|Founded||27 March 1999|
|Carlos Ghosn (Chairman and CEO)|
|Products||Cars and trucks|
Renault–Nissan Alliance is a Franco-Japanese strategic partnership between automobile manufacturers Renault, based in Paris, France, and Nissan, based in Yokohama, Japan, which together sell more than one in 10 cars worldwide. The companies, which have been strategic partners since 1999, have nearly 450,000 employees and control eight major brands: Infiniti, Renault Samsung Motors, Dacia, Datsun, Venucia and Lada, as well as Renault and Nissan themselves. The car group sold 8.3 million cars worldwide in 2013, behind Toyota, General Motors, and Volkswagen for total volume.
As of December 2015[update], the Alliance is the world's leading plug-in electric vehicle manufacturer, with global sales of over 300,000 all-electric vehicles delivered since December 2010. The top selling vehicle of the Alliance line-up is the Nissan Leaf all-electric car. The Leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history. Leaf global sales passed the 200,000 unit milestone in December 2015, five years after its introduction.
The strategic partnership between Renault and Nissan is not a merger or an acquisition. The two companies are joined together through a cross-shareholding agreement. The structure was unique in the auto industry during the 1990s consolidation trend and later served as a model for General Motors and PSA Peugeot Citroën, PSA Peugeot Citroën and Mitsubishi, as well as Volkswagen and Suzuki, though the latter combination failed. The Alliance itself has broadened its scope substantially, forming additional partnerships with automakers including Germany's Daimler, China's Dongfeng Motor, and Russia's AvtoVAZ.
Corporate structure and strategy
The Alliance is a strategic partnership based on the rationale that, due to substantial cross-shareholding investments, each company acts in the financial interest of the other—while maintaining individual brand identities and independent corporate cultures. Renault currently has a 43.4 percent (fully voting) stake in Nissan, and Nissan holds a 15 percent (non-voting) stake in Renault effectively giving Renault control. Although more companies have adopted such an arrangement, it remains controversial. Some business journalists have speculated that the companies should be joined in a conventional merger in order to make a "bold" move,(subscription required) while other interested parties have said that the companies should separate.
Carlos Ghosn is the chairman and CEO of the Alliance. Ghosn is a Brazilian-Lebanese-French businessman who is also chairman and CEO of Nissan Motors and holds the same positions at Renault. Ghosn has compared the Renault–Nissan partnership to a marriage: "A couple does not assume a converged, single identity when they get married. Instead, they retain their own individuality and join to build a life together, united by shared interests and goals, each bringing something different to the union. In business, regardless of the industry, the most successful and enduring partnerships are those created with a respect for identity as the constant guiding principle."
Ghosn has consistently advocated an evolutionary approach that results in increasing integration and synergies for partners within the Alliance. "You have to be careful that at the end of the day, by trying to do more in the short-term you don't end up destroying what had been delivering so much result on the mid-term and long-term," Ghosn was quoted as saying in March 2011 Reuters Special Report, in which he said conventional, top-down acquisitions in the auto industry in the past decade have failed. "It is not validated by any example in the car industry that this works. Not one example. And saying something different is just rubbish."
The goal of the Alliance is to increase economies of scale for both Renault and Nissan without forcing one company's identity to be consumed by the other's. The Alliance achieves scale and speeds time to market by jointly developing engines, batteries, and other key components. For instance, Nissan’s market share increases in Europe's competitive light commercial vehicle segment have been partly a result of badging various Renault van models such as the Renault Kangoo/Nissan Kubistar, Renault Master/Nissan Interstar, Renault Trafic/Nissan Primastar. In addition, Renault builds nearly all of the diesel engines in Nissan cars sold in Europe. Nissan uses these engines to accelerate sales throughout Europe, where it has already become the number one Asian brand in many key markets.
Collaboration between Renault and Nissan also focuses on capital-intensive research projects such as sustainable, zero-emission transportation and development of automobile manufacturing in emerging markets such as Brazil, Russia, and India. The Alliance also oversees purchasing for both companies, ensuring larger volume and thus better pricing with suppliers. Renault and Nissan have also consolidated logistics operations under the Alliance to reduce costs. The companies claim that they generate more than €200 million per year by sharing warehouses, containers, shipping crates, seagoing vessels and customs-related processing. In total, the Alliance reported more than €1.5 billion in synergies in 2010.
The Alliance develops "best practices," borrowing systems and controls from one company to strengthen the other company where appropriate. The "Nissan Production Way" became the cornerstone of the "Système de Production Renault" standard used by all Renault factories. Renault reported productivity increasing by 15 percent due to the new system.
The Renault–Nissan Alliance began 27 March 1999. At the time, the auto industry was in a period of rapid consolidation. Numerous companies merged or were acquired in high-profile deals, most notably Daimler’s acquisition of Chrysler in 1998 (which dissolved in 2007, when the companies separated).
At the time it was created, Renault bought 36.8 percent of Nissan's outstanding stock, and Nissan vowed to buy into Renault when it was financially able. In 2001, after the company's turnaround from near-bankruptcy, Nissan bought a 15 percent stake in Renault, which in turn increased its stake in Nissan to 44.4 percent.
In 2002, the Alliance created the Renault–Nissan BV (RNBV), a strategic management company to oversee areas such as corporate governance between the two companies. Based in Amsterdam, it is owned 50/50 by Renault and Nissan and provides a neutral location for the Alliance to exchange ideas, build strategy and help leverage the maximum synergies between the two companies.
In 2006, the Alliance began exploratory talks with General Motors regarding the possibility of creating an industrial alliance. The talks were instigated by GM minority shareholder Kirk Kerkorian. GM reportedly demanded payment of several billion dollars to engage in an alliance, prompting Ghosn to call the terms "contrary to the spirit of an alliance." Discussions ended without agreement in October 2006, when Ghosn said, "It's clear the two sides have completely different appetites for an alliance."
Since 2010, the Alliance has undertaken a number of projects as part of a strategic cooperation deal the German Daimler AG company.
Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance sells one in ten cars worldwide, and would be the world's fourth largest automaker with 2013 sales of 8,266,098 units.
|Alliance 2013 sales|
The Alliance committed €4 billion (around US$5.2 billion) into its electric vehicle and battery development programs with the aim to become the leader in zero-emission transportation. Carlos Ghosn, Chairman and CEO of the Renault–Nissan Alliance predicted that by 2020 one in 10 new car sales will be an electric vehicle. The first electric car based on this investment was the Nissan Leaf, launched in December 2010 in the United States and Japan. Between 2011 and 2013, Renault launched four battery electric vehicles (BEVs), the Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility van, Renault Fluence Z.E., Renault Zoe, and the Renault Twizy urban quadricycle. Nissan's second all-electric vehicle, the Nissan e-NV200, was released in Europe in June 2014, followed by Japan in October 2014. Nissan plans to launch two additional battery electric vehicles by March 2017. Initially, Carlos Ghosn predicted the two companies would sell a combined 1.5 million electric cars as early as 2016. As sales were slower than expected, in 2013 the Alliance revised its sales target to 1.5 million electric vehicles by 2020.
|Reanult-Nissan Alliance zero-emission vehicles milestones|
|Dec 2010||Nissan Leaf launched in the U.S. and Japan.|
|Oct 2011||Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility van is released in Europe.|
|2011||Nissan Leaf surpassed the Mitsubishi i MiEV as
the best selling all-electric car in history.
|Dec 2012||Renault Zoe released in France.|
|Feb 2013||Nissan Leaf global sales reached 50,000 units.|
|Jul 2013||Global EV Alliance sales reached 100,000 units.|
|Sep 2013||Global sales of the Kangoo Z.E. passed 10,000 units.|
|Jan 2014||Nissan Leaf global sales reached 100,000 units.|
|Jun 2014||Nissan e-NV200 utility van is released in Europe.|
|Oct 2014||Global EV Alliance sales passed 200,000 units.|
|Nov 2014||Nissan Leaf global sales reached 150,000 units.|
|Apr 2015||Global sales of the Renault Twizy reached 15,000 units.|
|May 2015||Global sales of the Renault Zoe passed 25,000 units.|
|Jun 2015||Global EV Alliance sales reached 250,000 units.|
|Dec 2015||Nissan Leaf global sales passed 200,000 units.|
|Dec 2015||Global EV Alliance sales passed 300,000 units.|
In May 2008, as part of the Alliance’s zero emission strategy, Nissan and NEC formed a joint-venture company, Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC) to focus on the development and mass production of advanced lithium-ion batteries for a wide range of automotive applications from hybrids, electric vehicles to fuel-cell vehicles. AESC began production in 2009 at its facility at Nissan’s Zama plant in Kanagawa Prefecture where annual capacity is 65,000 units. Globally, Alliance battery production capacity is expected to be 500,000 units a year by the end of 2013. Other Alliance battery production sites, announced in 2009, include France, Portugal, the UK, and the U.S.
The Alliance has created partnerships with more than 100 public and private organizations to create consumer buying incentives and EV infrastructure investment. The Alliance also partnered with Better Place. After implementing the first modern commercial deployment of the battery swapping model in Israel and Denmark, Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013.
By the end of December 2015, the Alliance continued as the leading all-electric vehicle manufacturer with global sales of 302,000 pure electric vehicles representing almost half of the global light-duty all-electric market segment. Renault has sold 83,000 electric vehicles, and its line-up includes the ZOE passenger car, the Kangoo Z.E van, the SM3 Z.E. (previously Fluence Z.E.) sedan and the Twizy quadricycle. The Nissan Leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway-capable electric car, with global sales of more than 201,000 units sold since its introduction in December 2010. As of December 2015[update], Renault sales are led by the Renault Zoe with 39,196 units sold worldwide, followed by the Kangoo Z.E. electric utility van with 21,220 units, and the Twizy with 16,900 units. The Renault Kangoo Z.E. remains the best-selling light commercial all-electric vehicle in Europe. The Zoe, with 18,453 registrations, was the top selling electric car in Europe in 2015.
Daimler Strategic Cooperation
The Alliance announced on 7 April 2010, a broad strategic co-operation with Daimler, reported to be worth €2 billion over five years. The companies are joined by an equity exchange that gives the Renault–Nissan Alliance a 3.1% stake in Daimler and Daimler a combined 3.1% in Renault and Nissan.
Immediately after the announcement, Renault and Daimler began working together on combined next-generation small cars: the Renault Twingo and Smart Fortwo, including electric versions as well as expanding both model ranges. The launches of the jointly developed small car models are scheduled to begin in 2013.
The smart plant in Hambach, France, will be the production location for two-seater versions, while the Renault plant in Novo Mesto in Slovenia will be the production location for the four-seater versions. Future models will also be available with an electric drive from launch. Powertrain sharing will focus on fuel-efficient, diesel and petrol engines. The Alliance will provide 3- and 4-cylinder petrol and diesel engines to Daimler.
The companies have agreed to share powertrain and development work on future projects across both passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The deal will allow powertrain sharing between Infiniti and Mercedes-Benz vehicles, and regional co-operation in the United States, China, and Japan between Nissan, Infiniti, and Daimler. Daimler will reportedly provide current 4- and 6-cylinder petrol and diesel engines to Infiniti.
In January 2012, the companies announced they would jointly produce engines in Nissan's plant in Decherd, Tennessee. The collaboration marks the first production of Mercedes-Benz engines in the North America Free Trade region. The Tennessee plant’s strategic location and logistics links ensure a direct supply of engines starting in 2014 for the Mercedes-Benz C-Class, built at Daimler’s vehicle plant in Tuscaloosa, Ala. The deal marked the first time that Daimler had ever built engines in North America. The companies will together produce 250,000 four-cylinder gasoline engines in the plant.
In January 2013, Renault-Nissan, Daimler and a third partner, Ford Motor Co., announced three-way development on "affordable, mass-market" hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2017. The companies said they would invest equal amounts into the effort. By collaborating on the fuel cell stack and other system components, Ford, Daimler and Renault-Nissan hope to improve the technology and produce at a large scale. With a higher production volume, these automakers expect to generate economies of scale and offer more affordable cars.
In June 2014, the Alliance and Daimler AG announced they would jointly develop premium compact vehicles, and jointly manufacture them in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where Nissan already has an existing manufacturing complex. The arrangement is a 50:50 joint venture, and the new plant will have an annual capacity of 300,000 vehicles. The $1.36 billion venture will produce Infiniti models by 2017, and Mercedes-Benz compacts by the following year.
Renault does not currently sell cars in the United States, but the Renault–Nissan Alliance operates a Silicon Valley Research Center in Sunnyvale, California, specializing in autonomous driving and connected cars. The office works with Silicon Valley-based technology companies and collaborates with Renault and Nissan technical centers in France and Japan. Areas of research include: autonomous vehicles; Internet-connected vehicles; and the area of human machine interface.
In October 2011, the Renault–Nissan Alliance launched an $1.8 billion "Brazilian offensive" with two plants and a combined annual capacity of 580,000 vehicles per year.
Nissan invested 2.6 billion Brazilian reais (US$1.5 billion or €1.1 billion) to construct an all-new manufacturing facility and to develop, industrialize and launch new products in Resende, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The all-new Nissan factory, scheduled to begin production in the first half of 2014, will have the capacity to produce up to 200,000 units annually and will create up to 2,000 jobs directly associated with the plant.
Renault invested an additional 500 million reais (US$285 million or €212 million) to expand an existing factory in Curitiba, in the state of Parana. The expanded plant will have an annual capacity of 380,000 vehicles per year starting in 2013. During the product cycle spanning 2010-2015, Renault will have invested an additional 1 billion Brazilian reais (US$571 million, or €423 million) to cover the development, industrialization, and launch of new vehicles for Brazilian consumers.
Purchasing for Renault and Nissan in Brazil will operate through the common Renault–Nissan Purchasing Organization, which will work closely with suppliers throughout Brazil to ensure that all parties maximize economies of scale. In addition to purchasing, the companies will also work closely on supply chain management and manufacturing issues.
On 12 December 2012, the Renault–Nissan Alliance became the long-term controlling shareholder of AvtoVAZ, Russia’s largest car company and owner of the country's biggest selling brand, Lada. According to the terms of the deal, Renault–Nissan is investing RUB23 billion (US$742 million) for 67.13% of the joint venture by mid-2014. As part of the deal, Renault–Nissan Chairman and CEO Carlos Ghosn will become chairman of the board of the joint venture, called Alliance Rostec Auto BV. The Alliance’s market share objective in Russia is to expand from 33 to 40% by 2015 with AvtoVAZ.
With AvtoVAZ, the Renault–Nissan Alliance builds Renault, Nissan, and Lada models at its plant in Togliatti, which Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin inaugurated in April 2012. The assembly line has a maximum capacity of 350,000 cars per year. The Alliance also has plants in Moscow, St Petersburg, and Izhevsk. With the Togliatti improvements and those planned at other manufacturing complexes, Renault–Nissan and AVTOVAZ will have a Russian capacity of at least 1.7 million cars per year starting in 2016. The investment in Russia began in February 2008, when Renault acquired a 25% share in AVTOVAZ.
On 18 September 2013, the Alliance and AvtoVAZ announced the creation of a joint part-purchasing company, "Common Purchasing Organization". It is equally owned by Alliance's RNPO and the Russian manufacturer.
In July 2013, Renault-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn confirmed the development of an all-new car platform in India to meet the demands of new car buyers in the fastest growing economies of the world. The platform, code named CMF-A (Common Module Family - Affordable), is being designed and engineered in India, and it is the first all-new vehicle platform designed jointly from the ground up by both Renault and Nissan teams. The first cars on the platform will roll out in 2015.
The CMF-A cars will come from the Renault–Nissan Alliance plant and technical center in Chennai, which opened in 2010. The first vehicle to be produced was the Nissan Micra. Starting in 2011, the plant began building the Renault Koleos and Fluence. The factory is located in the Oragadam Expansion Scheme and represents an investment of about €800 million over seven years from February 2008 to 2015. The plant – which has full stamping, body, paint, plastic, trim, and chassis shops with two test tracks—will have the capacity to produce 400,000 vehicles a year at full ramp up.
The plant can produce four separate platforms and eight body styles in random production order. Both sub-assembly and parts supply to the line are totally flexible. Efficiency is improved by having bumper and plastic moldings produced on site while the assembly line boasts a highly efficient logistics layout with a 100% kit supply system to the lineside which saves operators having to pick parts from more than one place reducing the need to walk to collect parts. This is a development of what Nissan does at its Oppama, Japan and Sunderland, UK facilities. The Renault team supports powertrain development, vehicle engineering, information systems, as well as styling and special project support for Renault's Mumbai-based design studio.
Nissan has a joint-venture company with China's Dongfeng Motor Company to produce and sell cars throughout China. In 2011, Nissan sold 1.24 million vehicles in China, making China Nissan's top market worldwide and making Nissan the top Asian automaker in China. Executives at Dongfeng said the reason they choose Nissan was because of the company's successful integration with strategic partner Renault, which allowed each entity to remain independent and brand-focused but gaining benefits of economies of scale.
Renault plans to enter the Chinese market with Dong Feng as well, signing a memorandum of understanding in April 2012. Renault anticipates a launch of vehicle production in China by 2016. The start of Renault production in China would complete the so-called "golden triangle" between Renault, Nissan and Dongfeng envisioned when parties signed the first agreement in 2000.
Directly through the Alliance, Renault entered world's largest automotive market in 2009, introducing the brand through imported cars including Laguna III, Koleos SUV and Scenic multi-purpose van. In February 2011, the Alliance inaugurated its China Warehouse in Shanghai, further establishing the partnership between Renault, Nissan, and Dong Feng. The 8,000 square meter complex will provide a full range of auto parts, including 3,000 Renault and 10,000 Nissan parts covering almost all the imported models in China. It will also develop "best practices" for system optimization and shared technical platforms.
In July 2012, the Renault–Nissan Alliance announced it was investing 170 billion won (US$ 160 million) in Renault Samsung Motors, the South Korean company that Renault purchased in 2000. The new investment would result in production of up to 80,000 Nissan Rogue crossover sport-utility vehicles per year at the Renault Samsung Motors plant in Busan, taking advantage of the free trade agreements of Korea with the United States and the European Union, as well as the favorable currency exchange. The Busan plant already produces the Renault Samsung SM3, SM5, and SM7 sedans, as well as the crossover QM5. Part of the production is exported to other markets, under the name Renault Koleos. Production of Nissan Rogue will begin in 2014.
King Mohammed VI inaugurated the new Renault–Nissan Alliance plant in Tangier, Morocco, at a special ceremony attended by Carlos Ghosn, Chairman of Renault and Nissan. The new Renault–Nissan plant in Tangier represents an investment of €1 billion with annual production capacity of 400,000 vehicles with an estimated total staff of more than 6,000 by 2015.
In 2007, the Alliance announced a €600 million investment to build the Tangiers Industrial Project. Production of vehicles based on the Renault Logan platform is to begin in 2012 with one production line and an initial annual output capacity of 170,000 vehicles. The Alliance has said capacity will increase to 400,000 vehicles a year, but has not given a timeline. The Tangiers development is one of the largest manufacturing complexes in the Mediterranean.
- "Structure of the Alliance". Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "The Renault-Nissan Alliance reports record sales of 7,276,398 units in 2010" (Press release). Nissan-global.com. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance Celebrates 15th Anniversary As Four Key Business Units Prepare To Converge". Renault-Nissan Alliance. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Gain, Bruce. "Ghosn aims for No. 3 spot for Renault-Nissan". Automotive News. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance Sells 8.5 Million Vehicles In 2015" (Press release). Paris: Renault-Nissan Alliance. 2016-02-04. Retrieved 2016-02-05. Through the end of December 2015, the Renault-Nissan Alliance has sold a cumulative 302,000 electric vehicles worldwide. As of 31 December 2015[update], the Nissan Leaf remains the world’s best-selling electric car with more than 201,000 vehicles sold since its launch in December 2010. Since Renault began selling electric vehicles in October 2011, Renault has sold a cumulative 83,000 electric vehicles worldwide, including the Twizy two-seater urban commuter. The Renault Kangoo Z.E. remains the top light commercial EV in Europe.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-12-08). "Nissan Sells 200,000th Leaf Just Before Its Fifth Anniversary". HybriCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-11. See editorial note.
- "Power to the people: Nissan and ENEL launch first smart grid trials" (Press release). Paris: Nissan Europe. 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-11. More than 200,000 Nissan Leafs have been sold worldwide.
- Chappell, Lindsay (5 March 2012). "The new way to cut costs: Let's make a deal". Automotive News. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "All together now". The Economist. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Suzuki seeks divorce from Volkswagen over Fiat spat". Reuters. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Betts, Paul (27 January 2011). "Better to be bold and merge Renault and Nissan" (fee required). FT.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Frost, Laurence; Katz, Alan (14 March 2011). "Renault's Mishandling of Spy Case Paints Ghosn Into Corner on Nissan Pact". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Executives – Carlos Ghosn". Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Ghosn, Carlos (31 March 2010). "Partnerships and alliances" (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan CEO rules out merger between companies". Ft.lk. Reuters. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Frost, Laurence (10 February 2011). "Renault CEO Ghosn Says Nissan Merger 'Not Feasible' on Internal Opposition". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Kim, Chang-Ran (28 February 2011). "Special Report: Ghosn seeks new story for troubled auto alliance". Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Alliances and Improved Margins the Way Forward for Automakers – Daimler-Renault-Nissan Alliance". Frost.com. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Phare gauche Renault Kangoo – Nissan Kubistar H4 électrique feu blanc du 03/03 au 06/07" (in French). Pieces-detachees-automobile.fr. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault Cleon plant to boost engine production to 200,000 units in 2013" (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Construction Begins Of First Renault-Nissan Alliance Battery Plant In Europe". Europeanmotornews.com. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan alliance on; bets big on India". The Times Of India. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Three years after its establishment, Renault-Nissan Purchasing Organization (RNPO) to reach 70% of the Alliance purchasing turnover". Autointell.com. 8 October 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "How the Alliance generates synergies from shared logistics" (Press release). alliance-renault-nissan.com. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Miyazaki, Jamie; Pasetti, Alessandro (12 March 2010). "Renault-Nissan-GM Alliance Could Rev Up Global Auto Sector". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault – Nissan Alliance recognises its 10-year anniversary" (Press release). Newsroom.nissan-europe.com. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Jamieson, Bob (25 January). "DaimlerChrysler Merger A Fiasco". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014. Check date values in:
- "Nissan and Renault cement ties". BBC News. 30 October 2001. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "The Alliance press kit" (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Ghosn sees advantages of GM alliance". MSNBC. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Tacon, Jo (26 May 2009). "Three’s a crowd for GM". Vrl-archives.com.[dead link]
- "The giant in hiding". Dailykanban.com. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "RENAULT-NISSAN ALLIANCE POSTS RECORD SALES IN 2013 FOR 5TH STRAIGHT YEAR". Renault Nissan Alliance. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "RENAULT-NISSAN ALLIANCE POSTS RECORD SALES IN 2013 FOR 5TH STRAIGHT YEAR". Renault Nissan Alliance. Retrieved 8 February 2014.Note: There is a small conflict in these sources. media.blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com says: "The Renault-Nissan Alliance sold a record 8,264,821 vehicles," whereas http://media.renault.com says: "The Renault-Nissan Alliance sold a record 8,266,098 vehicles..." This edit picks the second source.
- Massey-Beresford, Hellen (15 November 2010). "Carmakers gearing up for mass market EVs". Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Jie, Ma; Hagiwara, Yuki (20 March 2013). "In Ghosn We Trust Tested as Nissan Electric Push Falters". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Crowe, Philippe (5 February 2013). "43,829 EVs Sold By Renault-Nissan In 2012". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Yoko Kubota and Maki Shiraki (2014-06-09). "Nissan launches second electric vehicle, stands by zero-emission technology". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
- Antony Ingram (14 November 2013). "Nissan's Ghosn: We'll Miss 2016's 1.5M Electric Car Sales Target". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Antony Ingram (15 March 2014). "Nissan On Track To Beat 2020 Electric Car Sales Target?". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance Sells Its 250,000th Electric Vehicle" (Press release). Paris/Yokohama: Renault-Nissan Alliance. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-25.
- Renault Press Release (2012-10-29). "Renault celebrates first anniversary of electric van". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
- Guinness World Records (2012). "Best-selling electric car". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2013-01-22.[dead link]
- Antony Ingram (2012-12-17). "First Renault Zoe Electric Car Delivered In France". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- "Nissan LEAF Smashes 50,000 Global Sales Milestone" (Press release). Nissan Media Room. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Renault Media (2013-07-23). "Renault-Nissan sells its 100,000th electric car". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Faye Sunderland (2013-09-13). "Renault hits 10,000 sales of Kangoo electric van". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- Nissan News Release (2014-01-20). "Nissan LEAF global sales reach 100,000 units". Automotive World. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
- Tony Lewis (26 November 2014). "Renault-Nissan sell 200,000 EVs in four years". Just Auto. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-12-02). "Nissan Sells 150,000th Leaf In Time for Its Fourth Birthday". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-12-03.
- "Renault delivers Twizy number 15,000 to the municipality of Florence, Italy" (Press release). Renault-Nissan Alliance. 2015-04-03. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-06-15). "Three More Plug-in Cars Cross 25,000 Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25.
- "Nissan LEAF electric vehicle production process detailed". YouTube. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Nissan lithium ion battery plant in Portugal on track for 2012 production". Electric-vehicles-cars-bikes.blogspot.com. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Hamm, Steve (21 January 2008). "A Better Place for Electric Cars". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Another Clean Tech Startup Goes Down: Better Place Is Bankrupt". The Atlantic. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Kershner, Isabel (26 May 2013). "Israeli Venture Meant to Serve Electric Cars Is Ending Its Run". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-12-08). "Plug-in Pioneers: Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt Turn Five Years Old". HybriCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-15. See table with ranking: "World's Top Best Selling Plug-in Electric cars." Accounting for global cumulative sales by early December 2015, plug-in electric car sales are led by the Nissan Leaf (200,000), followed by Volt/Ampera family (104,000), and the Tesla Model S (100,000). As of November 2015[update], ranking next are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (85,000) and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid (75,000).
- Groupe Renault (January 2016). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2016-02-06. Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2015 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 sales.
- Bruce, Chris (2016-01-20). "Renault Zoe was Europe's best-selling EV last year". Renault (Autoblog.com). Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-01-26). "Renault ZOE was last year’s top-selling electric car in Western Europe". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- Arnott, Sarah (8 April 2010). "Renault, Nissan and Daimler sign up for green car-share deal". The Independent (London). Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Kleis, Mark (7 April 2010). "Official: Renault-Nissan Alliance and Daimler AG announce strategic cooperation". Leftlanenews.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Daimler to supply Nissan Infiniti engines: report". MarketWatch. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Nissan and Daimler to produce engines together in North America" (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. 8 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Rupinski, Patrick (11 January 2012). "Mercedes C-Class engines to be made in Tennessee". TuscaloosaNews.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "The strategic cooperation between Daimler and the Renault-Nissan alliance forms agreement with Ford to accelerate commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicle technology" (Press release). Daimler. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Ford, Renault-Nissan and Daimler agree fuel cell deal". BBC News. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- LaMonica, Martin (28 January 2013). "Ford, Daimler, and Nissan Commit to Fuel Cells". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Tierney, Christine. "Not the marrying kind, Renault-Nissan's Infiniti and Mercedes will build cars in Mexico". Forbes. 28 June 2014.
- Taylor, Edward and Laurence Frost. "Daimler and Nissan to invest $1.36 bln to build premium small cars". Reuters. 27 June 2014.
- Chappell, Lindsay. "Renault-Nissan, Daimler plan $1.4 billion small-car plant in Mexico". Automotive News. 27 June 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance opens bigger Silicon Valley Research Center to enhance advanced research and development" (Press release). Nissan-global.com. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance launches $1.8 billion "Brazilian offensive"" (Press release). alliance-renault-nissan.com. 6 November 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Nissan launches comprehensive strategy for Brazil" (PDF) (Press release). Nissan Motor. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "In Brazil, Renault to increase its production capacity by 100,000 units per year in 2013" (PDF) (Press release). Renault. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance launches $1.8 billion "Brazilian offensive"" (PDF) (Press release). Renault-Nissan Alliance. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan And Russian Technologies Create Joint Venture To Finalize Strategic Partnership With Avtovaz". alliance-renault-nissan.com. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan to take over Russia’s Avtovaz by 2014". Rt.com. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Finalizes AvtoVaz Deal". The Moscow Times. Reuters. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Madslien, John (3 May 2012). "Renault-Nissan to take control of Lada-owner Avtovaz". BBC news. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Vladimir Putin inaugurates the new Renault-Nissan and AVTOVAZ production line in Togliatti, Russia". FDI Tracker. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Lada maker to lay off 28,000 after £288m loss". Guardian. Associated Press. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan & AvtoVAZ create common purchasing organization in Russia" (Press release). Renault. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault, Nissan create procurement group with AvtoVAZ". Automotive News Europe. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan confirms new vehicles specifically tailored for growth markets" (Press release). alliance-renault-nissan.com. 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
- Madhavan, N. (16 July 2013). "Renault-Nissan developing all-new car platform in India: Carlos Ghosn". Businesstoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 13 January 20143. Check date values in:
- "The Renault-Nissan Alliance Inaugurates Plant in Chennai, India" (Press release). Asahi.com. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "China Auto Industry News - Nissan China Sales up 21.9% in 2011". China Car Times. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Pearson, David (23 April 2012). "Renault to Build Cars in China With Dongfeng". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "knowarabiconline.com". knowarabiconline.com.[dead link]
- "The Renault-Nissan Alliance Keeps Moving in China in 2011" (Press release). Nissan-global.com. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan to make some Nissan SUVs in Korea". marketwatch.com. MarketWatch. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "Renault in South Korea" (Press release). Renault.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance invests $160 million in Korea to speed global growth strategy" (Press release). Nissan-global.com. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Racecar driver Krumm charged up about EVs" (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Morocco, Tangiers" (PDF) (Press release). Blog.alliance-renault-nissan.com. Retrieved 13 January 2014.