Republic of China Army
|Republic of China Army
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn
Flag of the Republic of China Army
|Active||June 16, 1924 – present|
|Country||Republic of China|
|Size||400,000 (1997 est.)
130,000 (2008 est.)
|Part of||Republic of China Armed Forces|
|Garrison/HQ||Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan|
|Colors||Gold & Green|
|March||"Army Anthem" (Chinese: 陸軍軍歌; "Lùjūnjūngē")|
Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
Second Sino-Japanese War
World War II
Battle of Baitag Bogd
Chinese Civil War
Chinese Communist Revolution
Battle of Guningtou
Battle of Nanri Island
Battle of Yijiangshan Islands
|Commander-in-chief||Gen. Chiu Kuo-cheng (邱國正)|
|Deputy Commander-in-chief||Lt. Gen. Pan Chia-yu (潘家宇)|
|Deputy Commander-in-chief||Lt. Gen. Chen Chuan-kuan (陳泉官)|
|Republic of China Army|
The Republic of China Army (ROCA; Chinese: 中華民國陸軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. An estimated 80% of the ROC Army is located on Taiwan, while the remainder are stationed on the smaller islands of Kinmen, Matsu and Penghu.
- 1 Organization
- 2 History
- 3 Equipment
- 4 See also
- 5 References & notes
- 6 External links
The ROC Army's current operational strength includes 3 armies, 5 corps. As of 2005, the Army's 35 brigades include 25 infantry brigades, 5 armoured brigades and 3 mechanized infantry brigades. All infantry brigades stood down and transferred to Reserve Command after 2005.
This update reflects the ROCA order of battle at the conclusion of the Jinjing Restructuring Plan in 2008.
A new type of unit called defense team (守備隊) is being introduced. These are formed by elements of de-activated brigades under each area defense command. The strength of a defense team may vary from one or more reinforced battalions, making it roughly equal to a regiment. The team CO is usually a full colonel.
Republic of China Army Command Headquarters
- The ROC Army CHQ (中華民國國防部陸軍司令部) is headed by a 3-star general and is responsible for overall command of all ROC Army assets. Army GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff (military), the Minister of National Defense (civilian) and the ROC President.
- Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics and Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
- Aviation and Special Forces Command (航空特戰指揮部)
- 601 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
- 602 Air Cavalry Brigade (original special force battalion assigned transferred back to 862nd Brigade)
- 603 Air Cavalry Brigade (this is a phantom unit, only exists on paper, no manpower, units, helicopters assigned)
- 101st Reconnaissance Battalion (better known as Sea Dragon Frogman, has a company station in Kinmen, Matsu, 3 in Penghu, and other frontline islands)
- Special Forces Command (特戰指揮部) In charge of 3 training centers
- Army Airborne Training Center (大武營「陸軍空降訓練中心」)
- Army Special Forces Training Center (谷關「陸軍特戰訓練中心」)
- Army Winter and Mountain Training Center (武嶺寒訓中心)
- Special Operation Command
- 862 Special Operation Group (originally 862nd Special Operation Brigade, with 3rd, 4th, and 6th battalion that transferred back from aviation brigades)
- 871 Special Operation Group (units unknown)
- 6th Army Corps (第六軍團指揮部): Northern Taiwan
- Guandu Area Command
- Lanyang Area Command
- 269 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
- 542 Armor Brigade
- 584 Armor Brigade
- 21 Artillery Command
- 53 Engineer Group
- 73 Signals Group
- 33 Chemical Warfare Group
- 8th Army Corps (第八軍團指揮部): Southern Taiwan
- 333 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
- 564 Armor Brigade
- 43 Artillery Command
- 54 Engineer Group
- 75 Signals Group
- 39 Chemical Warfare Group
- 10th Army Corps (第十軍團指揮部): Central Taiwan
- 234 Mechanized Infantry Brigade (will receive CM-32 "Clouded Leopard" wheeled IFV beginning of 2011)
- 586 Armor Brigade
- 58 Artillery Command
- 52 Engineer Group
- 36 Chemical Warfare Group
- 74 Signals Group
- Hualien (花蓮) Defense Team
- Taitung (台東) Area Command
- Kinmen Defense Command (金門防衛指揮部)
- Jindong (金東, Kinmen East) Defense Team
- Jinshih (金西, Kinmen West) Defense Team
- Shihyu (獅嶼) Defense Team
- Artillery Group
- Penghu Defense Command (澎湖防衛指揮部)
- 1 Armored Battalion, 1 Armored Infantry Battalion, 1 Armored Cav Battalion, 1 mixed Artillery Battalion.
- Matsu Defense Command (馬祖防衛指揮部)
- Beigao (北高) Area Command
- Juguang (莒光) Area Command
- Dongyin Area Command (東引地區指揮部)
- Logistics Command (後勤指揮部)
- Education, Training and Doctorine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展指揮部)
- Republic of China Military Academy, Training & Command Schools, Chemical Warfare Corps, Engineering Corps, Arsenal Development.
- Armed Force Reserve Command (後備指揮部)
- 9 active infantry brigades, 24 Reserve brigades (Activated only in time of war)
ROC Army's former Army Missile Command was transferred to ROC Air Force in 2006.
The Republic of China Military Academy trains officers for the army in a four-year program.
The Republic of China Army originated from Chinese National Revolutionary Army, which was founded by Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (KMT) in 1924, when the Whampoa Military Academy was established with Soviet military assistance. Whampoa Military Academy, which was presided by Chiang Kai Shek, was tasked with the objective of training a professional Chinese revolutionary army (革命軍人） to unify China during the Warlord Era . It participated in the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War (during World War II) and the Chinese Civil War before withdrawing with the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949.
After 1949, the ROC Army has participated in combat operations on Kinmen and the Dachen Archipelago against the PLA in the Battle of Kuningtou, and in the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In addition to these major conflicts, ROCA commandos were regularly sent to raid the Fujian and Guangdong coasts. Until the 1970s, the stated mission of the Army was to retake the mainland from the People's Republic of China. Following the lifting of martial law in 1988 and the democratization of the 1990s, the mission of the ROC Army has been shifted to the defense of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu from a PLA invasion.
With the reduction of the size of the ROC armed forces in recent years, the Army has endured the largest number of cutbacks as ROC military doctrine has begun to emphasize the importance of offshore engagement with the Navy and Air Force. Subsequent to this shift in emphasis, the ROC Navy and Air Force have taken precedence over the ROC Army in defense doctrine and weapons procurement. Recent short-term goals in the Army include acquisition and development of joint command and control systems, advanced attack helicopters and armored vehicles, Multiple Launch Rocket System and field air defense systems. The Army is also in the process of transitioning to an all volunteer force.
From the 1990s onwards, the Republic of China Army launched several upgrade programmes to replace out-dated equipment with cutting edge state of the art advanced weapons, also increasing its emphasis on forces that could be rapidly deployed and were suited for combat in Taiwan's heavily urbanized environment. Orders were placed with the United States for M60A3 Patton tanks, M109A6 "Paladin" howitzers and AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, as well as updating existing equipment.
Along with the other ROC military branches, the ROC Army has extensive experience in the construction and utilization of underground tunnels and bases gained during the People's Republic of China's bombardments of Kinmen and Matsu during the Cold War and many facilities are rumoured to be located underground in undisclosed locations.
The U.S. Government announced on October 3 2008 that it plans to sell $6.5 billion worth of arms to Taiwan ending the freeze of arms sales to Taiwan. Amongst other things, the plans include $2.532 billion worth of 30 AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack helicopters with night-vision sensors, radar, 173 Stinger Block I air-to-air missiles and 1000 AGM-114L Hellfire missiles. and 182 Javelin missiles will also be available with 20 Javelin command launchers and is estimated to cost $47 million.
On January 29, 2010, US Government announced 5 notifications to US Congress for arms sales to Taiwan. Of the total 6.392 billion US dollars in the 5 announcements, ROC Army will receive 60 UH-60M and other related things for cost of 3.1 Billion.
In July 2007 it was reported that the ROC Army would request the purchase of 30 AH-64E Apache Guardian attack helicopters from the US in the 2008 defence budget. In October 2015 it was announced that 9 AH-64E had been grounded due to oxidation of components in the helicopters' tail rotor gearboxes and comprehensive safety checks were made on all Apaches. The 2008 defense budget also listed a request for 60 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters as a partial replacement for the UH-1Hs currently in service.
Main battle tanks
It has been reported that the ROC Army is seeking new third generation main battle tanks, as the M60A3s and CM-11s are aging. The possible tanks under consideration were the US M1A2, UK Challenger, German Leopard 2A6, French AMX-56 Leclerc and the Israeli Merkava. However, it is expected to procure the M1A2 due to closer military ties.
On August 31, 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCA plan for next generation MBT has been put on hold, due to lack of budget. Recently the army was approved to buy 120 M1A1s, with budget allocation set for 2017 and delivery of the first batch expected by 2020. Some critics have been made to this purchases, some analysts have expressed that Taiwan's terrain and some of its bridges and roads are unsuitable for the 60-tonne M1A1.
CM-32 Yunpao, an 8x8 armoured personnel carrier locally manufactured, will replace ageing M113s and V-150 armoured vehicles. It is a modular vehicle platform capable of accepting various configurations for specific combat requirements.
|M1A1||United States||Main Battle Tank||0||Plan to buy 120 vehicles|
|M60A3 TTS||United States||Main Battle Tank||480||Some are transferred to ROCMC|
|CM-11 (M48H)||Taiwan||Main Battle Tank||450||Assembled in Taiwan 1988–1994. Some transferred to ROCMC|
|CM-12||Taiwan||Medium Tank||250||Modified in Taiwan from M48A3|
|M48A3||Taiwan||Medium Tank||50||Received 309 M48A1/A2 in the 1970s, modified in Taiwan to M48A3, 250 upgraded to CM-12 standard|
|M41||United States||Light Tank||775||50 M41D Modified in Taiwan, some M41 are in used by ROCMC|
|CM-32||Taiwan||Eight-Wheeled IFV/Light Armoured Vehicle||~100||In production, first batch of 600, first unit will be 200th MIB in Central Taiwan. 368 vehicles entering service by 2017–2018|
|CM-21||Taiwan||M113 APC Variant||1,000+||Various variants produced from 1982 to 2009. CM-21/A1 personnel carrier
CM-22 mortar carrier for 107mm/120mm mortar
CM-23 mortar carrier for 81mm mortar
CM-24/A1 ammo carrier, can carry either 90 rounds of 155mm or 42 rounds 203mm
CM-25 TOW launcher
CM-26 Command Track
|M113||United States||Tracked APC||650||Various variants, including personnel carrier, mortar carrier, ammo carrier, TOW launcher(retired), command and recovery|
|V-150S||United States||Amphibious APC||300||With Southern Army Group, 298th Mech Inf Brigade|
|AM General Humvee||United States||Light Utility Vehicle||2,000–2,500||Various variants, including to carry local made machine guns and TOW 2A launchers, and others.|
|M110A2||United States||203mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||60|
|M109A2/A5||United States||155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||197/28||Some transferred to ROCMC|
|M108||United States||105mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||225 |
|M1||United States||240mm Fixed/Towed Howitzer||30+||Stationed in Kinmen/Quemoy and Matsu|
|M115||United States||203mm Towed Howitzer||90|
|M59 "Long Tom"||United States||155mm Towed Howitzer||390|
|M101||United States||105mm Towed Howitzer||650|
|M712 Copperhead||United States||155mm Laser-guided AP Artillery shell||??|
|RT/LT-2000||Taiwan||117mm, 180mm, or 227mm Wheeled MRL||??||57 ordered|
|Kung Feng VI||Taiwan||117mm or 126mm Wheeled MRL||72||24 per Corp|
Helicopters and UAVs
|AH-64E Apache||United States||Attack helicopter||29||30 ordered, one lost to crash|
|AH-1W SuperCobra||United States||Attack helicopter||61|
|Bell OH-58D Kiowa||United States||Light Observation Helicopter||39||Partially assembled in Taiwan|
|OH-6A Cayuse ||United States||Light Observation Helicopter||??|
|Bell TH-67A Creek||United States||Training helicopter||30|
|CH-47SD Chinook||United States||Heavy Transport Helicopter||9|
|UH-60M Black Hawk||United States||Utility helicopter||8 ||60 ordered. Delivery starts mid December 2014 for first 6, rest to arrive by in seven batches with full delivery by 2018|
|AIDC UH-1H Iroquois||Taiwan||Utility helicopter||Fewer than 40||118 built under licence by AIDC|
|Chung Shyang II UAV||Taiwan||Recon UAV||??|
|AIM-9 Sidewinder||United States||IR-guided Air-to-Air Missile (AAM)||300||AIM-9S. Carry by F-16 or AH-1W|
|AIM-92 Stinger||United States||IR-guided Air-To-Air Stinger (ATAS)||173||Block I, ordered for AH-64D Block III APACHE Longbow Attack Helicopters|
|Sky Sword II (TC-2)||Taiwan||Radar-guided mid-range SAM/AAM||??||Carry by AIDC F-CK-1 or Tracked/Wheeled Trucks|
|MIM-72/M48 Chaparral||United States||Tracked Sidewinder short-range SAM SPAAG||40||In service with Southern Army Group only. With 646 rounds of MIM-72F and 302 rounds of MIM-72E/G/J|
|Sky Sword I (TC-1)||Taiwan||IR-guided short-range SAM/AAM||??||Carry by AIDC F-CK-1 or Tracked/Wheeled Trucks|
|M-1097 Avenger (AN/TWQ-1)||United States||Wheeled Stinger short-range SAM SPAAG||74||In service with Northern and Central Army Group only, came with 1299 Stingers purchased in the same deal|
|M42 Duster||United States||Tracked twin 40mm short-range AAA SPAAG||??||Still in service with Northern and Central Army Group anti-air units, 1 battalion each.|
|Dual Mounted Stinger (DMS)||United States||IR-guided Seated Tripod Stinger Launcher (not shoulder-fired MANPADS)||116||55 Stinger DMS launchers with 465 RMP rounds, from US Army stockpile and rebuilt/refurbished, sold to Taiwan May 1996 for 80 million. 61 Stinger DMS launchers with 728 rounds, delivered between 1996 and 1998 for 180 million, some transferred to ROCMC|
|FIM-92 Stinger||United States||IR-guided Light Shoulder-fired MANPADS||??|
|Hsiung Feng III||Taiwan||Radar-guided Ramjet Anti-Ship Missile (AShM)||??||Truck platform|
|Hsiung Feng II||Taiwan||Radar-guided Sea skimming Anti-Ship Missile (AShM)||??||Truck platform|
Other surface attack weapons
|Yun Feng||Taiwan||GPS-guided Supersonic Cruise missile/SSM||??||Truck platform|
|Hsiung Feng IIE||Taiwan||GPS-guided Subsonic Cruise missile/SSM||??||Truck platform|
|Hellfire AGM-114M3||United States||Laser-guided Bunker buster ASM||449||Carry by AH-1W or OH-58D, ordered 9/2002|
|Hydra 70||United States||Unguided anti-materiel Rocket||??||Carry by AH-64E, AH-1W, or OH-58D|
Future weapons and acquisition
|XT-99||Taiwan||9mm machine pistol||In development from Glock 18, SIG P226, FN FNP-45, Five-seveN, and PDW|
|MSR 9mm||Taiwan||9mm submachine gun||In development from HK MP5, Magpul FMG-9, B&T MP9, FN P90, and PDW|
|XT-97||Taiwan||5.56mm NATO assault rifle||Designed in 2008 due for service in 2011 for Special forces|
|XT-100||Taiwan||6.8mm SPC assault rifle||In development from Gas-Operation, M951-KIT02, BGV-QDSF, and Harris BRM-S|
|XT-101||Taiwan||3-in-one assault rifle||In development from 6.5 Grendel, Diamondhead D-45, Ergo 4015, and Vltor EMod|
|MUSR||Taiwan||3-in-one assault rifle||In development from FN Scar, HK416, SG 550, AK-12, ARX-160, ACR, and XCR|
|XT-98||Taiwan||7.62mm NATO battle rifle||In development from Mk 14 EBR, FN FAL, SR-25, and LWRC REPR|
|Yun Feng||Taiwan||Supersonic Cruise missile||Production for the new missile is scheduled to begin in 2014|
- Ministry of National Defense (Republic of China)
- Republic of China Armed Forces
- Republic of China Navy
- Republic of China Air Force
- Republic of China Military Police
- Republic of China Army rank insignia
- List of orders, decorations and medals of the Republic of China
- Political status of Taiwan
- People's Liberation Army Ground Force
- Santikhiri, a town in Thailand settled by remnants of the 93rd Division
References & notes
- "Taiwan News Quick Take". taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Speculative ROC Army ORBAT". Taiwanmilitary.org. Retrieved 2006-03-08.
- "ROC Army". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2006-03-08.
- "2004 National Defense Report" (PDF). ROC Ministry of National Defense. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-11. Retrieved 2006-03-05.
- August 12, 2007. Retrieved Sept 16, 2009
- "ROC Army 602nd Air Cav Brigade 2010 Open Base Exercise In The Rain". http://www.wretch.cc/blog/hojiyi/887241. Retrieved 2010-11-14. External link in
- Roy, Denny (2003). "Taiwan's Threat Perceptions: The Enemy Within" (PDF). Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. See "Reforming the Armed Forces", page 5.
- The Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/03/AR2008100303240.html. Missing or empty
- "USDA New Release" (PDF). dsca.mil. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- "Taiwan to Buy Apaches to Counter China Threat". Defense News. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
- "Report says Taiwan sold 1 billion rifle bullets to U.S.". Retrieved 2007-11-05.
- "第三代主戰車 預計後年採購". libertytimes.com.tw. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Next Year Defense Budget Believed To Be Lowest In 5 Years". United Daily newspaper. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- "ROCMC's 66th Brigade Receiving New Tanks". Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "http://blog.udn.com/YST2000/3306840?f_ORDER_BY=DESC&pno=1&". http://blog.udn.com/YST2000/3306840?f_ORDER_BY=DESC&pno=1&. Retrieved 2010-01-14. External link in
- "ROC Army M113 TOW Launchers are phased out into history". http://www.wretch.cc/blog/hojiyi/680383. Retrieved 2010-04-05. External link in
- "armstrade.sipri.org". armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
- "hojiyi". http://www.wretch.cc/blog/hojiyi/716295. Retrieved 2010-06-19. External link in
- "Aviation & Special Warfare Command". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- Crash destroys Taiwanese AH-64E Apache – Flightglobal.com, 26 April 2014
- Taiwan received fifth and last batch of AH-64E Apache attack helicopters – Airrecognition.com, 20 October 2014
- "OH-6A Cayuse / AH-6J Little Bird - Military Aircraft". fas.org. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Second batch of UH-60s arrive in Taiwan – IHS Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- "Taiwan to take delivery of first batch of Black Hawks in December". focustaiwan.tw. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "www.taiwanairpower.org". www.taiwanairpower.org. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "www.taiwanairpower.org". www.taiwanairpower.org. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "ROCAF air defense open base". Retrieved 2010-10-09.
- "www.defense.gov". www.defense.gov. Retrieved 2010-01-14.
- "armstrade.sipri.org". armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "2 TOW Missiles Missed During Exercise". Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- J. Michael Cole. "Taiwan Showcases AH-64E Apache Guardian Helicopters". The Diplomat. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "XT98 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle (M14 style rifle) and XT97 Pistol - The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Taiwan 9mm MSR Submachine Gun Prototype - The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "XT-97-Assault-File". http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?163393-XT-97-Assault-File. Retrieved 2010-08-12. External link in
- "Taiwan XT100 6.8 SPC Assault Rifle - The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Exclusive: Taiwan's Latest Type XT Prototype Rifle - The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- ROC Army webpage (English)