Representational state transfer

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Representational state transfer (REST) is a software architectural style that was created to guide the design and development of the architecture for the World Wide Web. REST defines a set of constraints for how the architecture of an Internet-scale distributed hypermedia system, such as the Web, should behave. The REST architectural style emphasises the scalability of interactions between components, uniform interfaces, independent deployment of components, and the creation of a layered architecture to facilitate caching components to reduce user-perceived latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.[1] REST has been employed throughout the software industry and is a widely accepted set of guidelines for creating stateless, reliable web services.

Any web service that obeys the REST constraints is informally described as RESTful. Such a web service must provide its Web resources in a textual representation and allow them to be read and modified with a stateless protocol and a predefined set of operations. This approach allows the greatest interoperability between clients and servers in a long-lived Internet-scale environment which crosses organisational (trust) boundaries.

"Web resources" were first defined on the World Wide Web as documents or files identified by their URLs. Today, the definition is much more generic and abstract, and includes every thing, entity, or action that can be identified, named, addressed, handled, or performed in any way on the Web. In a RESTful Web service, requests made to a resource's URI elicit a response with a payload formatted in HTML, XML, JSON, or some other format. For example, the response can confirm that the resource state has been changed. The response can also include hypertext links to related resources. The most common protocol for these requests and responses is HTTP. It provides operations (HTTP methods) such as GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE.[2] By using a stateless protocol and standard operations, RESTful systems aim for fast performance, reliability, and the ability to grow by reusing components that can be managed and updated without affecting the system as a whole, even while it is running.

The goal of REST is to increase performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability. This is achieved through following REST principles such as a client–server architecture, statelessness, cacheability, use of a layered system, support for code on demand, and using a uniform interface. These principles must be followed for the system to be classified as REST.

The term representational state transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation.[1][3] Fielding's dissertation explained the REST principles that were known as the "HTTP object model" beginning in 1994, and were used in designing the HTTP 1.1 and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) standards.[4][5] The term is intended to evoke an image of how a well-designed Web application behaves: it is a network of Web resources (a virtual state-machine) where the user progresses through the application by selecting resource identifiers such as http://www.example.com/articles/21 and resource operations such as GET or POST (application state transitions), resulting in the next resource's representation (the next application state) being transferred to the end user for their use.

History[edit]

Roy Fielding speaking at OSCON 2008

The Web began to enter everyday use in 1993-4, when websites for general use started to become available.[6] At the time, there was only a fragmented description of the Web’s architecture and there was pressure in the industry to agree on some standard for the Web interface protocols. For instance, several experimental extensions had been added to the communication protocol (HTTP) to support proxies, and more extensions were being proposed, but there was a need for a formal Web architecture with which to evaluate the impact of these changes.[7]

Together the W3C, and IETF working groups, started work on creating formal descriptions of the Web’s three primary standards: URI, HTTP, and HTML. Roy Fielding was involved in the creation of these standards (specifically HTTP 1.0 and 1.1, and URI), and during the next six years he developed the REST architectural style, testing its constraints on the Web’s protocol standards and using it as a means to define architectural improvements — and to identify architectural mismatches. Fielding defined REST in his 2000 PhD dissertation "Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures" at UC Irvine.

Architectural properties[edit]

The constraints of the REST architectural style affect the following architectural properties:[1][8]

  • performance in component interactions, which can be the dominant factor in user-perceived performance and network efficiency;[9]
  • scalability allowing the support of large numbers of components and interactions among components. Roy Fielding describes REST's effect on scalability as follows:
  • simplicity of a uniform interface;
  • modifiability of components to meet changing needs (even while the application is running);
  • visibility of communication between components by service agents;
  • portability of components by moving program code with the data;
  • reliability in the resistance to failure at the system level in the presence of failures within components, connectors, or data.[9]

Architectural constraints[edit]

Six guiding constraints define a RESTful system.[8][10] These constraints restrict the ways that the server can process and respond to client requests so that, by operating within these constraints, the system gains desirable non-functional properties, such as performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability.[1] If a system violates any of the required constraints, it cannot be considered RESTful.

The formal REST constraints are as follows:

Client–server architecture[edit]

Statelessness[edit]

In computing, a stateless protocol is a communications protocol in which no session information is retained by the receiver, usually a server. Relevant session data is sent to the receiver by the client in such a way that every packet of information transferred can be understood in isolation, without context information from previous packets in the session. This property of stateless protocols makes them ideal in high volume applications, increasing performance by removing server load caused by retention of session information.

Cacheability[edit]

As on the World Wide Web, clients and intermediaries can cache responses. Responses must, implicitly or explicitly, define themselves as either cacheable or non-cacheable to prevent clients from providing stale or inappropriate data in response to further requests. Well-managed caching partially or completely eliminates some client–server interactions, further improving scalability and performance.

Layered system[edit]

A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server or to an intermediary along the way. If a proxy or load balancer is placed between the client and server, it won't affect their communications, and there won't be a need to update the client or server code. Intermediary servers can improve system scalability by enabling load balancing and by providing shared caches. Also, security can be added as a layer on top of the web services, separating business logic from security logic.[11] Adding security as a separate layer enforces security policies. Finally, intermediary servers can call multiple other servers to generate a response to the client.

Code on demand (optional)[edit]

Servers can temporarily extend or customize the functionality of a client by transferring executable code: for example, compiled components such as Java applets, or client-side scripts such as JavaScript.

Uniform interface[edit]

The uniform interface constraint is fundamental to the design of any RESTful system.[1] It simplifies and decouples the architecture, which enables each part to evolve independently. The four constraints for this uniform interface are:

  • Resource identification in requests - Individual resources are identified in requests, for example using URIs in RESTful Web services. The resources themselves are conceptually separate from the representations that are returned to the client. For example, the server could send data from its database as HTML, XML or as JSON—none of which are the server's internal representation.
  • Resource manipulation through representations - When a client holds a representation of a resource, including any metadata attached, it has enough information to modify or delete the resource's state.
  • Self-descriptive messages - Each message includes enough information to describe how to process the message. For example, which parser to invoke can be specified by a media type.[1]
  • Hypermedia as the engine of application state (HATEOAS) - Having accessed an initial URI for the REST application—analogous to a human Web user accessing the home page of a website—a REST client should then be able to use server-provided links dynamically to discover all the available resources it needs. As access proceeds, the server responds with text that includes hyperlinks to other resources that are currently available. There is no need for the client to be hard-coded with information regarding the structure or dynamics of the application.[12]

Classification models[edit]

Several models have been developed to help classify REST APIs according to their adherence to various principles of REST design, such as the Richardson Maturity Model.[13]

Applied to web services[edit]

Web service APIs that adhere to the REST architectural constraints are called RESTful APIs.[14] HTTP-based RESTful APIs are defined with the following aspects:[15]

  • a base URI, such as http://api.example.com/;
  • standard HTTP methods (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE);
  • a media type that defines state transition data elements (e.g., Atom, microformats, application/vnd.collection+json,[15]:91–99 etc.). The current representation tells the client how to compose requests for transitions to all the next available application states. This could be as simple as a URI or as complex as a Java applet.[16]

Semantics of HTTP methods[edit]

The following table shows how HTTP methods are intended to be used in HTTP APIs, including RESTful ones.

Semantics of HTTP methods
HTTP method Description
GET[2]:§4.3.1 Get a representation of the target resource’s state.
POST[2]:§4.3.3 Let the target resource process the representation enclosed in the request.
PUT[2]:§4.3.4 Create or replace the state of the target resource with the state defined by the representation enclosed in the request.
DELETE[2]:§4.3.5 Delete the target resource’s state.

The GET method is safe, meaning that applying it to a resource does not result in a state change of the resource (read-only semantics).[2]:§4.2.1 The GET, PUT, and DELETE methods are idempotent, meaning that applying them multiple times to a resource results in the same state change of the resource as applying them once, though the response might differ.[2]:§4.2.2 The GET and POST methods are cacheable, meaning that responses to them are allowed to be stored for future reuse.[2]:§4.2.3

Comparison with CRUD[edit]

The GET (read), PUT (create and update), and DELETE (delete) methods are CRUD operations as they have storage management semantics, meaning that they let user agents directly manipulate the states of target resources. The POST method is not a CRUD operation but a process operation that has target-resource-specific semantics excluding storage management semantics, so it does not let user agents directly manipulate the states of target resources.[citation needed][original research?]

Discussion[edit]

Unlike SOAP-based web services, there is no "official" standard for RESTful web APIs. This is because REST is an architectural style, while SOAP is a protocol. REST is not a standard in itself, but RESTful implementations make use of standards, such as HTTP, URI, JSON, and XML. Many developers describe their APIs as being RESTful, even though these APIs do not fulfill all of the architectural constraints described above (especially the uniform interface constraint).[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000). "Chapter 5: Representational State Transfer (REST)". Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures (Ph.D.). University of California, Irvine. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, the generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Fielding, Roy (June 2014). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content, Section 4". IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). RFC 7231. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  3. ^ "Fielding discussing the definition of the REST term". groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  4. ^ Fielding, Roy; Gettys, Jim; Mogul, Jeffrey; Frystyk, Henrik; Masinter, Larry; Leach, Paul; Berners-Lee, Tim (June 1999). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1". IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). RFC 2616. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  5. ^ Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000). "Chapter 6: Experience and Evaluation". Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures (Ph.D.). University of California, Irvine. Since 1994, the REST architectural style has been used to guide the design and development of the architecture for the modern Web. This chapter describes the experience and lessons learned from applying REST while authoring the Internet standards for the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), the two specifications that define the generic interface used by all component interactions on the Web, as well as from the deployment of these technologies in the form of the libwww-perl client library, the Apache HTTP Server Project, and other implementations of the protocol standards.
  6. ^ Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780745639208.
  7. ^ Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000). "Chapter 6: Experience and Evaluation". Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures (Ph.D.). University of California, Irvine.
  8. ^ a b Erl, Thomas; Carlyle, Benjamin; Pautasso, Cesare; Balasubramanian, Raj (2012). "5.1". SOA with REST: Principles, Patterns & Constraints for Building Enterprise Solutions with REST. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-701251-0.
  9. ^ a b Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000). "Chapter 2: Network-based Application Architectures". Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures (Ph.D.). University of California, Irvine.
  10. ^ Richardson, Leonard; Ruby, Sam (2007). RESTful Web Services. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-596-52926-0.
  11. ^ Lange, Kenneth (2016). The Little Book on REST Services. Copenhagen. p. 19. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  12. ^ "REST HATEOAS". RESTfulAPI.net. 2 June 2018.
  13. ^ Ivan Salvadori, Frank Siqueira (June 2015). "A Maturity Model for Semantic RESTful Web APIs". Conference: Web Services (ICWS), 2015 IEEE International Conference OnAt: New York - USA – via Researchgate.
  14. ^ "What is REST API". RESTful API Tutorial. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  15. ^ a b Richardson, Leonard; Amundsen, Mike (2013), RESTful Web APIs, O'Reilly Media, ISBN 978-1-449-35806-8
  16. ^ a b Roy T. Fielding (2008-10-20). "REST APIs must be hypertext driven". roy.gbiv.com. Retrieved 2016-07-06.

Further reading[edit]