Republic of China Army
|Republic of China Army|
The Republic of China Army (ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. An estimated 80% of the ROC Army is located on Taiwan, while the remainder are stationed on the Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, Dongsha and Taiping Islands.
Since the Chinese Civil War, no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, so as the final line of defense against a possible invasion by the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the primary focus is on defense and counterattack against amphibious assault and urban warfare.
The ROC Army's current operational strength includes 3 armies, 5 corps. As of 2005, the Army's 35 brigades include 25 infantry brigades, 5 armoured brigades and 3 mechanized infantry brigades. All infantry brigades stood down and transferred to Reserve Command after 2005.
This update reflects the ROCA order of battle at the conclusion of the Jinjing Restructuring Plan in 2008.
A new type of unit called defense team (守備隊) is being introduced. These are formed by elements of de-activated brigades under each area defense command. The strength of a defense team may vary from one or more reinforced battalions, making it roughly equal to a regiment. The team CO is usually a full colonel.
Republic of China Army Command Headquarters
- The ROC Army CHQ (中華民國國防部陸軍司令部) is headed by a 3-star general and is responsible for overall command of all ROC Army assets. Army GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff (military), the Minister of National Defense (civilian) and the ROC President.
- Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics and Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
- Aviation and Special Forces Command (航空特戰指揮部)
- 601 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
- 602 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
- 603 Air Cavalry Brigade (this is a phantom unit, only exists on paper, no manpower, units, helicopters assigned)
- 101st Reconnaissance Battalion (better known as Sea Dragon Frogman, has a company station in Kinmen, Matsu, 3 in Penghu, and other frontline islands)
- Special Forces Command (特戰指揮部) In charge of 3 training centers
- Army Airborne Training Center (大武營「陸軍空降訓練中心」)
- Army Special Forces Training Center (谷關「陸軍特戰訓練中心」)
- Army Winter and Mountain Training Center (武嶺寒訓中心)
- Special Operation Command
- 862 Special Operation Group (originally 862nd Special Operation Brigade, with 3rd, 4th, and 6th battalion that transferred back from aviation brigades)
- 871 Special Operation Group (units unknown)
- 6th Army Corps (第六軍團指揮部): Northern Taiwan
- Guandu Area Command
- Lanyang Area Command
- 269 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
- 542 Armor Brigade
- 584 Armor Brigade
- 21 Artillery Command
- 53 Engineer Group
- 73 Signals Group
- 33 Chemical Warfare Group
- 8th Army Corps (第八軍團指揮部): Southern Taiwan
- 333 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
- 564 Armor Brigade
- 43 Artillery Command
- 54 Engineer Group
- 75 Signals Group
- 39 Chemical Warfare Group
- 10th Army Corps (第十軍團指揮部): Central Taiwan
- 234 Mechanized Infantry Brigade (will receive CM-32 "Clouded Leopard" wheeled IFV beginning of 2011)
- 586 Armor Brigade
- 58 Artillery Command
- 52 Engineer Group
- 36 Chemical Warfare Group
- 74 Signals Group
- Hualien (花蓮) Defense Team
- Taitung (台東) Area Command
- Kinmen Defense Command (金門防衛指揮部)
- Penghu Defense Command (澎湖防衛指揮部)
- 1 Armored Battalion, 1 Armored Infantry Battalion, 1 Armored Cav Battalion, 1 mixed Artillery Battalion.
- Matsu Defense Command (馬祖防衛指揮部)
- Beigao (北高) Area Command
- Juguang (莒光) Area Command
- Dongyin Area Command (東引地區指揮部)
- Logistics Command (後勤指揮部)
- Education, Training and Doctorine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展指揮部)
- Republic of China Military Academy, Training & Command Schools, Chemical Warfare Corps, Engineering Corps, Arsenal Development.
- Armed Force Reserve Command (後備指揮部)
- 9 active infantry brigades, 24 Reserve brigades (Activated only in time of war)
ROC Army's former Army Missile Command was transferred to ROC Air Force in 2006.
|OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D) & Student officer|
| Republic of China
|No equivalent||No equivalent|
|Full general||General||Lieutenant general||Major general||Colonel||Lieutenant colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||Second lieutenant||Officer cadet|
|Pinyin||Yījí Shàngjiàng||Èrjí Shàngjiàng||Zhōngjiàng||Shaojiàng||Shàngxiào||Zhōngxiào||Shàoxiào||Shàngwèi||Zhōngwèi||Shàowèi|
| Republic of China
|Master sergeant first class
|Master sergeant second class
|Master sergeant third class
|Private first class
|Pinyin||Yīděng Shìguān zhǎng||Èrděng Shìguān zhǎng||Sānděng Shìguān zhǎng||Shàngshi||Zhōngshi||Xiàshi||Shàngděng Bīng||Yīděng Bīng||Èrděng Bīng|
The Republic of China Military Academy trains officers for the army in a four-year program.
The Republic of China Army originated from Chinese National Revolutionary Army, which was founded by Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (KMT) in 1924, when the Whampoa Military Academy was established with Soviet military assistance. Whampoa Military Academy, which was presided by Chiang Kai-shek, was tasked with the objective of training a professional Chinese revolutionary army (革命軍人) to unify China during the Warlord Era . It participated in the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War (during World War II) and the Chinese Civil War before withdrawing with the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949.
After 1949, the ROC Army has participated in combat operations on Kinmen and the Dachen Archipelago against the PLA in the Battle of Kuningtou, and in the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In addition to these major conflicts, ROCA commandos were regularly sent to raid the Fujian and Guangdong coasts. Until the 1970s, the stated mission of the Army was to retake the mainland from the People's Republic of China. Following the lifting of martial law in 1988 and the democratization of the 1990s, the mission of the ROC Army has been shifted to the defense of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu from a PLA invasion.
With the reduction of the size of the ROC armed forces in recent years, the Army has endured the largest number of cutbacks as ROC military doctrine has begun to emphasize the importance of offshore engagement with the Navy and Air Force. Subsequent to this shift in emphasis, the ROC Navy and Air Force have taken precedence over the ROC Army in defense doctrine and weapons procurement. Recent short-term goals in the Army include acquisition and development of joint command and control systems, advanced attack helicopters and armored vehicles, Multiple Launch Rocket System and field air defense systems. The Army is also in the process of transitioning to an all volunteer force.
From the 1990s onwards, the Republic of China Army launched several upgrade programmes to replace out-dated equipment with more advanced weapons, also increasing its emphasis on forces that could be rapidly deployed and were suited for combat in Taiwan's heavily urbanized environment. Orders were placed with the United States for M60A3 Patton tanks, M109A5 "Paladin" howitzers and AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, as well as updating existing equipment.
Along with the other ROC military branches, the ROC Army has extensive experience in the construction and utilization of tunnels and bases gained during the People's Republic of China's bombardments of Kinmen and Matsu during the Cold War and many facilities are rumoured to be located underground in undisclosed locations.
The U.S. Government announced on October 3, 2008 that it plans to sell $6.5 billion worth of arms to Taiwan ending the freeze of arms sales to Taiwan. Amongst other things, the plans include $2.532 billion worth of 30 AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack helicopters with night-vision sensors, radar, 173 Stinger Block I air-to-air missiles and 1000 AGM-114L Hellfire missiles. and 182 Javelin missiles will also be available with 20 Javelin command launchers and is estimated to cost $47 million.
On January 29, 2010, US Government announced 5 notifications to US Congress for arms sales to Taiwan. Of the total 6.392 billion US dollars in the 5 announcements, ROC Army will receive 60 UH-60M and other related things for cost of 3.1 Billion.
In July 2007 it was reported that the ROC Army would request the purchase of 30 AH-64E Apache Guardian attack helicopters from the US in the 2008 defence budget. In October 2015 it was announced that 9 AH-64E had been grounded due to oxidation of components in the helicopters' tail rotor gearboxes and comprehensive safety checks were made on all Apaches. The 2008 defense budget also listed a request for 60 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters as a partial replacement for the UH-1Hs currently in service.
Main battle tanks
As of 2019, the ROC army has 480 M60A3s, 450 CM11s (modified M48 turrets mated to M60 chassis), and 250 CM12s (CM-11 turrets mated to M48 hulls). The design and technology used in the tanks date back to the 1940s and 1950s, including their 105mm rifled gun and utilizing traditional steel armor plating rather than composite materials used in modern armored fighting vehicles. It is expected that majority of the ROC Army’s armored units would continue to be equipped with legacy tanks in upgraded form after the army acquires the newer modern tanks. As of 2015, some CM11 tanks are observed to be upgraded with explosive reactive armor around the turret and hull.
In October 2017, Taiwan announced an upgrade program for 450 M60A3s consisting of replacing the main gun with a new 120 mm weapon, as well as upgrading the ballistics computer, turret hydraulics, and other systems. Testing and evaluation are expected to be completed in 2019 and application of new features to start in 2020. However, in July 2018 the Ministry of National Defense renewed its interest in acquiring Abrams, and had set aside US$990 Million to purchase 108 M1A2s while modernization of existing M60A3s in service continues.
On June 7, 2019, Taiwan’s Ministry of National Defense confirmed that Taiwan has signed a $2 billion dollar weapons deal with the Trump administration, which includes a purchase of 108 M1A2T (M1A2C export variant for Taiwan) Abrams battle tanks. Taiwanese Defense officials intend to use the M1A2T Abrams battle tank to "replace Taiwan’s aging American-made M60A3 battle tanks and the Taiwanese-manufactured M48H CM11 tank". On July 8, 2019, The U.S. State Department has approved the sale to Taiwan of new M1A2T Abrams tanks despite People's Republic of China's (PRC) criticism and protest of the deal. The deal includes 122 M2 Chrysler Mount Machine Guns, 216 M240 machine guns, 14 M88A2 HERCULES vehicles, and 16 M1070A1 Heavy Equipment Transporters. General Dynamics Land Systems will build the tanks at Anniston Army Depot, Alabama, and at Joint Systems Manufacturing Center in Lima, Ohio. The final signing of the Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) is confirmed on December 21, 2019. The tanks are the first sale of new tanks for ROC Army in decades from the US. Surplus M1A1 tanks were previously rejected by previous US administrations, including George W. Bush in 2001. Current ROC tanks are used M60A3 tanks and locally manufactured M48 tanks in which the initial variants are first produced in between the 1950s and 1960s.
Some criticisms were made to these M1 Abrams purchases, some analysts expressed that Taiwan's terrain and some of its bridges and roads are unsuitable for the 60-tonne M1A2. However, Taiwan's current tanks have obsolete 105-millimeter guns that may not be able to penetrate the frontal armor of modern People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Type 96 and Type 99 tanks, which can easily penetrate the Patton’s old-fashioned steel armor with their modern 125-millimeter guns. The M1A2T tank's 120-millimeter gun is capable of destroying PLA tanks without reliance on anti-tank missiles. Moreover, tanks can be used as mobile reserves for counterattacks against PLA beach landings, which was successful during Battle of Guningtou.
CM-32 Yunpao, an 8x8 armoured personnel carrier locally manufactured, will replace ageing M113s and V-150 armoured vehicles. It is a modular vehicle platform capable of accepting various configurations for specific combat requirements. As of 2019, an IFV version of Yunpao armed with Orbital ATK 30mm Mk44 Bushmaster II cannons, CM-34, is planned for production. Production of a version with a 105-mm assault gun, which is modeled on that of the CM-11 Brave Tiger main battle tank, is also scheduled to be completed by 2023.
Long and medium range air defense systems are operated by the Republic of China Air Force with the Army assuming much of the SHORAD mission. The most modern air defense system of the Army is the indigenously developed Antelope.
On June 7, 2019, Taiwan’s Ministry of National Defense confirmed that Taiwan has signed a $2 billion weapons deal with the Trump administration, which includes a purchase of "250 surface-to-air Stinger missile systems." Taiwan's ROC Army already has 2,223 Stinger missile systems.
|M60A3 TTS||United States||Main battle tank||460||Some are transferred to ROCMC|
|CM-11 (M48H)||Republic of China||Main battle tank||450||Assembled in Taiwan 1988–1994. few of them equipped reactive armoured|
|CM-12||Republic of China||Medium tank||100||Modified in Taiwan from M48A3|
|M48A3||Republic of China||Medium tank||50||Received 309 M48A1/A2 in the 1970s, modified in Taiwan to M48A3, |
100 of them upgraded to CM-12 standard
|M41||United States||Light tank
||~100||Total 775, most of them retired and 50 M41D modified in Taiwan.|
|CM-32||Republic of China||Eight-wheeled IFV/
Light armoured vehicle
|~414||In production, first batch of 652, first unit will be 200th MIB in Central Taiwan. |
414 vehicles entering service by 2017–2019
|CM-21||Republic of China||M113 APC variant||1,000+||Various variants produced from 1982 to 2009. CM-21/A1 personnel carrier |
CM-22 mortar carrier for 107mm/120mm mortar
CM-23 mortar carrier for 81mm mortar
CM-24/A1 ammo carrier, can carry either 90 rounds of 155mm or 42 rounds 203mm
CM-25 TOW launcher
CM-26 Command Track
|V-150S||United States||Amphibious APC||300||With Southern Army Group, 298th Mech Inf Brigade|
|AM General Humvee||United States||Light utility vehicle||7,000+ ||Various variants, including to carry local made machine guns and TOW 2A launchers, and others.|
|M3 Amphibious Rig||Germany||Amphibious bridging vehicle||22||With Northern Army Group, 53 Engineering Battalion|
On September 23, 2019, Defense Minister Yen De-fa (嚴德發) confirmed the Republic of China Armed Forces has requested the purchase of M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzers from the United States. The number planned to order is undisclosed but 100 M109A6 artillery is estimated by the media. It is important to note the latest M109 artillery in the series is currently M109A7.
As of 2019, the ROC Army’s current artillery in service consists of M109A2 and M109A5 systems, 8 inch M110A2 self-propelled howitzers and 155mm M114 towed howitzers. These systems have exceeded their service life with the oldest being the M114, which has been in service for 68 years, while the youngest artillery system, the M109A5, has been in service for 21 years. The last artillery system that entered service is the M109A5s, which are ordered in 1996 and taken delivery in 1998.
|M110A2||United States||203mm self-propelled howitzer||60|
|M109A2/A5||United States||155mm self-propelled howitzer||197/28||Some transferred to ROCMC|
|M108||United States||105mm self-propelled howitzer||0||All of them are retired|
|M1||United States||240mm fixed/towed howitzer||30+||Stationed in Kinmen/Quemoy and Matsu|
|M115||United States||203mm towed howitzer||90|
|M59 "Long Tom"||United States||155mm towed howitzer||390|
|M101||United States||105mm towed howitzer||650|
|M712 Copperhead||United States||155mm Laser-guided AP Artillery shell||??|
|RT/LT-2000||Republic of China||117mm, 180mm, or 227mm wheeled MRL||43||57 originally ordered, later reduced to 43|
|Kung Feng VI||Republic of China||117mm or 126mm wheeled MRL||72||24 per Corp|
Helicopters and UAVs
|AH-64E Apache||United States||Attack helicopter||29||30 ordered, one lost to crash|
|AH-1W SuperCobra||United States||Attack helicopter||61|
|Bell OH-58D Kiowa||United States||Light observation helicopter||39||Partially assembled in Taiwan|
|OH-6A Cayuse||United States||Light observation helicopter||??|
|Bell TH-67A Creek||United States||Training helicopter||30|
|CH-47SD Chinook||United States||Heavy transport helicopter||9|
|UH-60M Black Hawk||United States||Utility helicopter||60||60 ordered. Delivery starts mid December 2014 for first 6, |
rest to arrive by in seven batches with full delivery by 2018
|NCSIST Albatross||Republic of China||Medium recon UAV||32||32 as of 2014, at least three lost in crashes.|
|NCSIST Cardinal II||Republic of China||Small recon UAV||30||Hand launched tactical UAV|
|AIM-9 Sidewinder||United States||Air-to-air missile (AAM)||300||AIM-9S. Carry by F-16 or AH-1W|
|AIM-92 Stinger||United States||Air-to-air missile (AAM)||173||Block I, ordered for AH-64D Block III APACHE Longbow Attack Helicopters|
|Sky Sword II (TC-2)||Republic of China||Mid-range SAM/AAM||??||Carry by AIDC F-CK-1 or tracked/wheeled trucks|
|MIM-72/M48 Chaparral||United States||Short-range SAM||40||In service with Southern Army Group only. |
With 646 rounds of MIM-72F and 302 rounds of MIM-72E/G/J
|Antelope air defence system||Republic of China||Short-range SAM||??||Mounts four TC-1L interceptors|
|M-1097 Avenger (AN/TWQ-1)||United States||SPAAG||74||In service with Northern and Central Army Group only, |
came with 1299 Stingers purchased in the same deal
|Dual Mounted Stinger (DMS)||United States||Short-range SAM||116||55 Stinger DMS launchers with 465 RMP rounds, from US Army stockpile and rebuilt/refurbished, sold to Taiwan May 1996 for 80 million. 61 Stinger DMS launchers with 728 rounds, delivered between 1996 and 1998 for 180 million, some transferred to ROCMC|
|FIM-92 Stinger||United States||MANPADS||2,223||250 Stinger Block-1-92 ordered in 2018|
|CS/MPQ-90 Bee Eye||Republic of China||AESA radar||17||Integrated with Avenger and Antelope batteries from 2010 Six on order as of 2019.|
|Hsiung Feng III||Republic of China||Anti-ship missile (AShM)||??||Truck platform|
|Hsiung Feng II||Republic of China||Anti-ship missile (AShM)||??||Truck platform|
|Hellfire AGM-114L||United States||Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM)||1,000||Delivered 2012-2014|
|Hellfire AGM-114K3||United States||Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM)||240||Carried by AH-1W and OH-58D since 1999|
|Hellfire AGM-114C||United States||Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM)||684||Carried by AH-1W and OH-58D|
|BGM-71 TOW-2A/B||United States||Anti-Tank Missile (ATGM)||3,100+ ||163+ launchers, used by ROC Army and ROCMC on HUMVEE, M-113, CM-25, and on AH-1W and OH-58D helicopters. 769 BGM-71F TOW-2B ARF ordered in 2018|
|FGM-148 Javelin||United States||Anti-tank missile (ATGM)||542||60 launchers, 208 missiles ordered in 2017|
|APILAS||France||Anti-Tank Missile (ATM)||1,000||Over 1,000 delivered by 1998|
|M136 (AT4)||Sweden||Rocket-propelled grenade (RPG)||??||Licence-built in US|
|M72 LAW||United States||Rocket-propelled grenade (RPG)||??||Produced locally as the Type 66|
Other surface attack weapons
|Yun Feng||Republic of China||Supersonic cruise missile||~50||Truck platform, twenty improved missiles ordered in 2018.|
|Hsiung Feng IIE||Republic of China||Subsonic cruise missile||Dozens to hundreds||Truck platform|
|Tien Chi||Republic of China||Short-range ballistic missile (SRBM)||15-50||Silo based|
|AGM-114M3 Hellfire||United States||Air-to-surface missile (ASM)||449||Carry by AH-1W or OH-58D or AH-64E, ordered 9/2002|
|Hydra 70||United States||Anti-materiel rocket||??||Carry by AH-64E, AH-1W, or OH-58D. Both imported and domestically produced.|
|K85||Republic of China||Karmin||8.7m rigid inflatable boat||More than 30 purchased, in service with ROCA special forces|
Future weapons and acquisition
CS/MPQ-90 on a truck
- Republic of China Army rank insignia
- Ministry of National Defense (Republic of China)
- Republic of China Armed Forces
- Orders, decorations, and medals of the Republic of China
- Political status of Taiwan
- Santikhiri, a town in Thailand settled by remnants of the 93rd Division
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