Renault Zoe

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Renault Zoe
2018 Renault ZOE.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Renault
Production 2012–present
Assembly Flins, France
Body and chassis
Class Supermini (B)
Body style 5-door hatchback
Powertrain
Electric motor 66 kW (90 PS; 89 bhp) (2012–present)
80 kW (109 PS; 107 bhp) (2018–present)
220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) (2012-present)[1]
225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft) (2018-present)
Battery 22 kW·h lithium ion battery (2012–present)
41 kW·h lithium ion battery (October 2016–present)
Range 210 km (130 mi) (NEDC)[2]
(2012–June 2015)
240 km (150 mi) (NEDC)[3]
June 2015–October 2016
400 km (250 mi) (NEDC)
October 2016–present[4]
Plug-in charging max 43 kW[5] on IEC Type 2 (including 3ϕ 63A 400V)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,588 mm (101.9 in)
Length 4,084 mm (160.8 in)
Width 1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Height 1,562 mm (61.5 in)
Kerb weight 1,468 kg (3,236 lb)

Renault Zoe (sometimes stylized as ZOE and pronounced as "Zoé") is a five-door supermini electric car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. Earlier Zoes have a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that delivers a range between 210 km (130 mi)[2] and 240 km (150 mi)[3] under the NEDC cycle.[2] In September 2016, Renault announced the introduction of an optional 41 kWh lithium-ion battery, increasing the range to 400 km (250 mi) under the NEDC cycle.[4]

Renault had previously unveiled, under the Zoe name, a number of different concept cars. Initially in 2005 as the Zoe City Car and later as the Zoe Z.E. electric concept was shown in two different versions in 2009 and 2010 under the Renault Z.E. name. A production ready version of the Zoe was shown at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show.[6]

Retail customer deliveries began in France in December 2012, followed in 2013 by several European countries. Since 2013 the Zoe is the all-time top selling all-electric car in the French market, with 27,155 units registered by June 2016.[7] Zoe sales had passed 50,000 worldwide by that month.[7] The Zoe has been the top selling all-electric car in Europe for two years running, 2015 and 2016,[8][9] and also topped European sales in the broader plug-in electric car segment in 2016.[10] The Zoe has ranked among the world's top 10 best-selling plug-in electric cars for two years in a row, 2015 and 2016.[11][12] Since inception, global sales totaled 93,197 units through December 2017.[13][14]

Concepts[edit]

Zoe City Car Concept (2005)[edit]

The Renault Zoe City Car concept (or Z17) was shown at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show[15] featuring 3 seats, the 3.45 m long open top vehicle was proposed as an urban focused car.[16] This Zoe had no connection with the later electric Zoe concept to follow four years later.

Zoe Concept (2009)[edit]

The Renault Zoe Concept was shown to the public in 2009 at the Frankfurt Motor Show to show the company's vision for a Clio sized electric car.[17] It was powered by a 71 kW; 96 PS (95 bhp) electric motor (mounted at the front) and lithium-ion batteries (under the seats). It was estimated it would have a range of 160 kilometres (99 mi) and a top speed of 140 km/h (90 mph), and could be charged at a conventional 230 V socket, or fast-charged from a high-voltage supply to 80 percent in only 20 minutes. A third innovative option was to swap the batteries for a new pack at a Renault Quickdrop centre.[18]

The design was tear-drop shaped featuring a see-through roof features solar panels which run the air-conditioning system [19] and gull-wing doors. A new climate control system was also shown, developed with L'Oréal, which could spray essential oils into the interior to cut out harmful exterior smells, or rehydrate the interior to prevent skin drying out.

Zoe Preview (2010)[edit]

The Zoe Preview, a substantially revised version of the Zoe concept, was shown to the public at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, and was claimed to be a near-definitive representation (90% showroom ready) of the final version of the car. Many of the existing design features of the 2009 concept model were discarded such as the gull-wing doors.

The technical specifications had changed from the 2009 version with the power of the electric motor reduced to 59 kW; 80 PS (79 bhp), a reduced top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph), but still with a 160 kilometres (99 mi) range.[20] It was suggested that the Zoe ZE would be priced from €15,000.[21]

Zoe E-Sport (2017)[edit]

The Zoe E-sport is a hot hatch electric car concept unveiled at the 2017 Geneva Motor Show.[22] It has an all-wheel drive design with two electric motors, each one powering an axle. The combined power from both is 456 bhp (340 kW; 462 PS) and the torque 640 N⋅m (470 lb⋅ft). The lithium-ion battery package weighs 450 kg and is on the rear. The car, weighing 1,450 kg, has a carbon fibre chassis, racing brakes and equipment, and a double wishbone suspension on both axles.[23][24]

Production version[edit]

Front
Side
Rear
Interior

The production version of the Zoe was announced in March 2012 at the Geneva Motor Show. Similar to the 2010 version and the design credited to Jean Semeris, it is a five-door supermini at 4080 mm long, a little longer than the Renault Clio.[25] Retail customer deliveries began in limited number in France in December 2012, and Renault planned to increase availability during the first quarter of 2013. The first Zoe was delivered to Arnaud Montebourg, French Minister of Industrial Recovery.[26] The Zoe is produced at Flins on the same assembly line as the Renault Clio and Nissan Micra. About 170 Zoes are made per day.[27]

In France the Zoe pricing starts at €20,700 (US$27,250) before applying the existing €6,300 (US$8,300) tax incentive, plus a monthly fee for the battery. The cost of leasing the battery for 36 months starts from €79/month (US$104/month) for an annual distance travelled of 12,500 km (7,800 mi) and includes comprehensive breakdown assistance.[2]

The Zoes produced until June 2015 are powered by a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack weighing 275 kg,[27] driving a 65 kW (87 bhp; 88 PS) synchronous electric motor[2] supplied by Continental (the Q210).[28] Maximum torque is 220 N·m (162 lb-ft) with a top speed of 135 km/h (84 mph). The NEDC cycle range is 210 km (130 mi). Renault estimates that in suburban use, the Zoe can achieve around 100 km (62 mi) in cold weather and 150 km (93 mi) in temperate conditions. The car features a charging system called "Caméléon" (Chameleon) charger that allows the Zoe to be charged at any level of power, taking between 30 minutes and nine hours.[2] The particular type of grid system in parts of Norway with a different potential for the protective ground requires a special charger, which is included with all Zoes in Norway for summer 2015.[29]

In June 2015, Renault announced the introduction of a new, smaller electric motor called the R240, manufactured at its Cléon engine plant.[28] The new motor has the same power and torque that the Q210 unit[3] with an extended NEDC cycle range of 240 km (150 mi).[3] However, the Q210 would still be available as the R240 did not allow quick charging.[28]

In October 2016 at the Paris Motor Show, Renault unveiled a 41 kWh lithium-ion battery called the ZE40,[4] weighing 300 kg.[27] The battery was developed by Renault and its partner LG Chem, and is assembled at the Renault's Flins plant. It is mounted on Zoes using the R75/90 motor (formerly R240, the name now doing reference to the motor power output range between 75 PS (55 kW) and 90 PS (66 kW)) and increases the car range to 400 km (250 mi) under NEDC and allows quick charging.[30] The Q210 would still be available, renamed as Q90.[31] According to Renault, the battery delivers about 300 km (190 mi) on real driving conditions.[30] Older Zoes using the battery would get a less significant range increase because of various design upgrades.[4] Options to buy the battery would be available,[4] and also revised lease plans.[30]

In France, pricing of the Zoe with the 41 kWh battery starts at €23,600 (~ US$26,460) before any applicable government incentives (€6,300 or US$8,300), and without the purchase of the battery. The rental fee for the battery is €69 (~ US$77) per month for up to 7,500 km (4,700 mi) per year and €119 (~ US$133) per month for unlimited mileage.[32] In Norway, pricing starts at 229,400 kroner (~ US$28,760), and the pricing of the variant with the original 22 kWh battery starts at 40,000 kroner (~ US$5,000) less than the 41 kWh variant.[33]

In February 2018, Renault introduced an updated version of the R90 motor, the R110, which upped power output to 80 kW (110 PS) while maintaining the same estimated autonomy and similar torque (225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft)).[34][35] The R90 would still be available for sale. The price for cars equipped with the new motor would be slightly higher that those using the R90 version.[36] The R110 will be the first Renault motor homologated under WLTP[34] and sales would start by the end of the 2018 summer in Europe.[35]

Safety[edit]

The Zoe received a five-star Euro NCAP 2013-rating. The score was:

Euro NCAP test results
Renault Zoe (2013)[37]
Test Points %
Overall: 5 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 32 89%
Child occupant: 39 80%
Pedestrian: 24 66%
Safety assist: 8 85%

Sales and markets[edit]

Retail customer deliveries began in limited numbers in France in December 2012, and availability was increased during the first quarter of 2013.[26][38] A total of 48 units were registered in France during December 2012, and cumulative sales reached 5,559 units through December 2013.[39] The Zoe became the top selling all-electric vehicle in the country in January 2013, and kept the monthly lead through December 2013, representing 62.8% of electric car sales in the country during 2013. In addition, the Zoe became the best selling electric car in France accounting for registrations in the electric passenger car segment since 2010 through December 2013.[39]

Renault Zoe Zero Emissions (ZE) badge

Deliveries in the UK began in March 2013,[40] and Germany, Italy and Spain in April 2013. Cumulative global sales totaled 8,874 units through December 2013.[13] Out of 8,792 cars sold in Europe through December 2013, 62.7% were sold in France (5,511).[39][13] Germany was the second top selling market, with 1,019 units delivered through December 2013,[41] followed by the Netherlands with 547 units registered.[42]

The Renault Zoe was officially launched in the Norwegian market in April 2014, though retail deliveries began in late March. Unlike other European countries, the Zoe is sold in Norway with the battery pack included and there are no battery leasing options available.[43] A total of 11,323 Zoes were sold globally in 2014.[13] France continued as the top selling market with cumulative sales of 11,529 units, and the Zoe continued as the all-time best selling electric car in the country, with 5,970 units sold in 2014.[39] Global sales reached the 10,000 unit milestone in January 2014,[44] and the 25,000 mark in May 2015.[45] The milestone of 50,000 units produced was reached in April 2016.[46] Zoe sales achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in June 2016.[7]

With a record 10,406 units sold in 2015, the Zoe was again the top selling all-electric car in France, and continued as the best-selling electric car in the country ever.[39][47] The Zoe, with 18,453 registrations, was the top selling pure electric car in Europe in 2015.[8][48] The Zoe ranked as the world's 8th best-selling electric car in 2015.[11] As of June 2016, France remained as the Zoe's top country market, with 27,155 units registered since its inception in 2012. Zoe sales in the French market represented 53% of global sales.[7]

The Zoe ranked as the best-selling all-electric car in Europe for the second year in a row in 2016 with 21,735 units delivered, representing 21.2% of the segment sales that year.[9][49] Also, the Zoe topped European sales in the broader plug-in electric car segment, ahead of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, the top selling plug-in in the previous two years.[10] In 2016 the Zoe ranked again as the world's 8th best-selling electric car.[12] Cumulative global sales totaled 93,197 units through December 2017 including both the passenger and cargo variants,[13][14] As of December 2016, the Zoe ranked as the world's all-time eighth best selling plug-in car.[12]

Global sales and top country markets
Renault Zoe sales by top national markets(1)
2012 - 2016
Country Cumulative
sales
Sales
2017
Sales
2016
Sales
2015
Sales
2014
Sales
2013
Sales
2012
 France[39] 33,391+ 15,245 11,402 10,406 5,970 5,511 48
 Germany[41][50][51][52] 11,431 4,322 2,805 1,787 1,498 1,019  
 United Kingdom[53][54][55] 5,001 1,647 1,971 1,104 252  
 Norway[56][57] 6,418 2,533 1,818 1,634 433    
  Switzerland[58] 2,348 741 406 478 381 342  
 Austria[59] 3,255 1,391 829 279 387 369  
 Spain[60][61][62] 2,556 1,327 446 312 289 182  
 Netherlands[42][63][64] 1,986 781 183 223 252 547  
 Denmark[65] 1,565 386 612 330 145 92  
 Sweden[66][67][68] 1,533 533 418 378 204    
 Italy[69][70][71] 1,212 318 210 326 155 203  
 Belgium[72][73][74] 789 351 210 33 110 85  
 Portugal[75][76] 1,464 751 170 153 34    
Global sales[77] 72,943+ 31,932 21,998 18,931 11,323 8,874 68
Notes: (1) Global annual sales includes passenger cars and its light utility variant.

Recognition[edit]

The Zoe was one of the top three finalists for the 2013 World Green Car of the Year.[78]

Criticism[edit]

The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized Renault's decision to lease the Zoe battery packs to consumers as a rental service with an alleged Digital Rights Management (DRM) software. They claim it could render the vehicle unusable if the owner ceases payment or Renault withdraws support.[79] Renault's monthly fee for the battery and its alleged use of DRM has also been strongly criticized by some technology writers.[80] However, Renault in November 2013 publicly denied the use of DRM technology through its official Twitter account.[81]

Name dispute[edit]

In May 2010, a Parisian woman called Zoe Renault commenced legal action to try and force Renault to re-think their choice of name amid claims it would lead to mocking jibes.[82] In November 2010, a French judge ruled that Renault could use the name.[83]

Motorsport[edit]

Renault entered three Zoes (Z.E. ZOE Team) into the 5th ZENN (Zero Emission No Noise) Monte Carlo Rally held from 21 to 23 March 2014.[84] A Zoe ended first on the general classification.[85]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Renault Zoe Life. Spécifications techniques" [Renault Zoe Life. Technical specifications]. Renault France (in French). Retrieved 2016-10-02. 
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  11. ^ a b Jeff Cobb (2015-12-15). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-17.  Accounting for global cumulative sales by December 2015, plug-in electric car sales are led by the Nissan Leaf (200,000), followed by Volt/Ampera family (104,000), and the Tesla Model S (100,000). As of November 2015, ranking next are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (85,000), and the Prius Plug-in Hybrid (75,000), Mitsubishi i-MiEV family (~50,000), BYD Qin (45,275), BMW i3 (38,581), Renault Zoe (36,040), and the Ford Fusion Energi (26,742). Combines sales of the top 10 PEV models represent almost 50% of cumulative global PEV sales through November 2015)
  12. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-31). "Tesla Model S Is World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-31.  See also detailed 2016 sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.
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  14. ^ a b Groupe Renault (January 2018). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2018-02-25.  Sales figures includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on link "XLSX - 162 Ko Ventes mensuelles du Groupe (Décembre 2017)" to download the file, and open the tab "Sales by Model" to access sales figures for 2017 and 2016.
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  22. ^ Pollard, Tim (2017-03-07). "Renault Zoe e-Sport muscles up with 460bhp EV hyper-hatch". Car. Retrieved 2018-03-25. 
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  28. ^ a b c Gibbs, Nick (2015-06-24). "Renault says new motor will cut EV losses". Automotive News Europe. Crain Communications. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
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  33. ^ Frydenlund, Ståle (2016-09-30). "Doblet rekkevidde siden starten for Renault Zoe" [Doubling the range of the original Renault Zoe] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-10-03. 
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  44. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-29). "Voiture électrique – La Renault Zoé souffle sa première bougie" [Electric car - the Renault Zoe celebrates its first birthday] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  45. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-06-15). "Three More Plug-in Cars Cross 25,000 Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
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  47. ^ AVERE (2016-01-11). "Plus de 22 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2015 !" [Over 22 000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2015!]. AVERE France (in French). Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
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  49. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2017-01-31). "Zoe was last year's top-selling BEV in Western Europe, AID's own data reveals". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  50. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2014" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2014 by segment and model] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.  'A total of 1,498 units were registered in Germany in 2014.
  51. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2016). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2015" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2015] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2016-03-01.  A total of 1,582 Model S cars were registered in Germany in 2015.
  52. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2017). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2016" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2016] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  A total of 1,582 Model S cars were registered in Germany in 2015.
  53. ^ RAC Foundation. "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2016-04-15.  Figures correspond to the number of vehicles registered at the end of the corresponding quarter. A total of 3,327 Zoes were registered in the UK at the end of 2015.
  54. ^ Natalie Middleton (2015-06-26). "Outlander PHEV tops ultra-low emission league table as plug-in sales soar". Fleet World. Retrieved 2015-06-27.  A total of 1,356 Zoes were registered in the UK since 2013 through December 2014, and 1,621 at the end of March 2015.
  55. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-27). "UK December 2013 (Draft Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-04-19. 
  56. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "CO2-utslippet i desember 2014" [CO2 emissions in December 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-02-14.  See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2014, til og med desember." A total of 433 new Renault Zoes were registered in Norway in 2014.
  57. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "CO2-utslippet i desember" [CO2 emissions in December] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  See graph: "Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2015, til og med desember." A total of 1,634 new Zoes cars were registered in Norway in 2015.
  58. ^ Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2016-03-03.  Under "ModellstatistikJanuar - Dezember 2015" download the xls file "ModellePW2015" for 2015 sales, and under "Modellstatistiken 2008–2014" click "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014 and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
  59. ^ "Bundesländer-Statistik - Dezember 2015" [Federal Statistics - December 2015] (in German). Myampera.wordpress.com. January 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Click on the tables by model by each year.
  60. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-04-19.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
  61. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2014 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2015-06-28.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales during 2014.
  62. ^ Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2015 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2015 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre15.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2015.
  63. ^ RAI (January 2015). "Nieuwverkoop Per Merk/Model" [New Sales By Brand / Model] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  64. ^ RAI (January 2016). "Nieuwverkoop Personenautos Per Merk/Model" [New passenger cars sales by brand/model 2015/12 2015 toal] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  A total of 223 Zoes cars were registered in the Netherlands in 2015".
  65. ^ De Danske Bilimportører (January 2016). "Statistik" [Statistics (Passenger cars by model)] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Select 2015/2014/2013 – "Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.
  66. ^ Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-06-28.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see table "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2014.
  67. ^ Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015
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  69. ^ Luca Moroni (3 January 2014). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2013 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2013] (in Italian). Green Start. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  70. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-12). "Italy December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  71. ^ Luca Moroni (2016-01-06). "Dicembre 2015, i dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride in Italia" [December 2015, sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  72. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-18). "Belgium December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  73. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-24). "Belgium December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  74. ^ Pontes, Jose (2016-01-26). "Belgium December 2015". EV Sales. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  75. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-30). "Portugal December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  76. ^ Associação de Utilizadores de Veículos Elétricos (UVE) (2016-01-28). "Explosão de vendas de VE's em Portugal no mês de Dezembro" [EV sales burst in Portugal in December] (in Portuguese). UVE. Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
  77. ^ Groupe Renault (July 2016). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2016-07-29.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (juin 2016)" to download the file "XLSX - 240 Ko" for CYTD sales through June 2016, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" (See more) to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" - "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 sales. Sales figures for 2013 were revised in the 2014 report
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