Renault Zoe

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Renault Zoe
Geneva MotorShow 2013 - Renault Zoe.jpg
Manufacturer Renault
Production 2012–present
Assembly Flins, France
Body and chassis
Class Supermini (B)
Body style 5-door hatchback
Electric motor 65 kW (88 PS; 87 bhp)
220 N·m (162 lb·ft)[1]
Battery 22 kW·h lithium ion battery
Range 210 km (130 mi) (NEDC)[2]
(2012–June 2015)
240 km (150 mi) (NEDC)[3]
June 2015–present
Plug-in charging max 43 kW[4] on IEC Type 2 (including 3ϕ 63A 400V)
Wheelbase 2,588 mm (101.9 in)
Length 4,084 mm (160.8 in)
Width 1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Height 1,562 mm (61.5 in)
Kerb weight 1,468 kg (3,236 lb)

Renault Zoe is a five-door supermini electric car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. The Zoe has a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that delivers a range between 210 km (130 mi)[2] and 240 km (150 mi)[3] under the NEDC cycle.[2]

Renault had previously unveiled under the Zoe name a number of different concept cars. Initially in 2005 as the Zoe City Car and later as the Zoe Z.E. electric concept was shown in two different versions in 2009 and 2010 under the Renault Z.E. name. A production ready version of the Zoe was shown at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show.[5]

Retail customer deliveries began in France in December 2012, followed in 2013 by several European countries. Since 2013 the Zoe is the all-time top selling all-electric car in the French market, with 26,210 units registered through April 2016.[6] Global sales passed the 25,000 unit milestone in May 2015,[7] with France as the leading market.[8] The Zoe was the top selling all-electric car in Europe in 2015,[9][10] and ranked among the world's top 10 best-selling plug-in electric cars in 2015.[11] As of May 2016, cumulative global sales totaled almost 49,000 units.[12] The production milestone of 50,000 units manufactured was achieved in April 2016.[13]


Zoe City Car Concept (2005)[edit]

The Renault Zoe City Car concept (or Z17) was shown at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show[14] featuring 3 seats, the 3.45m long open top vehicle was proposed as an urban focused car.[15] This Zoe had no connection with the later electric Zoe concept to follow four years later.

Zoe Concept (2009)[edit]

The Renault Zoe Concept was shown to the public in 2009 at the Frankfurt Motor Show to show the company's vision for a Clio sized electric car.[16] It was powered by a 95 bhp (71 kW; 96 PS) electric motor (mounted at the front) and lithium-ion batteries (under the seats). It was estimated it would have a range of 100 miles and a top speed of 90 mph (140 km/h), and could be charged at a conventional 230 V socket, or fast-charged from a high-voltage supply to 80 percent in only 20 minutes. A third innovative option was to swap the batteries for a new pack at a Renault Quickdrop centre.[17]

The design was tear-drop shaped featuring a see-through roof features solar panels which run the air-conditioning system [18] and gull-wing doors. A new climate control system was also shown, developed with L'Oréal, which could spray essential oils into the interior to cut out harmful exterior smells, or rehydrate the interior to prevent skin drying out.

Zoe Preview (2010)[edit]

The Zoe Preview, a substantially revised version of the Zoe concept, was shown to the public at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, and was claimed to be a near-definitive representation (90% showroom ready) of the final version of the car. Many of the existing design features of the 2009 concept model were discarded such as the gull-wing doors.

The technical specifications had changed from the 2009 version with the power of the electric motor reduced to 79 bhp (59 kW; 80 PS), a reduced top speed of 84 mph (135 km/h), but still with a 100-mile range.[19] It was suggested that the Zoe ZE would be priced from €15,000.[20]

A planned Renault battery plant near Paris that will supply batteries for the vehicle was delayed due to technical constraints. Construction was to start in the second quarter of 2012 and production of batteries was expected to be delayed to 2014 or 2015. Instead, Renault will have to buy batteries from a joint venture between Nissan Motor and NEC, and from LG Chem of South Korea.[21]

Renault Zoe City Car 2005 
Renault Zoe Z.E. Concept 2009 
Renault Zoe Preview 2010 
Renault Zoe in Curitiba, Brazil 2014 

Production version[edit]

2012 Zoe's frontal view
2012 Zoe's rear view

The production version of the Zoe was announced in March 2012 at the Geneva Motor Show. Similar to the 2010 version and the design credited to Jean Semeris, it is a five-door supermini at 4080 mm long, a little longer than the Renault Clio.[22] Retail customer deliveries began in limited number in France in December 2012, and Renault planned to increase availability during the first quarter of 2013. The first Zoe was delivered to Arnaud Montebourg, French Minister of Industrial Recovery.[23] In France the Zoe pricing starts at €20,700(US$27,250) before applying the existing €6,300 (US$8,300) tax incentive, plus a monthly fee for the battery. The cost of leasing the battery for 36 months starts from €79/month (US$104/month) for an annual distance travelled of 12,500 km (7,800 mi) and includes comprehensive breakdown assistance.[2]

The Zoes produced until June 2015 are powered by a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, driving a 65 kW (87 bhp) synchronous electric motor[2] supplied by Continental (the Q210).[24] Maximum torque is 220 N·m (162 lb-ft) with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph). The NEDC cycle range is 210 km (130 mi). Renault estimates that in suburban use, the Zoe can achieve around 100 km (62 mi) in cold weather and 150 km (93 mi) in temperate conditions. The car features a charging system called "Caméléon" (Chameleon) charger that allows the Zoe to be charged at any level of power, taking between 30 minutes and nine hours.[2] The particular type of grid system in parts of Norway with a different potential for the protective ground requires a special charger, which is included with all Zoes in Norway for summer 2015.[25]

In June 2015, Renault announced the introduction of a new, smaller electric motor called the R 240, manufactured at its Cléon engine plant.[24] The new motor has the same power and torque that the Q210 unit[3] with an extended NEDC cycle range of 240 km (150 mi).[3] However, the Q210 will still be available as the R 240 does not allow quick charging.[24]


The Zoe received a five-star Euro NCAP 2013-rating. The score was:

Euro NCAP test results
Renault Zoe (2013)[26]
Test Points %
Overall: 5 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 32 89%
Child occupant: 39 80%
Pedestrian: 24 66%
Safety assist: 8 85%

Sales and markets[edit]

Renault Zoe Zero Emissions (ZE) badge

Retail customer deliveries began in limited numbers in France in December 2012, and availability was increased during the first quarter of 2013.[23][27] A total of 48 units were registered in France during December 2012, and cumulative sales reached 5,559 units through December 2013.[6] The Zoe became the top selling all-electric vehicle in the country in January 2013, and kept the monthly lead through December 2013, representing 62.8% of electric car sales in the country during 2013. In addition, the Zoe became the best selling electric car in France accounting for registrations in the electric passenger car segment since 2010 through December 2013.[6]

Deliveries in the UK began in March 2013,[28] and Germany, Italy and Spain in April 2013. Cumulative global sales totaled 8,874 units through December 2013.[12] Out of 8,792 cars sold in Europe through December 2013, 62.7% were sold in France (5,511).[6][12] Germany was the second top selling market, with 1,019 units delivered through December 2013,[29] followed by the Netherlands with 547 units registered.[30]

The Renault Zoe was officially launched in the Norwegian market in April 2014, though retail deliveries began in late March. Unlike other European countries, the Zoe is sold in Norway with the battery pack included and there are no battery leasing options available.[31] A total of 11,323 Zoes were sold globally in 2014.[12] France continued as the top selling market with cumulative sales of 11,529 units, and the Zoe continued as the all-time best selling electric car in the country, with 5,970 units sold in 2014.[6] Global sales reached the 10,000 unit milestone in January 2014,[32] and the 25,000 mark in May 2015.[7]

With a record 10,406 units sold in 2015, the Zoe was again the top selling all-electric car in France, and continued as the best-selling electric car in the country ever.[6][33] As of April 2016, cumulative registrations in the French market totaled 26,210 units.[6] The Zoe, with 18,453 registrations, was the top selling pure electric car in Europe in 2015.[9][10] The Zoe ranked as the world's 8th best-selling electric car in 2015.[11] Cumulative global sales totaled 48,744 units through May 2016 including both the passenger and cargo variants.[12] The milestone of 50,000 units produced was reached in April 2016.[13]

Global sales and top country markets
Renault Zoe sales by top national markets(1)
2012 - 2015
Country Cumulative
 France[6] 21,935 10,406 5,970 5,511 48
 Germany[29][34][35] 4,304 1,787 1,498 1,019  
 United Kingdom[36][37][38] 3,327 1,971 1,104 252  
 Norway[39][40] 2,067 1,634 433    
  Switzerland[41] 1,201 478 381 342  
 Austria[42] 1,035 279 387 369  
 Netherlands[30][43][44] 1,022 223 252 547  
 Spain[45][46][47] 783 312 289 182  
 Italy[48][49][50] 684 326 155 203  
 Sweden[51][52] 584 378 204    
 Denmark[53] 567 330 145 92  
 Belgium[54][55][56] 228 33 110 85  
 Portugal[57][58] 186 153 34    
Global sales[12] 39,196 18,931 11,323 8,874 68
Notes: (1) Global annual sales includes passenger cars and its light utility variant.


The Zoe was one of the top three finalists for the 2013 World Green Car of the Year.[59]


The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticised Renault's decision to lease the Zoe battery packs to consumers as a rental service with an alleged Digital Rights Management (DRM) software. They claim it could render the vehicle unusable if the owner ceases payment or Renault withdraws support.[60] Renault's monthly fee for the battery and its alleged use of DRM has also been strongly criticised by some technology writers.[61] However, Renault publicly denied the use of DRM technology through its official Twitter account.[62]

Name dispute[edit]

In May 2010, a Parisian woman called Zoe Renault commenced legal action to try and force Renault to re-think their choice of name amid claims it would lead to mocking jibes.[63] In November 2010, a French judge ruled that Renault could use the name.[64]


Renault entered three Zoes (Z.E. ZOE Team) into the 5th ZENN (Zero Emission No Noise) Montecarlo Rally held from 21 to 23 March 2014.[65] A Zoe ended first on the general classification.[66]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Renault Zoe Expression". Renault. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Renault Media (2012-03-09). "Renault features production version of ZOE, Twizy EV at Geneva". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Renault ZOE - Technical specifications". Renault. 2015-06-22. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  4. ^ "Renau Zoe". Retrieved 2013-08-08. can be charged to any level of power (up to 43 kW) 
  5. ^ "Geneva motor show 2012: Renault Zoe". What Car?. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h (May 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016/2015/2014/2013/2012/2011."
  7. ^ a b Jeff Cobb (2015-06-15). "Three More Plug-in Cars Cross 25,000 Sales Milestone". Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  8. ^ Groupe Renault (June 2015). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Retrieved 2015-06-28.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (mai 2015)" to download the files "XLSX - 187 Ko" for CYTD 2015 sales through May, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Cumulative sales worldwide totaled 26,296 units
  9. ^ a b Bruce, Chris (2016-01-20). "Renault Zoe was Europe's best-selling EV last year". Renault ( Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  10. ^ a b Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-01-26). "Renault ZOE was last year’s top-selling electric car in Western Europe". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  11. ^ a b Jeff Cobb (2015-12-15). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". Retrieved 2015-12-17.  Accounting for global cumulative sales by December 2015, plug-in electric car sales are led by the Nissan Leaf (200,000), followed by Volt/Ampera family (104,000), and the Tesla Model S (100,000). As of November 2015, ranking next are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (85,000), and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid (75,000), Mitsubishi i-MiEV family (~50,000), BYD Qin (45,275), BMW i3 (38,581), Renault Zoe (36,040), and the Ford Fusion Energi (26,742). Combines sales of the top 10 PEV models represent almost 50% of cumulative global PEV sales through November 2015)
  12. ^ a b c d e f Groupe Renault (June 2016). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Retrieved 2016-06-22.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (mai 2016)" to download the file "XLSX - 237 Ko" for CYTD sales through May 2016, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" (See more) to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" - "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 sales. Sales figures for 2013 were revised in the 2014 report
  13. ^ a b "50,000th Renault Zoe rolls off production line" (Press release). UK: Renault Group UK Press Office. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  14. ^ "BBC News". BBC News. 2005-03-02. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  15. ^ "Car Pages". Car Pages. 2005-03-01. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
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  17. ^ "Renault Zoe | First Drives | Car Reviews". Auto Express. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  18. ^ "Renault Zoe | First Drives | Car Reviews". Auto Express. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  19. ^ "Paris motor show: Renault Zoe". Autocar. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  20. ^ "Renault Zoe ZE electric car 'to cost £13,000' in UK". 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  21. ^ Helen Beresford (2011-06-15). "Renault says battery plant project delayed". Reuters. 
  22. ^ "Geneva show 2012: Renault Zoe". Autocar. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-03-07. 
  23. ^ a b Renault Press Release (2012-12-17). "Renault delivers first ZOE EV". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  24. ^ a b c Gibbs, Nick (2015-06-24). "Renault says new motor will cut EV losses". Automotive News Europe. Crain Communications. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  25. ^ Dalløkken, Per Erlien. "Norsk selskap løste Renaults ladeproblem med oljeteknologi" Teknisk Ukeblad, 21 January 2015. Accessed: 22 January 2015.
  26. ^ "Euro NCAP results for Renault Zoe" (PDF). 2013. 
  27. ^ Antony Ingram (2012-12-17). "First Renault Zoe Electric Car Delivered In France". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  28. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-05-07). "UK January-March 2013: Discover the Top 328 best-sellers!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-05-10. 
  29. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2014). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2013 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2013 by segment and model series] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  30. ^ a b RAI (2014-01-24). "Verkoopstatistieken - nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-02-08.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201312").
  31. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-04-08). "La Renault Zoé arrive en Norvège, capitale mondiale du véhicule électrique" [Renault Zoe arrives in Norway, the world capital of the electric vehicle] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  32. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-29). "Voiture électrique – La Renault Zoé souffle sa première bougie" [Electric car - the Renault Zoe celebrates its first birthday] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  33. ^ AVERE (2016-01-11). "Plus de 22 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2015 !" [Over 22 000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2015!]. AVERE France (in French). Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  34. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2014" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2014 by segment and model] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-06-27.  A total of 1,498 units were registered in Germany in 2014.
  35. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2016). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2015" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2015] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2016-03-01.  A total of 1,582 Model S cars were registered in Germany in 2015.
  36. ^ RAC Foundation. "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2016-04-15.  Figures correspond to the number of vehicles registered at the end of the corresponding quarter. A total of 3,327 Zoes were registered in the UK at the end of 2015.
  37. ^ Natalie Middleton (2015-06-26). "Outlander PHEV tops ultra-low emission league table as plug-in sales soar". Fleet World. Retrieved 2015-06-27.  A total of 1,356 Zoes were registered in the UK since 2013 through December 2014, and 1,621 at the end of March 2015.
  38. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-27). "UK December 2013 (Draft Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  39. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "CO2-utslippet i desember 2014" [CO2 emissions in December 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-02-14.  See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2014, til og med desember." A total of 433 new Renault Zoes were registered in Norway in 2014.
  40. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "CO2-utslippet i desember" [CO2 emissions in December] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2015, til og med desember." A total of 1,634 new Zoes cars were registered in Norway in 2015.
  41. ^ Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2016-03-03.  Under "ModellstatistikJanuar - Dezember 2015" download the xls file "ModellePW2015" for 2015 sales, and under "Modellstatistiken 2008–2014" click "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014 and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
  42. ^ "Bundesländer-Statistik - Dezember 2015" [Federal Statistics - December 2015] (in German). January 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Click on the tables by model by each year.
  43. ^ RAI (January 2015). "Nieuwverkoop Per Merk/Model" [New Sales By Brand / Model] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  44. ^ RAI (January 2016). "Nieuwverkoop Personenautos Per Merk/Model" [New passenger cars sales by brand/model 2015/12 2015 toal] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2016-03-01.  A total of 223 Zoes cars were registered in the Netherlands in 2015".
  45. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-04-19.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
  46. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2014 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2015-06-28.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales during 2014.
  47. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2015 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2015 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre15.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2015.
  48. ^ Luca Moroni (2014-01-03). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2013 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2013] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  49. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-12). "Italy December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  50. ^ Luca Moroni (2016-01-06). "Dicembre 2015, i dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride in Italia" [December 2015, sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  51. ^ Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-06-28.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see table "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2014.
  52. ^ Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015
  53. ^ De Danske Bilimportører (January 2016). "Statistik" [Statistics (Passenger cars by model)] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Select 2015/2014/2013 – "Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.
  54. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-18). "Belgium December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  55. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-24). "Belgium December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  56. ^ Pontes, Jose (2016-01-26). "Belgium December 2015". EV Sales. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  57. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-30). "Portugal December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  58. ^ Associação de Utilizadores de Veículos Elétricos (UVE) (2016-01-28). "Explosão de vendas de VE’s em Portugal no mês de Dezembro" [EV sales burst in Portugal in December] (in Portuguese). UVE. Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
  59. ^ PRNewswire (2013-03-28). "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car". International Business Times. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  60. ^ Parker Higgins (2013-11-13). "DRM in Cars Will Drive Consumers Crazy". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  61. ^
  62. ^ "Renault Twitter statement". Twitter. 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  63. ^ Murphy, Zoe (2010-05-21). "Renault urged to scrap car name Zoe". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  64. ^ "BBC News - Renault can name new car Zoe as girls' case rejected". 2010-05-21. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  65. ^ "Renault ZOE Electric Vehicle enters ZENN Monte-Carlo Rally". 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  66. ^ "5ème Rallye Monte Carlo Zero Emission No Noise. Combined official final classification (regularity and consumption)" (PDF). Automobile Club de Monaco. 2014-03-23. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 

External links[edit]