".