Renju is played on a 15×15 gridded board. The playing pieces, called stones, are played on the grid line intersections.
Board game |
Abstract strategy game
|Playing time||Casual games: 5 to 30 minutes; tournament games: from 10 minutes (renju blitz) to 5 hours or longer|
|Skill(s) required||Strategy, tactics|
Renju (Japanese: 連珠) is the professional variant of Gomoku. It was named Renju by Japanese journalist Ruikou Kuroiwa (黒岩涙香) on December 6, 1899 in a Japanese newspaper Yorozu chouhou (萬朝報). The game is played with black and white stones on a 15×15 gridded Go board.
Renju eliminates the "Perfect Win" situation in Gomoku by adding special conditions for the first player (Black).
- 1 Rules
- 2 Renju International Federation
- 3 World Championships
- 4 Computers and Renju
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Unlike Gomoku, Renju has a unique sequence of opening moves called an "opening rule". There are several certified opening rules. The list of requirements for new opening rules as approved by the RIF General Assembly in 2003 was:
- The basic Renju rules must be kept.
- The opening stage must not exceed 5 moves.
- All 26 canonical openings must be possible and only 26 canonical openings can be possible.
- All present realistic variants must be possible.
- The moves located very closely near the edges of a board during the opening stage are not preferable.
II. Simplicity and attraction
- New rules must be simple to study.
- New rules must be simple to play for beginners. The situation when in significant part of cases a beginner will have the lost position already after the first 5 moves is not good.
- The rules must be systematic and attractive.
- The number of possible creative variants must be significantly greater than now. These variants must be achieved under the optimal strategy of both players.
- The chances of sides to win must be practically equal.
- The situation when during the opening stage the player who make a move does not interested in the forming of equal and creative position is not preferable. (Example: indirect 2nd move in previous opening rules).
- The rules must give the chance for both players to avoid the position after the opening stage well known for the opponent.
- The knowledge of theory and deep own analyses must give an advantage but the player with a good imagination must have chances against this.
An example of such opening rule (namely "RIF opening rule") follows.
- The first player places 2 black stones and 1 white stone on the board thus forming opening pattern.
- The second player now chooses whether to play black or white.
- White then places one more stone on the board.
- Black places 2 stones on the board.
- White removes one of the two black stones from the previous move.
- White places a white stone.
After this sequence is complete, Black and White continue to take turns to place their stones.
The Extra General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2008 created three new sets of rules for openings that are to replace the above old sequence of moves: Soosõrv, Taraguchi, and Yamaguchi. Also a rejection system for their use was approved. The General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2009 certified Sakata opening rule as proposed by Russia. The General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2011 certified modified opening rules such as Taraguchi-N and Soosõrv-N.
There are certain moves that Black is not allowed to make:
- Double three – Black cannot place a stone that builds two separate lines with three black stones in unbroken rows (i.e. rows not blocked by white stones).
- Double four – Black cannot place a stone that builds two separate lines with four black stones in a row.
- Overline – six or more black stones in a row.
Black can win the game only by placing five black stones in a row (vertically, horizontally or diagonally).
White can win by either:
- getting five (or more) white stones in a row
- forcing Black to make a forbidden move (see above).
Renju International Federation
The Renju International Federation (RIF) is an international organization which was founded in Stockholm, Sweden in August 8, 1988. The main purpose of the Renju is to unit all the renju and gomoku national federations all over the world, organize international tournaments and other activities in renju and gomoku, and spread renju activities in the world. The federation carry out the General Assembly every two years.
The Renju International Federation was founded in 1988 by 3 founder members: Japan, Soviet Union and Sweden. Up to 2017, there have been 20 members in the Renju International Federation. The list of members follows.
|Member||Year of joining||Status|
- Russia has inherited the place of the Soviet Union since 1992.
There are several world championships organized by the Renju International Federation.
Individual World Championships
The results of previous World Championships are following:
Women World Championships
The Women World Championships started in 1997 and are played every second year, at the same time and place with the World Championships. The results are following:
|Title year||Hosting city, country||Gold||Silver||Bronze||Opening rule|
|1997||Saint Petersburg, Russia||Irina Metreveli||Natalya Vasilyeva||Yelena Lebedeva||RIF|
|1999||Beijing, China||Yulia Savrasova||Irina Metreveli||Yelena Lebedeva||RIF|
|2001||Kyoto, Japan||Yulia Savrasova||Irina Metreveli||Hsu Wen-Ching||RIF|
|2003||Vadstena, Sweden||Yulia Savrasova||Yang Hsiao-Yu||Irina Metreveli||RIF|
|2005||Tallinn, Estonia||Oxana Sorokina||Irina Metreveli||Maris Tuvikene||RIF|
|2007||Tyumen, Russia||Tatyana Krayeva||Oxana Sorokina||Irina Metreveli||RIF|
|2009||Pardubice, Czech Republic||Yulia Savrasova||Yao Jinrui||Hu Xi||Yamaguchi|
|2011||Huskvarna, Sweden||Kazumi Arai||Irina Metreveli||Anastasja Oborina||Yamaguchi|
|2013||Tallinn, Estonia||Irina Metreveli||Kira Lashko||Olga Kurdina||Yamaguchi|
|2015||Suzdal, Russia||Kira Lashko||Wang Qingqing||Irina Metreveli||Yamaguchi|
|2017||Taipei, Chinese Taipei||Chien Yung-Hsuan||Wang Qingqing||Liu Xun||Soosõrv-8|
Team World Championships
|Title year||Hosting city, country||Gold||Silver||Bronze|
|1996||Saint Petersburg, Russia|| Russia
| Latvia |
|2000||Tallinn, Estonia|| Russia-1
| Japan |
|2002||Vadstena, Sweden|| Russia-1
| Sweden-1 |
|2004||Tyumen, Russia|| Russia-1
| Russia-2 |
|2006||Tallinn, Estonia|| Russia-1
| China |
|2008||Helsinki, Finland|| Estonia
| China |
|2010||Tokyo, Japan|| China
| Japan-1 |
|2012||Beijing, China|| Japan
| China-2 |
|2014||Taipei, Chinese Taipei|| Estonia
| Chinese Taipei-1
| Japan-1 |
|2016||Tallinn, Estonia|| Estonia-1
| Russia-1 |
|2018||Saint Petersburg, Russia|| China
| Russia-2 |
- In this year an Armenia-Sweden match was played instead of Team World Championship. The result is a draw between the two teams, but no champion title was awarded.
Renju World Championships via Correspondence
World Championships in Renju via Correspondence were held in 1982 to 1993 (by paper letters, later by e-mails), and now are played every year since 1996 with an exception in 2009, 2010 and 2016. Since 2014 the opening rule being played is Soosõrv-N.
The results from 1982 to 1993 are in the following.
|1982||Vladimir Sapronov||Soviet Union|
|1984||Alexandr Nosovsky||Soviet Union|
|1985||Alexandr Nosovsky||Soviet Union|
|1991||Albert Poghosyan||Soviet Union|
The results since 1996 are in the following.
|1996||Aldis Reims||Linas Laibinis||Igor Sinyov|
|1997||Yuriy Tarannikov||Aldis Reims||Stefan Karlsson|
|1998||Oleg Fedorkin||Aldis Reims||Kazuto Hasegawa|
|1999||Oleg Fedorkin||Alexander Nosovsky||Konstantin Nikonov|
|2000||Aldis Reims||Evgeniy Bobkov||Konstantin Nikonov|
|2001||Konstantin Nikonov||Zhang Jinyu||Vitaly Lunkin|
|2002||Vitaly Lunkin||Zhang Jinyu||Vladimir Dvoeglazov|
|2003||Chen Wei||Sergey Filippov||Oleg Klimachev|
|2004||Sun Chengmin||Alexey Potapov||Chen Wei|
|2005||Victor Barykin||Zhang Jinyu||Lu Wenzhe|
|2006||No gold awarded||Dmitry Epifanov||Victor Barykin|
|2007||Dmitry Epifanov||Zhang Jinyu||Anatoly Ustimov|
|2008||Zhang Jinyu||Jelena Balanova||Alexey Potapov|
|2011||Jelena Balanova||Aivo Oll||Alexey Potapov|
|2012||Alexey Potapov||Jelena Balanova||Aivo Oll|
|2013||Vladimir Sushkov||Alexey Potapov||Viktor Balabhai|
|2014||Vladimir Sushkov||Evgeniy Bobkov||Oleg Fedorkin|
|2015||Konstantin Nikonov||Oleg Fedorkin||Pavel Makarov|
|2017||Hao Tianyi||Qi Bo||Dmitry Epifanov|
Computers and Renju
The Renju World Computer Championship was started in 1991, and held for 4 times until 2004. From 2016, Renju was added to the Gomocup tournament, taking place every year, still active now.
The first program playing with human players in public competitions is Meijin-2000 developed by Oleg Stepanov, Russia. In 2000, Meijin-2000 played against human players in Moscow Open Tournament. However, not until 2017 were the computer programs proved to be able to outperform top human players in public competitions. In 2017, there was a match between the world champion program Yixin and the Taiwan's Meijin title holder Lin Shu-Hsuan, and Yixin won the match with 3-1.
- "The Protocol of General Assembly 2003". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "The Protocol of Extra General Assembly 2008". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "The International Rules of Renju". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "The Renju International Federation". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "World Championship". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "Women World Championship". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-08-12.
- "Team World Championship". Renju.Net. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "Results of the Renju World Championship Via Correspondence-2015". renju.net. 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
- "Results of the Renju World Championship via Correspondence - 2017". renju.net. 2018-03-15. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
- J. Wágner and I. Virág (Mar 2001). "Solving Renju" (PDF). ICGA journal. 24 (1): 30—35.
- "Renju Computer World Championship". www.5stone.net. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "4-th World Championship among Computer programs". Nosovsky Japanese Games Home Page. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
- "Gomocup 2016 Announcement". Gomocup.
- "Renju Newsletter Januari 2000 - June 2000". renju.net.
- "Yixin, the Strongest Gomoku/Renju Engine in the World". AIEXP.
- "Lin Shu-Hsuan versus Yixin". AIEXP.
- Five-in-a-Row (Renju) For Beginners to Advanced Players ISBN 4-87187-301-3
- SOLVING RENJU by János Wágner and István Virág, ICGA Journal, 2001