Renewable energy in Vietnam

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Renewable energy in Vietnam is dominated by hydroelectricity, which supplied over 38% of the country's electricity in 2016.[1] Other renewable sources such as wind, biomass, and solar are marginal, accounting for 0.4% of electricity generation.[1]

The government is planning to increase investment in renewable energy for energy security and economic sustainability. Targets for 2030 include an increase in wind power capacity to 6 gigawatts (GW) and solar power to 12 GW, from current negligible levels.[2] In 2030, wind and solar power are planned to account for 2.1% and 3.3% of total electricity generation, respectively.[2]


Hydropower[edit]

According to theoretical calculations, the total hydropower capacity of our country is about 35,000 MW, of which 60% is concentrated in the North, 27% is distributed in the Central and 13% in the South. Technical potential (potentially feasible to exploit) is about 26,000 MW, equivalent to nearly 970 planned projects, can annually produce more than 100 billion kWh, of which small hydroelectricity comes in particular 800 projects, with a total power of about 15–20 billion kWh/year.[3]

In 2017, reports said that large hydropower power plants with capacity of over 100 MW were almost fully exploited. Plants with favorable locations and low investment costs have also been constructed. Remaining in the near future, small capacity hydropower projects will be invested for exploitation.

Small hydropower is considered the most feasible economic and financial renewable energy form. Based on the most recent assessment reports, our country now has over 1,000 identified locations with the potential to develop small hydropower plants, ranging from 100 kW to 30 MW, with a total capacity set on 7,000 MW, these locations are concentrated mainly in the northern mountains, the South Central Coast and the Central Highlands.[4]

As of 2015, the total small hydropower capacity was aout 2300 MW.[5]

By the end of 2018, 285 small hydropower plants with a total capacity of about 3322 MW were put into operation[6]

Wind energy[edit]

With a coastline of more than 3,000 km, a sea area of more than 1 million km2 and many wind regions with good speed and duration, Vietnam is assessed to have great potential to develop offshore wind power.[7]

For offshore wind power, large turbines like 9 MW with 80m long wings and 12 MW with 107m long wings, land transport is almost impossible, but easy on the sea. Similar to the environment, CO2 emissions of offshore wind power are the lowest in energy forms, only 16g CO2/kWhe, while hydropower is 28g CO2/kWhe, nuclear 33g CO2/kWhe, electricity gas 450g CO2/kWhe, and coal power 1.050g CO2/kWhe.[7]

Offshore wind has many benefits. The first and biggest advantage is strong offshore wind during the day, often in accordance with electricity demand. Therefore, the cost of offshore wind storage and transmission will be reduced, and the power of discharge is also lower. Secondly, offshore wind is more stable and higher power factor, can reach 40-50% (in Vietnam), reduce electricity production costs, increase mechanical life, structure ...

In addition, the offshore wind power model hardly affects people's lives by noise during erection, operation, obstructing the vision, especially the modern offshore wind power is often far from the shore for about 10km.[7]

The World Bank study shows that Vietnam is the country with a very large wind potential, with more than 39% of Vietnam's total area estimated to have a large annual average wind speed over 6m/s, at a height of 65m, equivalent to a total capacity of 512 GW. In particular, more than 8% of Vietnam's ranked area has very good wind potential (wind speed at 65m: 7 - 8 m/s), which can generate more than 110 GW.

Vietnam's wind potential at 65m height:[8]

Average wind speed lower

< 6m/s

medium

6-7m/s

Pretty high

7-8m/s

High

8-9m/s

Very high

> 9m/s

Area (km2) 197.242 100.367 25.679 2.178 111
Area ratio (%) 60,6 30,8 7,9 0,7 >0
Potential capacity (MW) - 401.444 102.716 8.748 482

Under the PDP 7A [9], Vietnam will develop 800 MW of wind power by 2020, accounting for about 0.8% of the total electricity demand. The goal is to develop 2,000 MW of wind power by 2025 and 6,000 MW by 2030.[10]

By the end of 2018, 8 wind power plants with a total capacity of 243 MW were put into operation[6]

Solar energy[edit]

With infinite potential, solar power has been expected to become the answer for Vietnam to reduce its dependence on fossil energy sources.

In the first half of 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT) recorded 272 solar power plant projects with a total capacity of about 17,500 MW, 9 times higher than Hoa Binh hydropower plants and 7 times more than Son La hydropower plant.[11] By the end of 2018, there were about 10,000 MW registered, of which 8100 MW was added to the plan, more than 100 projects signed Power Purchase Agreements, 2 projects came into operation with a total capacity of about 86 MW.[6]

By the end of June 30, 2019, 82 solar power plants, with a total capacity of about 4,464 MW, have been successfully checked the conditions and successfully commissioned by the National Load Dispatch Centre (A0). [12] These projects were entitled to an electricity purchase price (FIT) equivalent to 9.35 UScent/kWh, for a period of 20 years under Decision 11/2017/QD-TTg[13] of the Prime Minister. At that time, solar power has accounted for 8.28% of the installed capacity of Vietnam's electricity system.[12]

It is expected that at the end of 2019, A0 will continue to operate and put into operation 13 more solar power plants, with a total capacity of 630 MW, bringing the total number of solar power plants in the whole system to 95 plants.

Although it is a valuable addition to the system in the face of difficult power supplies, a large number of solar power plants in operation in the short term have been causing many difficulties and challenges for electrical system operation. The reason is due to uncertainty, depending on the weather of this type of power source.

Besides, the hot and massive development of solar power projects concentrating in some provinces such as Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan and Dak Lak has caused the overload of 110 kV and 220 kV networks in the above areas.[12]

Biomass energy[edit]

As an agricultural country, Vietnam has great potential for biomass energy. The main types of biomass are: energy wood, waste (crop residues), livestock waste, municipal waste and other organic wastes. The biomass energy source can be used by burning directly, or forming a biomass fuel. Sustainable exploitation of biomass sources for energy production in Vietnam is about 150 million tons per year.[4]

By November 2018, there were 38 sugar factories in Vietnam using biomass to produce electricity and heat with a total capacity of about 352 MW. Among them, there were only 4 power plants on the grid with a total capacity of 82.51 MW (22.4%), selling 15% of the electricity generated from biomass to the grid at a price of 5,8 US cents/kWh.[14]

Until the end of 2018, 10 more biomass power plants with a total capacity of 212 MW were put into operation[6]

Geothermal energy[edit]

Vietnam has discovered hundreds of mineral water points, of which more than half are hot springs, concentrated mainly in the Northwest and South Central. There are 72 water sources with a temperature of about 41-60 degrees Celsius, 36 water sources with a temperature of 61-100 degrees Celsius, the rest are water sources with a temperature of 30-40 degrees Celsius.[15] With survey and assessment data, the geothermal potential in Vietnam can exploit about 300 MW.[4]

Characteristics of geothermal sources in Vietnam are scattered, so it is difficult to build large-scale factories. However, the distribution of geothermal sources throughout the territory will allow widespread use in many localities.

Solid waste energy (Waste-to-Energy)[edit]

As a form of technology that is quite popular in developed countries, burning waste generation has brought certain effects in the treatment of garbage, reducing environmental pollution with the ability to handle large amounts of waste in a way thoroughly. Therefore, this technology has become the first choice of countries with limited land and energy resources.

As of early 2019, Vietnam had 9.03 MW of garbage electricity. In particular, Go Cat Power Plant with a capacity of 2.43 MW, Can Tho Power Generation Solid Waste Treatment Plant with a capacity of 6 MW and an Industrial Waste Treatment Plant in the South garbage disposal area Paint has a capacity of 0.6 MW.[16]

The purchase price of garbage electricity is stipulated in Circular 32/2015/TT-BCT[17] of the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MOIT) on October 8, 2015 on project development and the model electricity purchase and sale contract applies to power generation projects using substances solid waste. Accordingly, the purchase price for direct solid waste generation projects is 10.05 UScents/kWh. For projects that generate solid waste from the landfill gas recovery is 7.28 UScents/kWh.[17]

On February 18, 2019, Hau Giang garbage power plant project is located in Hau Giang province with a capacity of 12 MW, of which phase 1 of 6 MW capacity will be put into operation in 2019 and phase 2 capacity 6 MW put into operation in 2024. This plant is connected to the national electricity system by 22 kV voltage. Phu Tho Waste Power Plant Project in Phu Tho province has a capacity of 18 MW, of which the first phase of 9 MW capacity will be put into operation in 2020, phase 2 with the capacity of 9 MW will be put into operation in the year 2026. The plant is connected to the national electricity system by 110 kV voltage.[16]

Feed-in tariff[edit]

To encourage renewable energy development, the Government has set a price to buy electricity from renewable energy projects (Feed-in tariff-FIT price). Below is a summary of the current support mechanisms for renewable energy types:

Table 1: Feed-in tariff price for renewable energy: [4]

Technology Price type Feed-in tariff Detail
Small hydroelectricy Power generation Avoided cost is published annually 598 – 663 VND/kWh (by time, region, season)

302 -320 VND/kWh (excess electricity compared to the contract)

2158 VND/kW (capacity price)

Wind power Power generation FIT price 20 years 8.5 UScent/kWh (on shore) and 9.8 UScent/kWh (off shore)
Solar power Power generation FIT price 20 years 9.35 UScent/kWh, before 30/6/2019 for projects that achive COD - commercial operation date. New FIT has been proposed and discussed
Biomass energy Cogeneration

Power generation

FIT price 20 years

FIT price 20 years

5.8 UScent/kWh (for cogeneration)

7.5551 UScent/kWh (North)

7.3458 UScent/kWh (Central)

7.4846 UScent/kWh (South)

Waste to energy Direct burning

Burning of gases from landfills

FIT price 20 years

FIT price 20 years

10.5 UScent/kWh

7.28 UScent/kWh

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Renewables in Vietnam: Current Opportunities and Future Outlook - Vietnam Briefing News". Vietnam Briefing News. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Vietnam Renewable Energy development project to 2030 with outlook to 2050" (PDF). Department of Renewable Energy, The General Directorate of Energy, Ministry of Industry and Trade. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  3. ^ Đặng, Đình Thống (2017-10-20). "Phát triển thủy điện ở Việt Nam: Tiềm năng và thách thức". Năng lượng Việt Nam.
  4. ^ a b c d Nguyễn, Mạnh Hiến (2019-02-18). "Tổng quan tiềm năng và triển vọng phát triển năng lượng tái tạo Việt Nam". Năng lượng Việt Nam.
  5. ^ Nguyễn, Mạnh Hiến (2019-01-09). "Năng lượng Việt Nam: Hiện trạng và triển vọng phát triển". Năng lượng Việt Nam.
  6. ^ a b c d Thảo Miên (2019-03-12). "Việt Nam ưu tiên phát triển năng lượng tái tạo". Thời báo Tài Chính.
  7. ^ a b c Chí Nhân (2019-03-27). "Đề xuất phát triển điện gió ngoài khơi". Báo Thanh Niên.
  8. ^ Ngân Quyên (2019-02-21). "Tiềm năng phát triển điện gió".
  9. ^ Nguyễn, Tấn Dũng (2016-03-18). "PM Decision 428/QĐ-TTg on the Approval of the Revised National Power Development Master Plan for the Period of 2011-2020 with the Vision to 2030". vepg.vn.
  10. ^ Ngân Quyên (2019-02-21). "Tiềm năng phát triển điện gió". EVNHANOI.
  11. ^ Từ Vũ (2019-07-10). "Phát triển năng lượng mặt trời tại Việt Nam là cần thiết, nhưng chớ quên những yếu tố bất cập này". SOHA.VN.
  12. ^ a b c M. Tâm (2019-07-01). "Đến 30/6/2019: Trên 4.460 MW điện mặt trời đã hòa lưới". EVN - Tập đoàn điện lực Việt Nam.
  13. ^ Nguyễn, Xuân Phúc (2017-04-11). "Decision No. 11/2017/QĐ-TTg mechanism for encouragement of development of solar power in Vietnam 2017". vanbanphapluat.co. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  14. ^ GGGI & GIZ (November 2018). "Tạo sự hấp dẫn cho năng lượng sinh khối trong ngành mía đường ở Việt Nam" (PDF). gggi.org.
  15. ^ Phạm, Thu Hà (2017-11-22). "Địa nhiệt Việt Nam: Nguồn điện sạch tiềm năng còn bỏ ngỏ". Năng lượng Việt Nam.
  16. ^ a b Phương Trần (2019-02-25). "Bổ sung 2 dự án điện rác vào Quy hoạch phát triển Điện lực Quốc gia". EVN - Tập đoàn điện lực Việt Nam.
  17. ^ a b Hoàng, Quốc Vượng (2015-10-08). "Circular 32/2015/TT-BCT on project development and Standardized Power Purchase Agreement for power generation projects using solid wastes" (PDF). gizenergy.org.vn.