Renewable energy in India
This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. (October 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
India is one of the countries with large production of energy from renewable sources. As of 27 November 2020, 38% of India's installed electricity generation capacity is from renewable sources (136 GW out of 373 GW).
In the Paris Agreement India has committed to an Intended Nationally Determined Contributions target of achieving 40% of its total electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. The country is aiming for even more ambitious target of 57% of the total electricity capacity from renewable sources by 2027 in Central Electricity Authority's strategy blueprint. According to 2027 blueprint, India aims to have 275 GW from renewable energy, 72 GW of hydroelectricity, 15 GW of nuclear energy and nearly 100 GW from “other zero emission” sources.
Government of India has also set a target for installation of Rooftop Solar Projects(RTP) of 40 GW by 2022 including installation on rooftop of houses.
As of September 2020, 89.22 GW is already operational, projects of 48.21 GW are at various stages of implementation and projects of 25.64 GW capacity are under various stages of bidding.
India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)), in the early 1980s, and its public sector undertakings the Solar Energy Corporation of India is responsible for the development of solar energy industry in India. Hydroelectricity is administered separately by the Ministry of Power and not included in MNRE targets.
India has a strong manufacturing base in wind power with 20 manufactures of 53 different wind turbine models of international quality up to 3 MW in size with exports to Europe, the United States and other countries. Wind or Solar PV paired with four-hour battery storage systems is already cost-competitive, without subsidy, as a source of dispatchable generation compared with new coal and new gas plants in India.
Renewable energy overview and targets
- Wind Power: 38,124.15 MW (42.7%)
- Solar Power: 36,050.74 MW (40.4%)
- Biomass Power: 10,145.92 MW (11.4%)
- Small Hydro Power: 4,739.97 MW (5.3%)
- Waste-to-Power: 168.64 MW (0.2%)
India is running one of the largest and most ambitious renewable capacity expansion programs in the world. In 2019 at UN climate summit, India announced that it will be more than doubling its renewable energy target from 175GW by 2022 to 450GW of renewable energy by the same year. Newer renewable electricity sources are projected to grow massively by nearer term 2022 targets, including a more than doubling of India's large wind power capacity and an almost 15 fold increase in solar power from April 2016 levels. These targets would place India among the world leaders in renewable energy use and place India at the centre of its "Sunshine Countries" International Solar Alliance project promoting the growth and development of solar power internationally to over 120 countries. Energy plays a vital role in the economic development of all countries. India ranks second position in terms of population that accounts to 17% of world’s overall population. The increase in standard of living and population in India makes India to rank third place in consumption of energy in the globe. As fossil fuels are depleting and creating more pollution causing global warming, and also since energy demand is increasing day by day, energy production from renewable energy resources becomes the best solution in present condition as renewable energy resources are not exhaustible, clean, and green energy.
The government target of installing 20 GW of solar power by 2022 but it was achieved four years ahead of schedule in January 2018, through both solar parks as well as roof-top solar panels. India then set a new target of achieving 100 GW of solar power, 60GW of wind power, 10GW of bio mass and 5GW of small hydro power by 2022. Three of the top Five largest solar parks worldwide are in India including the second-largest solar park in the world at Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, with a capacity of 1000 MW. The world's largest solar power plant, Bhadla Solar Park is in Rajasthan with a capacity of 2255 MW.
The 2022 electrical power targets include achieving 227GW (earlier 175 GW) of energy from renewable sources - nearly 113 GW through solar power, 66 GW from wind power, 10 GW from biomass power, 5GW from small hydro and 31GW from floating solar and offshore wind power. The bidding process for the further additional 115 GW or thereabouts to meet these targets of installed capacity from January 2018 levels will be completed by the end of 2019–2020. The government has announced that no new coal-based capacity addition is required beyond the 50 GW under different stages of construction likely to come online between 2017 and 2022. With the expansion of renewable power generation capacity, the outstanding payment dues from the power purchasers are also increasing due to their weak purchasing capacity.
Unlike most countries, until 2019 India did not count large hydro power towards renewable energy targets as hydropower was under the older Ministry of Power instead of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This system was changed in 2019 and the power from large hydropower plants is since also accounted for. This was done to help the sale of the power from the large Hydropower plants, as this reclassification has made such plants able to sell their power under the Renewable Energy Purchase Obligation. Under the Renewable Energy Purchase Obligation, the DISCOMs (Distribution Company) of the various states have to source a certain percentage of their power from Renewable Energy Sources under two categories Solar and Non-Solar. The power from the large Hydropower plants now classifies under the Non-Solar Renewable Energy Category.
|Source||Total Installed Capacity (MW)||2022 target (MW)|
(Biomass & Gasification and Bagasse Cogeneration)
* The target is given for "bio-power" which includes biomass power and waste to power generation.
- Coal: 205,134.5 MW (55.4%)
- Renewable, except large Hydroelectric: 87,027.68 MW (23.5%)
- Large Hydro: 45,699.22 MW (12.3%)
- Gas: 24,955.36 MW (6.7%)
- Nuclear: 6,780 MW (1.8%)
- Diesel: 509.71 MW (0.1%)
The figures above refer to newer and fast developing renewable energy sources and are managed by the Ministry for New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). In addition as of 31 March 2018 India had 45.4 GW of installed large hydro capacity which comes under the ambit of Ministry of Power.
In terms of meeting its ambitious 2022 targets, as of 31 March 2017, wind power was more than halfway towards its goal, whilst solar power was below 13% of its highly ambitious target, although expansion is expected to be dramatic in the near future. Bioenergy was at just above 80% mark whilst small hydro power was already 85% of the way to meet its target. Overall India was at 33% towards meeting its 2022 renewable installed power capacity target of 175 GW. The total breakdown of installed grid connected capacity from all sources including large hydro was as follows:
|Source||Installed Capacity (MW)||Share|
The fast growing renewable energy sources under the responsibility of the Ministry for New and Renewable Energy exceeded the installed capacity of large hydro installations. This figure is targeted to reach 175 GW by 2022. Coal power currently represents the largest share of installed capacity at just under 194 GW. Total installed capacity as of 30 June 2019, for grid connected power in India stood at a little under 358 GW.
Off-grid renewable energy
|Source||Total Installed Capacity (MW)|
|Waste to Energy||180.35|
|Other Renewable Energy Systems|
|Family Biogas Plants (in Lakhs)||50.28|
|Water mills / micro hydel (Nos.)||2,690/72|
Renewable electricity generation
Total renewable energy which includes large hydro with pumped storage generation, is nearly 17.5% of total utility electricity generation in India during the year 2017–18. Solar, wind and run of the river hydro being must run power generation and environment friendly, base load coal fired power is transforming in to load following power generation. In addition, renewable peaking hydro power capacity also caters peak load demand on daily basis.
|Total utility power||1,105,446||1,168,359||1,236,392||1,302,904||1,371,517||1,385,114|
|% Renewable power||17.28%||16.02%||16.52%||17.50%||19.1%||21.25%|
India is the 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity. As of 31 March 2020, India's installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 45,699 MW, or 12.35% of its total utility power generation capacity.
Additional smaller hydroelectric power units with a total capacity of 4,380 MW (1.3% of its total utility power generation capacity) have been installed. Small hydropower, defined to be generated at facilities with nameplate capacities up to 25 MW, comes under the ambit of the Ministry of New and Renewable energy (MNRE); whilst large hydro, defined as above 25 MW, comes under the ambit of Ministry of Power.
India is endowed with vast potential of pumped hydroelectric energy storage which can be used economically for converting the non-dispatchable renewable energy like wind, solar and run of the river hydro power in to base /peak load power supply for its ultimate energy needs.
The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, domestic policy support for wind power has led India to become the country with the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.
As of 30 June 2018 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 34,293 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (7,269.50 MW), Maharashtra (4,100.40 MW), Gujarat (3,454.30 MW), Rajasthan (2,784.90 MW), Karnataka (2,318.20 MW), Andhra Pradesh (746.20 MW) and Madhya Pradesh (423.40 MW) Wind power accounts for 10% of India's total installed power capacity. India has set an ambitious target to generate 60,000 MW of electricity from wind power by 2022.
The Indian Government's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy announced a new wind-solar hybrid policy in May 2018. This means that the same piece of land will be used to house both wind farms and solar panels.
Some of India's largest wind farms are:
|Number||Wind farm||Producer||State||Current capacity
|1||Jaisalmer Wind Park||Suzlon Energy||Rajasthan||1600|||
|2||Muppandal wind farm||Muppandal Wind||Tamil Nadu||1,500|||
|3||Brahmanvel windfarm||Parakh Agro Industries||Maharashtra||528|||
|4||Dhalgaon windfarm||Gadre Marine Exports||Maharashtra||278|||
|5||Chakala windfarm||Suzlon Energy||Maharashtra||217|||
|6||Vankusawade Wind Park||Suzlon Energy||Maharashtra||189|||
|7||Vaspet Windfarm||ReNew Power||Maharashtra||144|||
India is densely populated and has high solar insolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. Announced in November 2009, the Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The program was inaugurated by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 11 January 2010 with a target of 20GW grid capacity by 2022 as well as 2GW off-grid installations, this target was later increased to 100 GW by the same date under the Narendra Modi government in the 2015 Union budget of India. Achieving this National Solar Mission target would establish India in its ambition to be a global leader in solar power generation. The Mission aims to achieve grid parity (electricity delivered at the same cost and quality as that delivered on the grid) by 2022. The National Solar Mission is also promoted and known by its more colloquial name of "Solar India". The earlier objectives of the mission were to install 1,000 MW of power by 2013 and cover 20×106 m2 (220×106 sq ft) with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2022.
On 30 November 2015, the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and the President of France Francois Hollande launched the International Solar Alliance. The ISA is an alliance of 121 solar rich countries lying partially or fully between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, several countries outside of this area are also involved with the organization. The ISA aims to promote and develop solar power amongst its members and has the objective of mobilising $1 trillion of investment by 2030. As of August, 2019, the Indian Oil Cooperation stated that it wants to invest 250 Billion Rupee in renewable energy projects.
Much of the country does not have an electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power was for water pumping, to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi) area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatts. Solar power in India has been growing at a rate of 113% yoy and now dropped to around ₹4.34 (6.1¢ US) per kWh, which is around 18% lower than the average price for electricity generated by coal-fired plants.
As part of India's ambitious solar programme the central government has set up a US$350 million fund and the Yes Bank will loan US$5 billion to finance solar projects (c. January 2018). India is also the home to the world's first and only 100% solar-powered airport, located at Cochin, Kerala. India also has a wholly 100% solar-powered railway station in Guwhati, Assam. India's first and the largest floating solar power plant was constructed at Banasura Sagar reservoir in Wayanad, Kerala.
The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. Over three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend.
Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank.
India is an ideal environment for biomass production given its tropical location, sunshine and rains. The country's vast agricultural potential provides agro-residues which can be used to meet energy needs, both in heat and power applications. According to IREDA "Biomass is capable of supplementing the coal to the tune of about 260 million tonnes", "saving of about Rs. 250 billion, every year." It is estimated that the potential for biomass energy in India includes 16,000 MW from biomass energy and a further 3,500 MW from bagasse cogeneration. Biomass materials that can be used for power generation include bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells and sawdust.
|Number||Type of Agro residues||Quantity(Million Tonnes / annum)|
|1||Straws of various pulses & cereals||225.50|
|6||Various Oil Stalks||4.50|
In 2018, India has set target to produce 15 million tons (62 mmcmd) of biogas/bio-CNG by installing 5,000 large scale commercial type biogas plants which can produce daily 12.5 tons of bio-CNG by each plant. The rejected organic solids from biogas plants can be used after Torrefaction in the existing coal fired plants to reduce coal consumption.
The number of small family type biogas plants reached 3.98 million.
Synthetic methane (SNG) generated using electricity from carbon neutral renewable power or Bio CNG can be used to produce protein rich feed for cattle, poultry and fish economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water foot print. The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these bio protein plants can be recycled in the generation of SNG. Similarly, oxygen gas produced as by product from the electrolysis of water and the methanation process can be consumed in the cultivation of bacteria culture. With these integrated plants, the abundant renewable power potential in India can be converted in to high value food products without any water pollution or green house gas (GHG) emissions for achieving food security at a faster pace with lesser people deployment in agriculture / animal husbandry sector.
Ethanol market penetration reached its highest figure of a 3.3% blend rate in India in 2016. It is produced from sugarcane molasses and partly from grains and can be blended with gasoline. Sugarcane or sugarcane juice may not be used for the production of ethanol in India. Government is also encouraging 2G ethanol commercial production using biomass as feed stock.
The market for biodiesel remains at an early stage in India with the country achieving a minimal blend rate with diesel of 0.001% in 2016. Initially development was focussed on the jatropha (jatropha curcas) plant as the most suitable inedible oilseed for biodiesel production. Development of biodiesel from jatropha has met a number of agronomic and economic restraints and attention is now moving towards other feedstock technologies which utilize used cooking oils, other unusable oil fractions, animal fat and inedible oils. Biodiesel and also Biopropane are produced from non-edible vegetable oils, used cooking oil, waste animal fats, etc.
Waste to energy
Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 38 billion litres of sewage are generated in the urban areas of India. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Waste generation in India is expected to increase rapidly in the future. As more people migrate to urban areas and as incomes increase, consumption levels are likely to rise, as are rates of waste generation. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a per capita rate of approximately 1–1.33% annually. This has significant impacts on the amount of land that is and will be needed for disposal, economic costs of collecting and transporting waste, and the environmental consequences of increased MSW generation levels.
India has had a long involvement with anaerobic digestion and biogas technologies. Waste water treatment plants in the country have been established which produce renewable energy from sewage gas. However, there is still significant untapped potential. Also wastes from the distillery sector are on some sites converted into biogas to run in a gas engine to generate onsite power. Prominent companies in the waste to energy sector include:
- A2Z Group of companies
- Hanjer Biotech Energies
- Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd
- Arka BRENStech Pvt Ltd
- Hitachi Zosen India Pvt Limited
- Clarke Energy
- ORS Group
- Electricity sector in India
- Hydroelectric power in India
- International Renewable Energy Agency
- Renewable energy by country
- Bureau of Energy Efficiency
- Renewable energy in Asia
- Renewable energy commercialization
- Renewable energy debate
- Fossil fuel phase-out
- World energy resources and consumption
- Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
- Ocean thermal energy conversion
- List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources
- "Here are India's INDC objectives and how much it will cost". The Indian Express. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "INDC submission" (PDF).
- Safi, Michael (22 December 2016). "India plans nearly 60% of electricity capacity from non-fossil fuels by 2027". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2020.
- "Press Information Bureau". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Solar and wind now the cheapest power source says Bloomberg NEF". Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- "Physical Progress (Achievements)". Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Physical Progress (Achievements)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2018.
- Sep 23, PTI | Updated; 2019; Ist, 22:04. "PM Modi vows to more than double India's non-fossil fuel target to 450GW | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 September 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "With 2,245 MW of Commissioned Solar Projects, World's Largest Solar Park is Now at Bhadl". Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Saluja, Nishtha; Singh, Sarita (5 June 2018). "renewable energy target now 227 GW, will need $50 billion more in investments, MNRE". The Economic Times.
- Govt to set up $350 million fund to finance solar projects, Hindustan Times, 18 Jan 2018.
- "Report on Payment dues of RE Generators up to 31.07.2019" (PDF). Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- "All India Installed Capacity of Utility Power Stations".
- "Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Physical Progress (Achievements)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2018.
- "Growth of Electricity Sector in India from 1947-2017" (PDF). CEA. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Overview of renewable power generation, CEA" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Infographic: Illustrative curve for change in PLF of coal plants". Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- "Summary of All India Provisional Renewable Energy Generation" (PDF). CEA. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- "Renewable energy generation data, March 2020" (PDF). CEA. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "India overtakes Japan with fifth-largest hydropower capacity in the world". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Renewable Energy Physical Progress as on 31-03-2016". Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, GoI. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "Executive Summary Power Sector February 2017" (PDF). report. Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "Small Hydro". Government of India Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
- "Interactive map showing the feasible locations of PSS projects in India". Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Getting to 100% renewables requires cheap energy storage. But how cheap?". Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "Global Wind Atlas". Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Global statistics". Global Wind Energy Council. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Energy Statistics 2015" (PDF). Central Statistics Office, Govt. of India. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Executive summary of Power Sector as on 31-03-2016" (PDF). Central Electricity authority, GoI. July 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Physical Progress (Achievements)" (PDF). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Does hybrid energy policy make sense for India? Find out". Moneycontrol News. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "Wind farm list". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Jaisalmer windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Muppandal windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Brahmanvel windfarm (India)". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Dhalgaon windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Chakala windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Vankusawade Wind Park windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Vaspet windfarm". Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Global Solar Atlas". Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- JNNSM Inauguration
- "Scheme / Documents | Ministry of New and Renewable Energy | Government of India". www.mnre.gov.in. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- "Revision of cumulative targets under National Solar Mission from 20,000 MW by 2021-22 to 1,00,000 MW". pib.nic.in. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- http://cdkn.org/resource/cdkn-inside-story-transforming-india-into-a-solar-power/?loclang=en_gb Transforming India into a solar power. Downloaded 31 July 2013
- Sethi, Nitin (18 November 2009). "India targets 1,000mw solar power in 2013". Times of India.
- "International Solar Alliance, ISA's Journey so far" (PDF).
- Ranganath, Ramya (22 August 2019). "Indian Oil Corporation Plans to Invest ₹250 Billion in Renewable Energy Projects". Mercom India. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- Kenning, Tom (19 October 2016). "India surpasses 1GW rooftop solar with grid parity for most C&I consumers". report. PVTECH. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- Dockrill, Peter (20 April 2017). "India surpasses 1GW rooftop solar with grid parity for most C&I consumers". report. scienceAlert. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- McGrath, Matt (1 June 2017). "Five effects of a US pull-out from Paris climate deal". BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- Crew, Bec (20 August 2015). "India Establishes World's First 100 Percent Solar-Powered Airport". report. scienceAlert. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "India's largest floating solar power plant opens in Kerala - Watt a sight!". The Economic Times. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- Consumer financing program for solar home systems in southern India
- UNEP wins Energy Globe award Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "The potential for advanced biofuels in India: Assessing the availability of feedstocks and deployable technologies" (PDF). Retrieved 16 December 2019.
- "Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. | Bio Energy". www.ireda.gov.in. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Compressed biogas to beat petrol and diesel with 30% higher mileage". Retrieved 18 November 2018.
- "Rs 20,000 crore to be invested in Odisha in bio gas sector". Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "BioProtein Production" (PDF). Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "Food made from natural gas will soon feed farm animals – and us". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "New venture selects Cargill's Tennessee site to produce Calysta FeedKind® Protein". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "Assessment of environmental impact of FeedKind protein" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, GAIN Report" (PDF).
- "Cabinet okays ethanol projects' funding". Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "47 lakh kg used cooking oil collected since Aug; 70% converted into bio-diesel". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- "Neste delivers first batch of 100% renewable propane to European market". Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Emmanual, William. "Energy Alternatives India". EAI. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Electricity from sewage in India, www.clarke-energy.com, retrieved 15 August 2014
- Emmanual, William. "Energy ALternatives India". Energy ALternatives India. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
Media related to Renewable energy in India at Wikimedia Commons