Renault Twingo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Renault Twingo
Renault Twingo III (third generation)
Body and chassis
ClassCity car
Body style3-door hatchback (Twingo I and II)
5-door hatchback (Twingo III)
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel-drive (Twingo I and II)
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive (Twingo III)
PredecessorRenault 4
Renault 5

The Renault Twingo is a city car made by the French company Renault since 1992 across three generations. The name is a portmanteau of twist, swing, and tango.[1]

The first-generation Twingo (two door, front engine) debuted at the Paris Motor Show on 5 October 1992, receiving its formal market launch in continental European markets beginning in April 1993. Renault launched the second-generation Twingo (two door, front engine) in the summer of 2007 – and the third-generation Twingo (four door, rear engine) debuted at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, receiving its formal market launch in September 2014.

First generation (1993)[edit]

Twingo I
Three-door car with a one-box bodystyle with door mirrors and steel wheels with hubcaps
Production1992–2007 (France)
1994–2003 (Spain)
1994–1999 (Taiwan)
1999–2002 (Uruguay)
1995–2012 (Colombia)
DesignerJean-Pierre Ploué
Patrick Le Quément[2]
Body and chassis
Body style3-door hatchback
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel-drive
Engine1.0 L D7D I4 (petrol)
1.2 L C3G I4 (petrol)
1.2 L D7F I4 (petrol)
1.2 L D4F I4 (petrol)
Transmission5-speed manual
5-speed automated manual
3-speed automatic
Wheelbase2,345 mm (92.3 in)
Length3,430 mm (135.0 in)
Width1,630 mm (64.2 in)
Height1,420 mm (55.9 in)
Curb weightfrom 790 kg (1,742 lb)

The original Twingo was launched in April 1993, was sold in European LHD markets until August 2007, and received intermediate restylings in 1998, 2000, and 2004.


Designed under the direction of Patrick Le Quément, Renault's chief designer,[3] the car derived a concept developed through the W60 project when Gaston Juchet was Renault's chief designer. The project was aimed at replacing the Renault 4 with a minivan model.[3]

Le Quément chose a Jean-Pierre Ploué design to develop the production version. Le Quément stretched the original prototype and added an unconventional front-end layout resembling a "smile".[4] The interior equipment was mounted on a central console to free space.[5] Renault had participated in the 1981 to 1984 'Mono-Box' ECO 2000 car project, along with PSA Peugeot Citroën and the French Government.[6]

The Twingo I's electronic, centrally mounted instrument panel had a speedometer, fuel gauge, clock, odometer, and trip recorder controlled via a stalk-located button. A strip of warning lights was located behind the steering wheel. The rear seat featured a sliding mechanism to enable either increased boot space or more rear-seat legroom. The boot parcel shelf was attached to the inside of the tailgate, and lifted with the tailgate – or could clip back against the rear window when not required.


All engines were replaced with an eight-valve 1.15-litre 60 hp (45 kW) unit. A 16-valve 75 hp (56 kW) version was added in 2000.

Manufactured at the Flins Renault Factory from the time of its launch until 28 June 2007, the Twingo I was also manufactured in Taiwan, Spain, Colombia, and Uruguay from 1999 to 2002,[7] remaining in production until 8 June 2012 in Colombia, by the Sofasa conglomerate, strictly for the domestic market.

Twingo I Safety

Euro NCAP results:

  • Adult occupant: , score 23
  • Pedestrian: , score 11


In April 1993, the Twingo launched with only one trim level, and four exterior colours: coral red, Indian yellow, coriander green, and ultramarine blue. The car retailed at a price of 55,000FF (approximately €8,400). In June 1994, new exterior colours were introduced along with minor interior changes, as well as optional electric windows and mirrors, and locks with remote keyless entry. Four months later, the Twingo Easy model was launched, with an automated clutch on the manual gearbox.

In September 1995, the first of many special Twingo editions launched, while inbuilt airbags become optional. In July 1996, a new 1149 cc engine (from the Clio) was fitted to replace the previous engine from the Renault 5. Alongside the new engine came the Twingo Matic model, equipped with a three-speed automatic gearbox. Also, various improvements were made, including the addition of a third brake light.

Two years later, the Twingo underwent its first major restyling of the interior and dashboard. The front and rear lights were revised, and front orange indicator lights were merged into the headlamp housings. The front of the car is reinforced for added safety in a frontal impact.[8] Two months later, the top-of-the-range Twingo Initiale model launched.

In September 2000, the Twingo underwent its second major restyling. Additions included larger 14 in (360 mm) wheels, revised door trims with larger door pockets, a black trunk opener lever (instead of shiny metal), and cup holders in front of the gearstick.

December 2000, a new 1.2-litre 16v engine launched, with 75 hp (56 kW). In April 2001, a new automated manual gearbox launched, called Quickshift. Additional revisions followed in September 2002, including new interior trims and wheel covers.

In Japan, Renault was formerly licensed by Yanase Co., Ltd., but in 1999, Renault purchased a stake in Japanese automaker Nissan after Nissan had faced financial troubles following the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in 1991 and subsequent lost decade. As a result of Renault's purchase of interest, Yanase cancelled its licensing contract with Renault in the spring of 2000, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd took over as the sole licensee, hence sales of the Twingo I in Japan were transferred from Yanase Store locations to Nissan Red Stage Store locations. Despite Japan being a right-hand drive market, the first generation was sold exclusively as left-hand drive, with the only change being the headlights.[9]

September 2004 marked the third major Twingo revision. The Renault logo was fitted to the boot lid, side rubbing strips were added, and a new range of exterior colours launched. On 28 June 2007, Twingo I production ended in France, being replaced by the Twingo II. By 30 June 2007, 2,478,648 units from the Twingo I were produced. The Renault Twingo I production went on into Colombia until 8 June 2012. In total, 2.6 million units of the first-generation Twingo were produced.

Special models[edit]

Limited edition[edit]

The first generation Twingo knew an important number of limited editions, including co-brandings with premium brands such as Perrier, Benetton, L'Oréal, Kenzo, Elite and artistic references including Metropolis, Grease and Tintin.[10][11][12][13]

Twingo Lecoq[edit]

The Renault Twingo Lecoq was a special edition produced in less than 50 units. It was an independent initiative of Carrosserie Lecoq.[14]


A French company, Lormauto, presented at the 2022 Paris Motor Show a kit to transform the Renault Twingo 1 into a fully electric car.[15]

Second generation (2007)[edit]

Twingo II
AssemblySlovenia: Novo Mesto (Renault Slovenia)
Body and chassis
Body style3-door hatchback
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel-drive
PlatformClio II
RelatedRenault Wind
Transmission5-speed manual
5-speed automatic
Wheelbase2,365 mm (93.1 in)
Length3,600 mm (141.7 in)
Width1,655 mm (65.2 in) 1,688 mm (66.5 in) (RS)
Height1,470 mm (57.9 in)
Curb weightfrom 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
Renault Twingo II, phase one
Rear of the Twingo II phase one
Rear of the Twingo II, phase two
Renault Twingo RS Gordini

After presenting an initial concept at the 2006 Mondial de l'Automobile, Renault debuted the production Twingo II at the 2007 Geneva Motor Show with French market trim levels named Authentique, Expression, Initiale, Dynamique, and GT. Using the floorpan of the Renault Clio II,[16] the Twingo II offered improved crash protection and was available in both RHD and LHD configurations. Production began in France and subsequently moved to the Revoz plant in Novo Mesto, Slovenia.[17]

In January 2008, Renault debuted the Twingo Renaultsport 133,[18] with a new 133 PS (98 kW; 131 hp) 1,598 cc engine, at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show. In August 2013, ordering and production of the 133 model ended.[19]

In July 2011, Renault debuted a facelifted Twingo II at the Frankfurt Motor Show, featuring a design language subsequently used on their entire range[20] and offering revised fascias, as well as redesigned front and rear light clusters.[21]

On series 14, episode four of Top Gear, presenter Jeremy Clarkson road tested the Twingo 133 on Belfast streets and barrel rolled upside down through a sewage tunnel. After numerous accidents, he raced to catch a departing ferry, instead landing in the ocean.[22][23]

On 16 March 2011, the Renault Twingo won the "best city car award" in the Parkers' New Car Awards.[24]

Special editions in the UK included the Twingo Renaultsport Gordini, Twingo Gordini TCe 100, Twingo Bizu, Twingo Pzaz,[25] Twingo Renaultsport Silverstone GP,[26] Twingo Miss Sixty,[27] and Twingo Renaultsport Red Bull RB7.[28]

In Japan, the Twingo II was licensed by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. and sold exclusively through Nissan Store locations.

Twingo II safety

Euro NCAP results:[29]

  • Adult occupant: , score 28 (The model tested was not equipped with curtain airbags. Available as an option.)
  • Pedestrian: , score 11


Petrol engines
Model Engine Displacement Power Torque CO2 emission
1.2 D7F I4 1149 cc 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) at 5250 rpm 93 N⋅m (69 lb⋅ft) at 2500 rpm 132 g/km
1.2 D4F I4 1149 cc 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 5500 rpm 105 N⋅m (77 lb⋅ft) at 4250 rpm 135 g/km
1.2 GT (turbo) I4 1149 cc 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp) at 5500 rpm 145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) at 3000 rpm 140 g/km
1.6 RS I4 1598 cc 133 PS (98 kW; 131 hp) at 6750 rpm 160 N⋅m (118 lb⋅ft) at 4400 rpm 160 g/km
Diesel engine
Model Engine Displacement Power Torque CO2 emission
1.5 dCi I4 1461 cc 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) at 4000 rpm 200 N⋅m (148 lb⋅ft) at 1700 rpm 94 g/km

Third generation (2014)[edit]

Twingo III
AssemblySlovenia: Novo Mesto (Renault Slovenia)
DesignerCsaba Wittinger[30]
Raphaël Linari[31]
Body and chassis
Body style5-door hatchback
LayoutRear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive[32][33]
RelatedSmart Forfour
Smart Fortwo
Electric motorsynchronous electric motor (Twingo Z.E.)
Transmission5-speed manual
6-speed dual-clutch[34]
Wheelbase2,490 mm (98.0 in)
Length3,590 mm (141.3 in)
Width1,640 mm (64.6 in)
Height1,550 mm (61.0 in)
Renault Twingo Dynamique (Germany)
Renault Twingo, phase 2
Renault Twingo, phase 2

The third generation Renault Twingo debuted in March 2014 at the Geneva Motor Show[35] in a five-door,[36] rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.[33][37] It was co-developed with Daimler's third generation Smart Fortwo[38] and second generation Smart Forfour. The third generation Twingo and second generation Forfour are manufactured at the same factory in Novo Mesto, Slovenia.[33]

The third-generation Twingo entered into production in May 2014 at Novo Mesto[39] and was launched into the European market in September.[40]

Design and development[edit]

In March 2010, Renault and Daimler, as part of their existing partnership, announced "Project Edison", a collaboration aimed at conceiving a shared platform for small city cars to be used by both companies.[41][42] The Edison platform was designed from the start for mounting either an internal combustion engine or an electric motor as the main power source.[43]

The first cars using the platform were the third-generation Twingo and the second-generation Smart Forfour. Renault and Daimler AG invested equally during the research and development phase, with Renault subsequently specializing in the engines and Daimler in transmissions.[44]

Both companies tried to ensure a distinctive design. Renault designers took inspiration from the Renault 5[30] and the first generation Twingo.[45] This can be seen by the "smile" at the front which was a design feature of the Twingo I. The engine was moved to the rear to allow them to expand the passenger cabin forwards, and allowed the car to have a 45° steering angle which means it was capable of making tight turns in a city environment. The car was originally launched with four colour options, as with the original Twingo.[46]

In January 2019, an updated Twingo was introduced with a new front fascia, cosmetic changes inside and out, and a new base 1.0 L engine;[47] at the same time, declining sales in the UK (just 877 were sold in 2018) led Renault UK to discontinue marketing the right-hand drive model in 2022.[48]

Technical details[edit]

Renault Twingo GT Energy TCe 110, a sportier version

The Twingo III was about 10 mm shorter than the Twingo II.[49] The rear-engine layout improved the manoeuvrability and the cabin space, but reduced the boot capacity.[40] The suspension was composed of MacPherson struts on the front axle and a De Dion tube on the rear.[40] The car used a five-door architecture, which differed from its three-door predecessors.

Brakes were ventilated disks on the front and drums on the rear, except in the base model (SCe 70), which used drum brakes all round.[49] The bonnet featured a special opening mechanism and allowed only partial opening to give access to the windscreen washer fluid, brake fluid and coolant reservoirs, and to the battery.[50]


The car originally offered four trim levels: Expression, Play, Dynamique, and Dynamique S, with various customization packs. One option connects a smartphone with an instrument panel cradle (R&Go) and has an infotainment system (R-Link).[40] Other levels such as the "Energy" trim have since been added. The GT model arrived in November 2016.


As standard, the car incorporates tyre pressure sensors, seatbelt reminders, four airbags, and four head and chest side airbags.[49] It achieved a four star Euro NCAP test rating in 2014.

Euro NCAP test results
Renault Twingo (2014)[51]
Test Points %
Adult occupant: 30 78%
Child occupant: 40 81%
Pedestrian: 25 68%
Safety assist: 7 56%


The car originally came with a three-cylinder petrol engine, either a 0.9-litre turbocharged unit or a 1-litre atmospheric. Both are fitted low and in a 49° angle to increase boot's capacity.[49][52][53] In November 2016 a more powerful version of the petrol engine, the TCe 110, arrived for the sporting Twingo GT model.

Engine Code Displacement Power Torque Top speed 0–62 mph (0–100 km/h) Combined consumption CO2 emissions
Petrol engines
SCe 70 H4D 400 999 cc 51 kW (69 hp) at 6,000 rpm 91 N⋅m (67 lb⋅ft) at 2,850 rpm 151 km/h (94 mph) 14.5 s 5.5 L/100 km (51 mpg‑imp) 126 g/km
Energy TCe 90 H4Bt 401 898 cc 66 kW (90 hp) at 5,500 rpm 135 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 2,500 rpm 165 km/h (103 mph) 10.8 s 4.9 L/100 km (58 mpg‑imp) 111 g/km
Energy TCe 110 80 kW (109 hp) at 5,750 rpm 170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm 182 km/h (113 mph) 9.6 s 5.6 L/100 km (50 mpg‑imp) 128 g/km
TCe 110 EDC 80 kW (109 hp) at 5,750 rpm 170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm 182 km/h (113 mph) 10.4 s 5.8 L/100 km (49 mpg‑imp) 132 g/km


In February 2014, Renault organised a "strip tweet" online event to promote the Twingo III. The manufacturer commissioned to Publicis the conception of the car's European advertising. Publicis hired French artists duo Kuntzel+Deygas for the design of the visual campaign[54] with the theme "Go Anywhere, Go Everywhere."[55]

In 2015, Renault released a short music video, "All new Twingo : Show me a car !", in which a twee styled woman is searching a nifty car.[citation needed] It ends with a reference to "Papa & Nicole" adverts for the Renault Clio : "Papa! – Nicole? – Your seatbelt!". The brief video got a viral success in the United Kingdom, with approximately 300,000 views in four weeks.[citation needed] A Pop Up Store was opened at the Crémerie de Paris.[56]

Bēhance produced Life Designed software as part of Twingo launch.[57][clarification needed]

Reception and awards[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the new Twingo won the "City Car of the Year" 2014, TopGear Magazine Awards, "City Car of the Year" in the UK Car of the Year Awards and "Best City Car" in the Daily Express 2014 Motoring Oscars, "Best City Car" at the 2015 British GQ Car Awards.

Paul Horrell of Top Gear gave the car a score of seven out of 10, calling it: "a genuinely different approach to design and engineering that has brought real dividends, not just in being different for its own sake. Most important, it's much more fun than a base model supermini for the same cash."[58] Auto Express and its sister publication CarBuyer scored it four out of five stars, praising its manoeuvrability, design, and rear passenger space but criticizing its wind noise and high price compared to its rivals.[59][60] What Car? gave the car three out of five stars, saying: "The Renault Twingo mixes cheeky retro styling with genuine practicality. It’s neither as refined nor as comfortable as the best city cars, though."[61]

Concept cars[edit]

The third-generation Twingo was previewed through two concepts, the Twin'Z and the Twin'Run.[46]


Renault Twin'Z
Production2013 (Concept car)
Body and chassis
ClassCity car (A)
Body style5-door hatchback
LayoutRear-engine, rear-wheel-drive
EngineElectric motor
Wheelbase2,490 mm (98.0 in)
Length3,590 mm (141.3 in)
Width1,640 mm (64.6 in)
Height1,550 mm (61.0 in)

The Twin'Z is a city car concept unveiled in April 2013. Its styling was created in partnership with British designer Ross Lovegrove. According to Renault's chief designer Laurens van den Acker, the purpose of its introduction was to "break down the boundaries between the world of an object whose calling is to be in movement, the automobile, and that of furniture." The concept has a rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and is powered by an electric motor with a 49 kW (67 PS) power output and torque of 226 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft). It has no B-pillar or dashboard and its doors open in conventional doors up front and suicide doors in the rear.[62]


The Twin'Run concept

The Twin'Run is a rear wheel drive hot hatch concept developed by Renault with assistance of Tork Engineering and Poclain Véhicules, unveiled in May 2013. It is powered by a mid-mounted V6 engine with 320 hp (235 kW), coupled to a twin clutch six speed sequential gearbox and limited slip differential. It has double-wishbone independent suspension on both axles. The chassis is a tubular steel frame inspired by the Mégane Trophy and Renault 5 Turbo Maxi from WRC.[63][64]

Twingo E-Tech Électrique[edit]

Twingo Z.E. (Vibes limited edition)

After plans to roll out new electric vehicles, including an electric Twingo, were confirmed in September 2019,[65] Renault announced the Twingo Electric, marketed as the Twingo Z.E. (Zero Emissions) and in France as the Twingo E-Tech Électrique,[66] the first-ever electric version of its city car, in February 2020 at the Geneva Motor Show.[67][68] It is the second electric car from Renault, following the Zoe.[69] The Twingo Z.E. drive train is based on that of the Smart EQ Forfour, with a larger battery.[70] Renault CEO Luca de Meo confirmed in 2021 the entire Twingo range would be discontinued after the third generation, driven in part by the forthcoming Euro 7 emissions standards which will be implemented in 2025.[71] It is expected the A-segment Twingo will be replaced by the larger B-segment Renault 5 EV.[72]

The starting price, announced the following September, was €21350.[73] It was not marketed in the United Kingdom, following Renault's withdrawal of the Twingo range from the UK market after the car model's facelift in 2019.[68] A limited edition "Vibes" model, based on the regular "Intens" trim, was announced in July 2020; the special Valencia Orange colour was only available for the Vibes limited edition, but the Vibes could also be specified for any regular production colour, and was later made available for the conventional petrol-engines Twingo.[74] Trim levels in 2022 included the Life (€21550), Zen (€24350), Intens (€25550), and Urban Night (€26650).[75] Although the suggested retail price was high compared to a petrol-powered Twingo, the French government electric car subsidy of up to €7000 or 27% of the price made the cost of the electric version comparable.[69]

The car has a rated driving range of 180 or 250 km (110 or 160 mi) on the WLTP driving cycle (Full or City, respectively). The on-board charger, branded Caméléon, can accept AC electric supply at up to 22 kW;[67] the lithium-ion battery, with 22 kW-hr capacity, incorporates lessons learned from the Renault Zoe.[43] The battery itself weighs 165 kg (364 lb) and is positioned beneath the front seats.[69][76] The vehicle is limited to AC charging sources only, as the vehicle supply interface port does not accept a DC fast charge plug.[76] The rear-mounted R80 traction motor has an output of 60 kW (80 hp) and 160 N⋅m (118 lb⋅ft), and the car has a kerb weight of 1,112 kg (2,452 lb).[68] The top speed is 135 km/h (84 mph), and can accelerate from 0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 12.6 seconds.[77] The default driving mode "D" emulates the behaviour of a petrol-powered car with moderate "engine braking" when the driver's foot is lifted from the throttle; a more aggressive and adjustable "B" regeneration mode is selectable, but does not allow one-pedal driving at the highest regeneration level.[76]

The base trim ("Life") was criticized for lacking expected basic features like a radio and air conditioning; however, the lack of vibrations and abundant low-end torque from the electric traction motor were appreciated for city traffic.[69] The Twingo Electric was marketed against other low-cost city cars, such as the base model of the Fiat New 500,[76] as well as Volkswagen E-up! and the VW's rebadged versions, the SEAT Mii electric and Škoda Citigo-e iV; internally, the Twingo also competed with the Dacia Spring;[69] compared to the VW and Dacia, the Twingo Electric offered a smaller driving range.[76]

Twingo Concept (2023)[edit]

In November 2023, it was confirmed that the Twingo would be returning as an electric model with a price tag under €20,000. A prototype for the new Twingo was shown at the Capital Markets Day press conference, featuring retro styling heavily reminiscent of the first generation Twingo, continuing Renaults trend of retro styling for its future electric models, such as the Renault 4Ever Trophy and the Renault 5 EV. Efficiency figures of 10kWh/100km were also announced.

Renault Grouppe CEO, Luca De Meo, stated at the conference that development was to begin immediately and the car could be expected to reach production within two years, matching the development speed of Chinese OEM vehicles, meaning a release date of around 2026 is likely. [78]


  1. ^ "Renault Press Office: Twingo I – 1992". Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Patrick le Quément". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Renault Twingo 1 (1992): design history". Car Body Design. 21 March 2007.
  4. ^ Épisode #34 – Patrick LE QUÉMENT – " J'aime autant l'Avantime que je déteste la Vel Satis. ", retrieved 9 June 2021
  5. ^ Meiners, Jens (6 January 2014). "20 years on, Patrick Le Quément exposes the political battles and design decisions behind the Renault Twingo". Car Design News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  6. ^ "ECO 2000 – Citroenet". Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  7. ^ "Uruguay es interesante para la producción de autopartes y de vehículos". 14 March 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012.
  8. ^ "Génération Twingo : Tout sur la twingo".
  9. ^ Southwell, Hazel (28 July 2021). "1993 Renault Twingo Review: I Bought the Happiest Car on the Planet". The Drive.
  10. ^ "catalogues Renault Twingo". Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  11. ^ "Catalogues Renault Twingo". Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  12. ^ "Twingo Séries Spéc". Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  13. ^ "Génération Twingo : Tout sur la twingo". Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  14. ^ "Renault Twingo Lecoq. Deux exemplaires de cette rarissime série limitée à vendre".
  15. ^ "Essai Renault Twingo 1 électrique. La bonne surprise Lormauto".
  16. ^ "Historic Models – Renault Twingo". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  17. ^ "2010 Registration document" (PDF). 18 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012.
  18. ^ "Roadcars – Twingo Renaultsport". Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
  19. ^ "The Renault Twingo RS is dead". Top Gear. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  20. ^ "Renault previews new Twingo ahead of world debut". 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  21. ^ "First pic: new Twingo preview". Top Gear. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  22. ^ "How Belfast Bent Over Backwards for Top Gear". The Belfast Telegraph. 10 October 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  23. ^ "Top Gear, Belfast and a Renault Twingo". 6 December 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  24. ^ "'Parkers New Car Awards". 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011.
  25. ^ "Pzaz Limited Edition". Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  26. ^ "Twingo Renaultsport 133". Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  27. ^ "MZine Miss Sixty". Miss Sixty. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  28. ^ "Renault Twingo RS Red Bull edition". Dennis Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  29. ^ "Renault Twingo". Euro NCAP. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
  30. ^ a b Kew, Oliver (21 June 2014). "New Renault Twingo vs classic Renault 5". Auto Express. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  31. ^ "Renault Twingo 2014: Entretien avec les designers Raphaël Linari et Csaba Wittinger". (in French). 16 March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  32. ^ "Interactive video of the New Twingo 2014".
  33. ^ a b c Hilton Holloway. "New Renault Twingo spotted". Autocar.
  34. ^ Mihalascu, Dan. "Renault Twingo Gets Optional EDC Dual-Clutch Transmission, Cosmic Limited Edition | Carscoops".
  35. ^ "GENEVA SHOW: World premieres [final list]".
  36. ^ "Next Renault Twingo to Only Be Available as a Five-Door – Carscoops". 26 June 2013.
  37. ^ "Renault introduces 3rd-gen Twingo city car".
  38. ^ Mihnea Radu (5 September 2013). "Spyshots: All-New Renault Twingo Spotted for First Time, Looks Like Twin'Run Concept". autoevolution.
  39. ^ "Revoz launches production of new Renault Twingo". 8 May 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d English, Andrew (29 August 2014). "Renault Twingo first drive". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  41. ^ Kable,Greg (30 March 2010). "Daimler, Renault are set to share vehicle platforms and engines". Autoweek.
  42. ^ "Daimler-Renault deal confirmed". Autocar. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  43. ^ a b Stéphane Wiscart (Twingo Program Director) (24 February 2020). "'Twingo Electric puts its native electric platform to good use'" (Interview). Renault Group. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  44. ^ Ducamp, Pauline (4 September 2014). "Nouvelle Twingo : entre Renault et Daimler, qui fait quoi ?" [New Twingo: Renault and Daimler, who does what?] (in French). L'Usine nouvelle. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  45. ^ Vautier, Maya (6 March 2014). "Geneva 2014: meet the designers behind new Twingo". Renault. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  46. ^ a b "New Twingo: Renault's fresh take on its popular city car". Renault. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  47. ^ Wilkinson, Luke (22 January 2019). "Renault facelifts the Twingo but axes it from UK line-up". AutoExpress. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  48. ^ Burgess, Rachel (22 January 2019). "Renault Twingo to be taken off sale in the UK". Autocar. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  49. ^ a b c d "New Twingo brochure" (PDF). Renault UK. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  50. ^ "RENAULT TWINGO 2016 3.G Owners Manual". Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  51. ^ "Official Renault Twingo 2014 safety rating results". Euro NCAP.
  52. ^ "Renault Twingo review". Auto Express. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  53. ^ Holloway, Hilton (28 August 2014). "Renault Twingo TCe 90 Dynamique first drive review". Autocar. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  54. ^ Arnulf, Sylvain (29 August 2014). "Renault s'offre une signature prestigieuse pour la campagne pub de la nouvelle Twingo" [Renault signs a prestigious advertising firm for the New Twingo campaign] (in French). L'Usine nouvelle. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  55. ^ "Tiny Twingo makes a massive statement". The Stable. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  56. ^ "Renault Twingo Pop Up Store". Cremerie de Paris.
  57. ^ "Behance".
  58. ^ Horrell, Paul. "Renault Twingo Driven". Top Gear magazine. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  59. ^ "Renault Twingo review". Auto Express. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  60. ^ "Renault Twingo". CarBuyer. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  61. ^ "Renault Twingo Hatchback Review". What Car?. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  62. ^ Horncastle, Rowan (8 April 2013). "Renault unveils the Twin'Z concept". Top Gear. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  63. ^ "Renault unveils Twin'Run concept". Top Gear. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  64. ^ Bond, Paul (24 May 2013). "Renault Twin'Run revealed". Auto Express. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  65. ^ Burgess, Rachel (10 September 2019). "Renault details two new EVs due in 2020". Autocar. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  66. ^ "Nouvelle Renault TWINGO e-tech électrique".
  67. ^ a b "Twingo Electric: the ultimate electric city car" (Press release). Renault Group. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  68. ^ a b c Attwood, James (24 February 2020). "Renault reveals Twingo ZE electric city car". Autocar. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  69. ^ a b c d e Bellois, Bertrand (16 October 2020). "Essai Renault Twingo Electric : notre avis sur la citadine électrique" [Renault Twingo Electric test: our review of the electric city car]. Cote Argus (in French). Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  70. ^ Kierstein, Alex (6 March 2020). "Renault Twingo Z.E. is a Smart EV with a French Accent". Motor Trend. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  71. ^ "Renault abandonne sa célèbre Twingo" [Renault abandons its famous Twingo]. Le Monde (in French). AFP. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  72. ^ Gnaticov, Cristian (28 January 2021). "The Twingo Won't Live Past Its Current Generation, But Renault Won't Abandon Segment (Update)". CarScoops. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  73. ^ "Renault Twingo Electric joins ranks of low-cost EVs". Automotive News Europe. 3 September 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  74. ^ "New Renault Twingo Electric a new limited series called Vibes" (Press release). Renault Group. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  75. ^ "Twingo E-Tech Électrique" (in French). Renault Group France. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  76. ^ a b c d e Piot, Aurelien (18 December 2021). "Test Renault Twingo E-Tech électrique Intens : une mini-citadine à l'autonomie limitée" [Renault Twingo E-Tech electric Intens tested: a mini-city car with limited range]. Les Numeriques (in French). Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    English translation: Pearce, Zachary (18 December 2021). "Renault Twingo E-Tech Electric Intens test: a mini-city car with limited autonomy". Arover. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  77. ^ Harrison, Tom (25 February 2020). "The Renault Twingo ZE is a tiny EV you can't have". BBC Top Gear. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  78. ^ Groves, Jake (15 November 2023). "The Renault Twingo returns! New £17k EV teased with concept". CAR Magazine. Retrieved 19 November 2023.

External links[edit]