Repentance in Judaism
|Repentance in Judaism Teshuva
|Repentance, atonement and
higher ascent in Judaism
|In the Hebrew Bible|
|Altars · Korban
Temple in Jerusalem
Prophecy within the Temple
|Confession · Atonement
Love of God · Awe of God
Meditation · Services
Tzedakah · Mitzvot
|In the Jewish calendar|
|Month of Elul · Selichot
Shofar · Tashlikh
Ten Days of Repentance
Kapparot · Mikveh
Sukkot · Simchat Torah
Ta'anit · Tisha B'Av
Passover · The Omer
|In contemporary Judaism|
|Baal Teshuva movement
Jewish Renewal · Musar movement
According to Gates of Repentance, a standard work of Jewish ethics written by Rabbenu Yonah of Gerona, if someone commits a sin, a forbidden act, he can be forgiven for that sin if he performs teshuva, which includes:
- regretting/acknowledging the sin;
- forsaking the sin (see below);
- worrying about the future consequences of the sin;
- acting and speaking with humility;
- acting in a way opposite to that of the sin (for example, for the sin of lying, one should speak the truth);
- understanding the magnitude of the sin;
- refraining from lesser sins for the purpose of safeguarding oneself against committing greater sins;
- confessing the sin (see below);
- praying for atonement;
- correcting the sin however possible (for example, if one stole an object, the stolen item must be returned or if one slanders another, the slanderer must ask the injured party for forgiveness);
- pursuing works of chesed and truth;
- remembering the sin for the rest of one's life;
- refraining from committing the same sin if the opportunity presents itself again;
- teaching others not to sin.
The High Holidays are times that are especially conducive to teshuva. Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement) is a day of fasting during which judgment for the year is sealed. Therefore, Jews strive their hardest to make certain that they have performed teshuva before the end of the day.
According to the Talmud, repentance was among the first things God created; even before God created the physical universe (Nedarim 39b). When the Temple in Jerusalem was active, a Jew was required to bring various sacrifices for certain types of sins. Although sacrifices were required, the most essential part was teshuva, the person bringing the sacrifice would confess his sins. Presently, with the Temple destroyed, atonement may nevertheless be granted by doing teshuva.
Viduy (confession) is an integral part of the repentance process. It is not enough to feel remorse and forsake sin, although such feelings are a commendable first step. A penitent must put his or her feelings into words and essentially say, "I did such-and-such and for that, I am sorry." Excuses for and rationalizations of the sin are not accepted at this stage of the repentance process. The verbal confession need not necessarily be a confession to another person; confessing alone may allow the penitent to be more honest with him- or herself.
Viduy is slightly different for sins committed against God or one's self than they are for sins committed against another human. Abraham Joshua Heschel once wrote, "According to Jewish tradition, even God Himself can only forgive sins committed against Himself, not against man." True repentance requires the penitent to approach the aggrieved party and correct the sin however possible. The Jewish concept of repentance is not simply the renouncement of sin in general, but rather in the specific sin done against a specific person or group of people. Only then must one go through the introspective processes described above.
Forsaking the sin
The second principle in Rabbenu Yonah's "Principles of Repentance" is forsaking the sin (Hebrew: עזיבת–החטא, azivat-hachet). After regretting the sin (Jonah's first principle), the penitent must resolve never to repeat the sin. However, Judaism recognizes that the process of repentance varies from penitent to penitent and from sin to sin. For example, a non-habitual sinner often feels the sting of the sin more acutely than the habitual sinner. Therefore, a non-habitual sinner will have an easier time repenting, because he or she will be less likely to repeat the sinful behavior.
The case of the habitual sinner is more complex. If the habitual sinner regrets his or her sin at all, that regret alone clearly does not translate into a change in behavior. In such a case, Rabbi Nosson Scherman recommends devising "a personal system of reward and punishment" and to avoid circumstances which may cause temptation toward the sin being repented for. The Talmud teaches, "Who is the penitent whose repentance ascends until the Throne of Glory? — one who is tested and emerges guiltless" (Yoma 86b).
Being or becoming a Jewish penitent (or returnee), is known as a Baal teshuva (Hebrew: בעל תשובה; for a woman: בעלת תשובה, baalat teshuva; plural: בעלי תשובה, baalei teshuva) the Hebrew term referring to a person who has repented. Baal teshuva literally means "master of repentance or return (to Judaism)". The term has historically referred to a Jew who had not kept Jewish practices, and completed a process of introspection and thus returned to Judaism and morality. In Israel, another term is used, hozer beteshuva (חוזר בתשובה), literally "returning in repentance". Also, Jews who adopt religion later in life are known "baalei teshuva" or "hozerim beteshuva".
The end of sacrifices
With the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, the Jewish practice of offering korbanot (animal sacrifices) ceased. Despite subsequent intermittent periods of small Jewish groups offering the traditional sacrifices on the Temple Mount, the practice effectively ended.
Jewish religious life was forced to undergo a significant evolution in response to this change; no longer could Judaism revolve round the Temple services. Instead, the destruction of the Temple spurred the development of Judaism in the direction of text study, prayer and further development of the Jewish practice. A range of responses is recorded in classical rabbinic literature, describing this shift in emphasis.
In a number of places the Babylonian Talmud emphasises that following Jewish practice, performing charitable deeds, praying, and studying Torah are greater than performing animal sacrifices and the former can be used to achieve atonement.
- Once, Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai was walking with his disciple, Rabbi Yehoshua, near Jerusalem after the destruction of the Temple. Rabbi Y'hoshua looked at the Temple ruins and said "Alas for us!! The place that atoned for the sins of the people Israel lies in ruins!" Then Rabbi Yohannan ben Zakkai spoke to him these words of comfort: "Be not grieved, my son. There is another equally meritorious way of gaining ritual atonement, even though the Temple is destroyed. We can still gain ritual atonement through deeds of loving-kindness. For it is written 'Lovingkindness I desire, not sacrifice.'" (Hosea 6:6)
- Midrash Avot D'Rabbi Nathan 4:5
- Rabbi Elazar said: Doing righteous deeds of charity is greater than offering all of the sacrifices, as it is written: "Doing charity and justice is more desirable to the Lord than sacrifice" (Proverbs 21:3).
- Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah 49
- Baal teshuva movement
- Baal teshuva
- Orthodox Jewish outreach
- Jewish Ethics
- Seven Laws of Noah
- Tawbah, a similar concept in Islam
- Yonah Ben Avraham of Gerona. Shaarei Teshuva: The Gates of Repentance. Trans. Shraga Silverstein. Jerusalem, Israel: Feldheim Publishers, 1971. Print.
- Scherman, Nosson. "An Overview — Day of Atonement and Purity." An Overview. The Complete ArtScroll Machzor: Yom Kippur. By Scherman. Trans. Scherman. Brooklyn, NY: Mesorah Publications, 2008. XIV-XXII.
- Theological dictionary of the Old Testament: Vol.14 p473 G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry - 2004 "The noun t'suba occurs 4 times in the Dtr History, twice in the Chronicler's History and in Job."
- Jacob J. Petuchowski, "The Concept of 'Teshuva' in the Bible and Talmud", Judaism 17 (1968)
- Soloveitchik, Joseph. On Repentance. 253. qtd. in Telushkin, 159. See also Yonah's Shaarei Teshuva, cited above.
- Telushkin, Joseph. You Shall Be Holy. New York: Bell Tower, 2006. Print. p. 158
- Heschel, Abraham Joshua. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness. Ed. Simon Wiesenthal. N.Y: Schocken, 1997, 164-166.
- Lipstadt, Deborah E. Wiesenthal. The Sunflower. 183-187.
- Yonah, 14-15
- qtd. in Yonah, 65