Republic of China Air Force

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Not to be confused with People's Liberation Army Air Force of the People's Republic of China.
Republic of China Air Force
中華民國空軍
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Kōngjūn
Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) Logo.svg
Republic of China Air Force emblem
Active 1920–present
Country  Republic of China
Size 508 aircraft
Part of Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of China
Commanders
Commander-General ROCAF General's Flag.svg General Shen Yi-ming (沈一鳴)[1]
Insignia
Roundel Republic of China National Emblem.svg
Low Visibility Roundel Republic of China Roundel (Low Visibility) 3.svg
Aircraft flown
Electronic
warfare
E-2T/C, C-130HE
Fighter F-16A/B Block 20, Mirage-2000-5Di/Ei, F-CK-1A/B/C/D, F-5E/F
Helicopter S-70C-1/1A, S-70C-6
Reconnaissance RF-5E, RF-16
Trainer AT-3B, T-34
Transport C-130H, Fokker 50, Beechcraft B-1900C, Boeing 737-800
ROC Air Force Commander-General Liu Chen-wu
ROCAF F-16 takes off from Chiayi Airbase in Southern Taiwan. These jets patrol the boundary in the strait across from China.
ROCAF pilots of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing plan their day's mission, 2011.

The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF; Chinese: 中華民國空軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Kōngjūn) is the aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. The ROCAF's primary mission is the defense of the airspace over and around Taiwan. Priorities of the ROCAF include the development of long range reconnaissance and surveillance networks, integrating C4ISTAR systems to increase battle effectiveness, procuring counterstrike weapons, next generation fighters, and hardening airfields and other facilities to survive a surprise attack.

In May 2005, the Ministry of National Defense indicated its intention to transfer command of all defensive missile systems to the ROCAF, while future offensive missiles would be placed under a newly formed missile command. As of 2006, all medium and long range SAM units were transferred from ROC Army's Missile Command to ROCAF, while ROCAF's airbase security units were transferred to ROC Army Military Police. But it's revealed in January 2011, 5 years of problems of integrating those long range ex-ROC Army SAM units into ROCAF has forced ROCAF high command to return those units back to ROC Army's Missile Command. Missile Command is now directly under Defense Ministry's GHQ control.

In July 2010, former United States Air Force deputy under secretary for international affairs, Bruce Lemkin said that Taiwan's ability to defend its airspace had degraded due to its aging fighters and that the sale of new fighter aircraft to Taiwan was an urgent priority.[2] On 21 September 2011, it was announced that the US had agreed to a US$5 billion upgrade to the F-16s.[3] In 2012 Rob Nabors wrote that the United States was considering the sale of fighter aircraft to the ROC.[4]

Organization[edit]

Air Force General Headquarters in Zhongshan District, Taipei

Like most of the other branches of the ROC armed forces, much of the ROCAF's structure and organization is patterned after the United States Air Force. Like the USAF, the ROCAF used to have a wing → group → squadron structure. After November 2004, tactical fighter wing switch to wing → Tactical Fighter Group, with some fighter squadrons stood down, with each tactical fighter group, still pretty much the same size as a squadron, now commanded by a full Colonel.

Republic of China Air Force Command Headquarters (中華民國國防部空軍司令部)[edit]

Air Force GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff (military), the Minister of National Defense (civilian) and the President.
  • Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics & Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
  • Air Force Combatant Command (空軍作戰指揮部)
  • Weather Wing (氣象聯隊): Tamsui, New Taipei City
  • Communications, Air Traffic Control & Information Wing (通信航管資訊聯隊): Taipei City
  • Air Tactical Control Wing (戰術管制聯隊)
  • Ground fixed and mobile long-range air search radar sites, consist of various TPS-117, TPS-75V, FPS-117, GE-592 and HADR radars, plus 1 PAVE PAWS (Phased Array Warning System) early warning radar site in northern Taiwan, will enter service late 2012.
  • Air Defense Artillery Command (防空砲兵指揮部)
  • 4 Air Defense Missile & Artillery brigades, 951st (Taipei), 952nd (Taichung), 953rd (Kaoshung), 954th (Hualien)
  • 4 Air Defense Missile I-HAWK battalions, 621st, 622nd, 662nd, and 664th battalions, with Phase III and 7 Phase I batteries.
  • 1 TK-1/2 Air Defense Missile battalion, 951st Brigade, 611st battalion with 6 companies/batteries.
  • 1 Patriot PAC-2+ GEM/PAC-3 Air Defense/Anti-Ballistic Missile battalion, with 3 mixed companies/batteries that are all upgrading to PAC-3 standard, with 7 more PAC 3 companies/batteries on order.
  • 1 Skyguard Short Range Airbase Air Defense battalion, with 6 companies/batteries and radar sub units with OTO 35mm AAA, s
  • 2 Antelope Short Range Airbase Air Defense battalions, with unknown companies/batteries.
  • At least 2 AAA Air Defense Artillery battalions, with 40mm/L60 and 12.7mm AAA guns.
  • Air Defense Artillery Training Center (國軍防空砲兵訓練中心): Pingtung
    • Target Service Squadron
    • Education Service Support Company
    • First training company
    • Second training company
    • Third training company
  • Education, Training & Doctrine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展

History[edit]

Martyred air force hero during the Second Sino-Japanese War/WWII, ace fighter pilot Colonel Kao Chih-Hang

Formally established in 1920 as the Aviation Ministry, the ROCAF was active during the tenure of the ROC on Mainland China. In this period, various airplanes were purchased and deployed by warlords in their struggle for power until nominal Chinese reunification in 1928. In February 1932, US Reserve Lt. Robert McCawley Short, who was transporting armed Chinese aircraft, shot down an IJN aircraft on February 19, 1932 and downed another on February 22 before he was killed (he was posthumously raised to the rank of Colonel in the Chinese Air Service).

During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), the ROCAF participated in attacks on Japanese warships on the eastern front and along the Yangtze river including support for the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. The Chinese frontline fighter aircraft initially were mainly the Curtiss Hawk II and III and the Boeing P-26 model 281, and engaged Japanese fighters in many major air battles beginning on August 14, 1937, when Imperial Japanese Navy warplanes raided Chienchiao airbase; "814" has thus become known as "Air Force Day". Chinese Boeing P-26/281 fighters engaged Japanese Mitsubishi A5M fighters in what is among the world's first aerial dogfighting between all-metal monoplane fighter aircraft. A unique mission in April 1938 saw two Chinese B-10 bombers fly a mission over Japan, but dropping only propaganda leaflets over the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Saga. It was a war of attrition for the Chinese pilots, as many of their most experienced ace fighter pilots, such as Lieutenant Liu Tsui-Kang and Colonel Kao Chih-Hang were lost early in the war.

In the latter-half of the Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, the ROCAF was augmented by a volunteer group of American pilots (the Flying Tigers) in 1941.[5] Throughout the war, the ROCAF was involved in attacks on Japanese air and ground forces in the Chinese theatre.

ROCAF General HQ was established in June 1946. From 1946 to 1948, during the Chinese Civil War, the ROCAF participated in combat against the People's Liberation Army engaging in air-to-air combat on at least eleven occasions in the areas surrounding the Taiwan Strait. The ROCAF reportedly enjoyed a 31:1 kill ratio against the PLA. GHQ was evacuated to Taiwan along with the rest of the ROC Government in April 1949 following the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. The ROCAF assisted in halting the PLA advance at the Battle of Kuningtou on Kinmen the same year.

The ROCAF regularly patrolled the Taiwan Straits and fought many engagements with its Communist counterpart (the PLAAF). The ROCAF received second hand equipment from the US at that time, such as the F-86 Sabrejets, F-100 and F-104.

During the Cold War, the ROCAF was involved in combat air patrols over the Taiwan Strait and engaged the PLAAF and PLAN-AF on several occasions. The ROCAF was also the testbed of American technology at this time. The first successful kill scored by an air-to-air missile was accomplished by an ROCAF F-86 Sabrejet with then experimental AIM-9 Sidewinder. ROCAF pilots also flew U-2 recon overflights of the PRC during this time with assistance from the USAF. Known as the Black Cat Squadron they flew a total of 220 missions, with 102 missions over mainland China, losing 5 planes. All five were shot down by SA-2 surface-to-air missiles, the same type of surface-to-air missile that shot down Gary Powers over the USSR in 1960. The 34th "Black Bat Squadron" flew low level missions into China as part of its mapping PRC growing air defense networks, conducting ESM and ECM missions, inserting agents behind enemy lines, and air drop resupply missions.

Since November 1967, the ROC secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the US and the ROV. It was based on existing formation of the 34th squadron of ROC Air force. The unit's strength included two cargo aircraft, seven flight officers and two mechanics, even though a higher number of military personnel was involved through rotation. It was tasked with air transportation, airdrop and electronic reconnaissance. Some 25 members of the unit were killed, among them 17 pilots and co-pilots, and three aircraft were lost. Other ROC involvement in Vietnam included a secret listening station, special reconnaissance and raiding squads, military advisers and civilian airline operations (which cost a further two aircraft due to Vietnamese individually operated AA missiles).[1]

Humanitarian operations[edit]

The ROCAF has also taken part in numerous humanitarian operations. Some of the more major ones include the following:

Equipment and procurement[edit]

Retired ROCAF aircraft on permanent display at the ROC airforce academy
IDF F-CK-1B Display in Chiayi AFB
F-16B Block20 perform takeoff, landing maneuvers on freeway during the Han Kuang Exercise.
A EC225 on display at the Hsinchu Air Base open house

Current ROCAF inventory includes over 400 combat aircraft, the mainstays being the AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo IDF (Indigenous Defense Fighter) and F-16 while the Mirage 2000-5 provides the most formidable air-defense capabilities. Older F-5 fighters are gradually being phased out but remain in service.

The United States serves as the ROCAF's main supplier of equipment and also provides training for ROCAF and ROC Navy pilots at Luke AFB in Arizona. This base which is between Phoenix and Tucson has an instrumented flight area for training approximately the size of the State of Connecticut. German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and German Naval Aviation (Marineflieger) who used to train at Luke AFB from 1957-1983 now train at NATO facilities at CFB Goose Bay in Canada and also alongside the USAF at Holloman AFB in New Mexico.

Domestic development[edit]

Prior to 1984, ROCAF fighters were almost exclusively American-made aircraft sold under terms of a mutual defense treaty between the Republic of China and the United States. Development of the F-CK-1 Ching-kuo Indigenous Defense Fighter (IDF) began in 1984 due to U.S. refusal to sell F-16s to the ROCAF as a result of changes in national policy between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China. After a successful maiden flight in 1989, the domestically produced fighter entered service in 1994. However, the ROCAF was subsequently able to obtain F-16s from the United States as well as Mirage 2000-5 fighters from France, resulting in delays to later IDF development that had been anticipated.

In response to American refusals to supply "smart bombs", Taiwan is developing their own equivalent of the Joint Direct Attack Munition for attacks against the PRC mainland in case of invasion preparations.[12]

Foreign procurement[edit]

In January 2006, the ROCAF announced interest in procuring planes with VSTOL capability, especially the F-35. The ROCAF also sought next-generation upgrades to its current F-16s and Mirage 2000-5s and, in mid-2006, announced plans to buy 66 F-16 C/D Block 52 aircraft from the US for $3.1 billion USD.[13] Later that year, however, the U.S. delayed the purchase; according to sources cited by National Defense Minister Lee Jye, the American stance was that, until a long-stalled arms purchase package consisting of six Patriot Missile Batteries, 12 P-3C Orion anti-submarine aircraft and 8 conventional submarines cleared the legislature, it did not see the ROC as having a consistent military procurement plan.[14]


On February 28, 2007, the US Defense Department approved an order made by the ROC for 218 AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM missiles, as well as 235 AGM-65G2 Maverick missiles, associated launchers and other equipment. The total value of this order was revealed to be $421 million USD.[15]

In June 2007, the Legislative Yuan also approved the upgrade of the existing PAC-2 batteries to PAC-3 standard, and, in November, the Pentagon notified the U.S. Congress of the Patriot upgrade order.[16] On August 10, 2007, a shipment of Harpoon anti-ship missiles, valued at an estimated $125 million, was also authorised by the U.S. Defense Department, including 60 AGM-84L Block II missiles and 50 upgrade kits to bring the ROCAF's existing Harpoons up to Block II, Mark L standard.[17]

On October 3, 2008, arms notifications were sent to Congress concerning, amongst other things, the sale of 330 PAC III missiles, 4 missile batteries, radar sets, ground stations and other equipment valued up to $3.1 billion USD, the upgrade of 4 E-2T aircraft to the Hawkeye 2000 standard and $334 million USD worth of spare parts for the ROCAF's F-16s, IDFs, F-5E/Fs and C-130s.[18] Late in January 2010, ROCAF received the first batch of new TC-2(V) BVR missiles ordered from CSIST, believed to have new radar seeker and improved performance from the original missile which entered service over 10 years ago.[19] The U.S. government also announced 5 notifications to Congress for additional arms sales totaling some $6.39 Billion USD, under which the ROCAF will receive 3 PAC-3 batteries with 26 launchers and 114 PAC-3 missiles.[20] On February 3, 2010, ROCAF also announced at a Singapore Airshow that it had signed a new contract for 3 EC-225 SAR (Search-And-Rescue) helicopters that was awarded to Eurocopter back in December 2009 for $111 million USD, along with options for 17 more EC-225s.[21][22] On November 26, 2011, the 3 EC-225 C-SAR helicopters were loaded on board an An-124 cargo plane and delivered to Chai-yi AB in Taiwan, and should enter service on July 1, 2012.[23]

On August 31, 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCAF's "Medium Transport aircraft" plan to replace 12 B-1900 VIP/transport training aircraft, believed to be 6-8+ Lockheed C-27J, has been put on hold and might be axed, due to lack of budget, but will allocate 20+ million US dollars over next 4 years for quick runway repair.[24] Other items mentioned including increases in runways from 3 to 6 at Eastern Taiwan's 3 airbases, moving 2 I-HAWK batteries to Eastern Taiwan to protect those airbases, which will double to 4 batteries, and others.[25] On November 8, 2011, a second pair of E-2T Hawkeye AEW(s/n 2501 and 2502) were loaded on a ship and sent to the US for upgrade to the E-2C 2000 standard. The first pair of E-2T (s/n 2503 and 2504) were sent to the US in June 2010 and returned to Taiwan on December 18, 2011, and will be return to service by end of the year.[26][27]

On August 15, 2011, the United States again deferred the ROCAF request to purchase 66 new F-16C/Ds but offered a retrofit package for older F-16A/B's.[28] A $5.3 billion upgrade package for ROCAF's existing F-16A/B fighters was announced on 21 September 2011.[25] The upgrade budget was to be spread over 12 years, though the Ministry of Defense indicated that it would try to reduce the period.[29] In November 2011, the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission recommended that new fighters be sold to the ROCAF.[30] Nonetheless, as of 2012, the MND was still haggling with the Pentagon over cost and local industry participation on the upgrade.[31] After denying the RoC Air Force the funds needed to upgrade their jet engines, President Ma Ying-jeou said that he hoped that the upgraded fighters would have on par performance.[32][33] Taiwan is also balking at the cost of the radar upgrade, as it does not want to be the lead customer who pays to develop the upgrade and also because they will be unable to afford both the upgrade and the new fighters, should these be offered.[34] In response to a U.S. vote in the House of Representatives to force the sale of the C/D models, the ROC MND said that the upgrade package offered some superior capabilities over the C/D model aircraft and some defense officials have said that in light of the PRC's increasing capabilities, only the F-35 would be sufficient.[35] In July 2012, Taiwan's Aerospace Industrial Development Corp. and Lockheed Martin announced plans to establish a maintenance and overhaul center to upgrade and maintain the F-16s in place without having to ship them back to the United States.[36] In 2012 a letter of acceptance was agreed on for a US$3.8 billion deal that included the radars, electronic warfare, structural improvements and new weapons.[37][38] The high cost of the fighter upgrade is causing other modernization priorities such as tanks to be pushed back.[39] A Pentagon report has corroborated that claim, asserting that the PRC would probably seek to destroy ROCAF airfields in the first stages of any attack, making a STOVL fighter such as the F-35B vital for effective defense.[40]

Taiwan's 144 craft F-16 A/B fleet is currently being upgraded to the F-16V variant by Lockheed Martin in an upgrade program worth 1.85 billion USD. The F-16V is equipped with the Northrop Grumman Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR) and has enhanced mission computers, vehicle systems, aircraft structure, cockpit and electronic warfare systems.[41]

Aircraft[edit]

Current inventory[edit]

A ROCAF Dassault Mirage 2000-5Ei on the taxi way
A S-70C-1A Bluehawk fly over at the Hsinchu Air Base open house
AIDC AT-3 at the open house on Hsinchu Air Base
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
F-16  United States multirole F-16A 116[42] being upgraded to the F-16V with the AN/APG-83 radar[43]
F-5  United States fighter F-5E/RF-5E 23[42] 7 airframes were upgraded to the RF-5E
F-CK-1  Taiwan fighter F-CK-1A/C 102[42]
Mirage 2000  France multirole 2000-5EI 47[42]
AEW
E-2 Hawkeye  United States early warning and control E-2K 6[42]
Electronic Warfare
C-130 Hercules  United States ELINT C-130HE[44] 1[42]
Maritime Patrol
P-3  United States ASW-maritime patrol P-3C 4[42]
S-2  United States maritime patrol S-2T[44] 11[42]
Reconnaissance
Beech 1900  United States surveillance / reconnaissance 2[42] also provides multi engine training
Transport
Boeing 737  United States VIP 1[44]
Fokker 50  Netherlands VIP 1[44]
C-130 Hercules  United States transport C-130H 19[42]
Helicopters
EC225  France SAR / utility 3[42]
S-70  United States SAR / utility S-70C-1A 13[42]
Trainer Aircraft
AIDC AT-3  Taiwan jet trainer 50[42]
F-5  United States conversion trainer F-5F 25[42]
F-16  United States conversion trainer F-16B 28[42]
F-CK-1  Taiwan conversion trainer F-CK-1B/D 102[42]
Mirage 2000  France conversion trainer 2000-5DI 9[42]
T-34  United States basic trainer 37[42]

Armament[edit]

AIM-120A AMRAAM
Illustration of an AGM -65 Maverick
Name Origin Type Notes
Air-to-air missile
AIM-120C AMRAAM  United States beyond-visual-range missile 218 missiles obtained in 2007[45]
AIM-7 Sparrow  United States medium-range, semi-active radar 1,200 AIM-7M’s obtained[45]
MBDA MICA  France medium-range, semi-active radar 960 missiles obtained[45]
AIM-9 Sidewinder  United States short-range IR guided (200) AIM-9B’s - (2,216) 9J/P's - (1092) 9L/M’s[45]
Magic II  France short-range IR guided 480 missiles obtained[45]
Air-to-surface missile
AGM-65 Maverick  United States air-to-surface missile (500) AGM-65’s – (40) 65G’s – (235) 65G2’s[45]
Anti-ship missile
AGM-84 Harpoon  United States anti-ship missile (183) AGM-84’s – (60) 84L’s[45]

Air Defense[edit]

Taiwan has aquried the Patriot missile systems like this one
Name Origin Type In service Notes
SAM
Patriot (PAC-2)  United States SAM system 3[45] receiving upgrade to PAC-3 (7 on order)[46]
Sky Bow  Taiwan SAM system 6 Sky Bow I missiles phased out by 2015, Sky Bow III missiles to be introduced
MIM-23 HAWK  United States SAM system 19[45] to be phased out between 2015 and 2017 by Sky Bow system.[47]
Anti-aircraft artillery
Skyguard   Switzerland towed anti-aircraft gun 24 twin gun, 35mm rounds

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201501300029.aspx
  2. ^ INTERVIEW - Taiwan overdue for F-16 jets, ex U.S. official say
  3. ^ US confirms $5bn Taiwan F-16 fighter jet upgrade. BBC News, 21 September 2011, retrieved 21 September 2011.
  4. ^ "US raises hope of sale of new fighter jets to Taiwan." AP, April 28, 2012.
  5. ^ Rossi, J.R. "History: The Flying Tigers - American Volunteer Group - Chinese Air Force". 
  6. ^ http://news.asiaone.com/news/asia/taiwan-c-130-aircraft-deliver-relief-supplies-philippines
  7. ^ Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
  8. ^ http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/foreign-affairs/2010/02/01/243104/Air-Force.htm
  9. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/14/haiti.updates/
  10. ^ http://news.asiaone.com/news/asia/taiwan-c-130-aircraft-deliver-relief-supplies-philippines
  11. ^ http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2013/11/13/2003576748
  12. ^ "Taiwan develops ‘smart’ munitions against China: report". www.defensenews.com. Agence France-Presse. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "US official confirms that Taipei requested fighters". Taipei Times. 2006-07-29. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  14. ^ "Defense ministry says Bush is blocking F-16 sales". Taipei Times. 2006-10-03. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  15. ^ "US missile deal to boost Taiwan defense". The Standard. 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  16. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States - PATRIOT Configuration 2 Ground Systems Upgrade" (PDF). Defense News. 2007-11-09. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  17. ^ "US Congress notified of possible sale of missiles". Taipei Times. 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  18. ^ "Taiwan supporters laud weapons sale". Taipei Times. 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  19. ^ "ROCAF showing newly received TC-2 missiles". The Liberty Times. 2020. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ "USDA New Release". dsca.mil. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  21. ^ Branigan, Tania (2010-02-05). "Taiwanese military orders German helicopters". London: The Guardian newspaper. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  22. ^ "Eurocopter Sale to Taiwan - Contract Detail Document". taiwanmilitary.org. 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  23. ^ "EC-225 C-SAR Helo, New Military Search And Rescue Power". news.sina.com.tw. 2011-11-26. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  24. ^ "Next Year Defense Budget Believed To Be Lowest In 5 Years". United Daily newspaper. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  25. ^ a b "Defending Against Second Wave Missile Attack, Quickly Fix Runways, Camouflages With Decoys". China Times. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  26. ^ "ROCAF AEW Aircraft Loaded On Ship This Morning To Send To US For Upgrades". China Times. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2011-11-08. 
  27. ^ "ROCAF AEW Hawkeye 3 project ADW Aircraft Returned, Performances Vastly Upgraded". Military News Agency. 2011-12-18. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  28. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States - Retrofit of F-16A/B Aircraft". DSCA. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2011-09-23. 
  29. ^ Liu, Nancy. "F-16 A/B upgrade budget to be spread over 12 years: MND." ROC Central News Agency, 22 September 2011.
  30. ^ Weisgerber, Marcus. "U.S. Report Recommends New Fighters for Taiwan." Defense News, 16 November 2011.
  31. ^ "Taiwan still in talks with U.S. on F-16 upgrade details: MND." CNA, 7 February 2012.
  32. ^ Cole, Michael J. "Taipei cuts budget for F-16 upgrades." Taipei Times, 10 February 2012.
  33. ^ "Taiwan hopes upgraded fighters will be on par with F-16C/Ds." ROC Central News Agency, 14 May 2012.
  34. ^ Minnick, Wendell. "Taiwan Might Delay F-16 Upgrade." Defense News, May 5, 2012.
  35. ^ Hou, Elaine. "F-35 fighters best suit Taiwan's air defense needs: official." CNA, 29 May 2012.
  36. ^ "Taiwan, U.S. companies ink MOU on F-16 upgrades." ROC Central News Agency, 12 July 2012.
  37. ^ Hou, Elaine. "Taiwan signs F-16 A/Bs upgrade deal with U.S." ROC Central News Agency, 16 July 2012.
  38. ^ "Taiwan unlikely to acquire F-35 fighters soon: U.S. business council." ROC Central News Agency, 19 July 2012.
  39. ^ "Upgrade of F16 fleet squeezes budgets for other weapons: minister."
  40. ^ Tkacik, John J. Jr. "TKACIK: White House bickering and Taiwan’s F-16s." Wash. Times, 20 September 2011.
  41. ^ "F-16V Radar Integration Clears Way For Taiwan Upgrade". IHS Jane's Defence. Retrieved 2014-12-15. 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "World Air Forces 2015 pg. 30". Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
  43. ^ "F-16V Radar Integration Clears Way For Taiwan Upgrade". IHS Jane's Defence. Retrieved 2014-12-15. 
  44. ^ a b c d Sands, Glenn (2015). "FORCE REPORT: Rep. of China Air Force pg. 53". Key Publishing. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i Trade Registers. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved on 2015-04-10
  46. ^ "First Upgraded PAC-3 Battery Is Based At Nang Kang". Liberty Times. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  47. ^ Taiwan Retires Hawk Missiles - Defensenews.com, 15 September 2014

External links[edit]