Republic of Crimea
|Republic of Crimea
Республика Крым (Russian)
Республіка Крим (Ukrainian)
Къырым Джумхуриети (Crimean Tatar)
|— Republic —|
"Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина" (Russian)
Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina (transliteration)
Your fields and mountains are magical, Motherland
|Economic region||Not yet assigned|
|Established||March 21, 2014|
|Government (as of April 2014)|
|• Head||Sergey Aksyonov |
|• Legislature||State Council|
|• Total||26,100 km2 (10,100 sq mi)|
|Population (2014 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Ukrainian; Crimean Tatar|
The Republic of Crimea (// or //; Russian: Республика Крым, tr. Respublika Krym; IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə krɨm]; Crimean Tatar: Къырым Джумхуриети, Qırım Cumhuriyeti; Ukrainian: Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym) is a federal subject of Russia, located on the Crimean Peninsula. The Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol were formed after the independent Republic of Crimea had been absorbed by the Russian Federation.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 Political geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Human rights
- 6 Economy
- 7 International status
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 1792, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great, Crimea was legally ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Jassy, which formally ended the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1792. From 1802, it constituted a southern part of the Taurida Governorate of the Russian Empire until the collapse thereof in 1917. During the Russian Civil War (1917–1921) Crimea changed hands multiple times, being inter alia the last territory held by the White Russian government in the European part of Russia in 1920, and finally became an autonomous republic within Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) in 1921.
During World War II, in 1944, the central Soviet authorities deported the Crimean Tatars for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime; in 1945, the region was stripped of its autonomy status. In 1954, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet transferred the region from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, another constituent republic of the USSR, then a highly centralised state, wherein borders between constituent republics was a technical issue of administration. The Crimean Tatars were allowed to return to Crimea in the mid-1980s under perestroika.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[nb 1] With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. Crimean Tatars began returning from exile and resettling in Crimea. Ukraine restored Crimea's autonomous status in 1991. Crimea's autonomous status was re-affirmed in 1996 with the ratification of Ukraine's current constitution, which designated Crimea as the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".
Separation from Ukraine
On March 11, 2014, in the course of the annexation of Crimea, the Crimean parliament and the Sevastopol City Council issued a letter of intent to unilaterally declare independence from Ukraine. The document specifically mentioned Kosovo as a precedent in the lead part.
The declaration was made in an attempt to legitimise a referendum on the status of Crimea where citizens were to vote on whether Crimea should apply to join Russia as a federal subject of the Russian Federation, or restore the 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine. The available choices did not include keeping the status quo of Crimea and Sevastopol as they were at the time the referendum was held.
On March 16, 2014, according to statements of organizers of Crimean status referendum, a large majority (reported as 96.77% of the 81.36% of the population of Crimea who voted) voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject. The referendum was not recognized by most of the international community and the reported results were disputed by numerous independent observers. The BBC reported that most of the Crimean Tatars that they interviewed were boycotting the vote. Reports from the UN criticised the circumstances surrounding the referendum, especially the presence of paramilitaries, self-defence groups and unidentifiable soldiers. The European Union, Canada, Japan and the United States condemned the vote as illegal.
After the referendum, Crimean lawmakers formally voted both to secede from Ukraine and applied for their admission into Russia. The Sevastopol City Council, however, requested the port's separate admission as a federal city.
On March 18, 2014, the self-proclaimed independent Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation. The accession was granted but separately for each the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as a republic, and another accession for Sevastopol as a federal city. The newly formed federal subject comprising the former Autonomous Republic of Crimea now bears the name Republic of Crimea—the same name as the short-lived self-proclaimed independent republic. During the transition period, which lasted until January 1, 2015, both sides were to resolve the issues of integration of the new subjects “in the economic, financial, credit and legal system of the Russian Federation.” The accession has been recognised internationally by only a few states.
On March 19, 2014, the Ukrainian military began to withdraw from Crimea.
On March 24, 2014, the Russian ruble went into official circulation in Crimea, parallel circulation of the Ukrainian hryvnia is permitted through January 1, 2016. Taxes and fees in Crimea and Sevastopol were to be paid in rubles only, and wages to the workers of budget-receiving organisations were also made in rubles.
On March 29, the clocks in Crimea were moved forward to Moscow time.
On March 31, 2014, the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced a series of programs aimed at swiftly incorporating the territory of Crimea into Russia’s economy and infrastructure. Medvedev announced the creation of a new ministry for Crimean affairs, and ordered Russia’s top ministers who joined him there to make coming up with a development plan their top priority.
On March 31, 2014, the Russian Foreign Ministry stated that foreign citizens visiting Crimea need to apply for a visa to the Russian Federation in one of the Russian diplomatic missions of Russian consulates.
On April 3, 2014, Moscow sent diplomatic note to Ukraine on terminating the actions of agreements concerning the deployment of the Russian Federation's Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine. As part of the agreements, Russia paid the Ukrainian government $530 million annually for the base, and wrote off nearly $100 million of Kiev's debt for the right to use Ukrainian waters. Ukraine also received a discount of $100 on each 1,000 cubic meters of natural gas imported from Russia, which was provided for by cutting export duties on the gas, money that would have gone into the Russian state budget. The Kremlin stated that as the base is no longer located in Ukraine, there were no legal grounds for the discount to be continued.
On April 11, 2014, the parliament of Crimea approved a new constitution, with 88 out of 100 lawmakers voting in favor of its adoption. The constitution ensures the Republic of Crimea as a democratic state within the Russian Federation and says that its territory is united and inseparable. The Crimean parliament will become smaller and have 75 members instead of current 100. According to the Kommersant newspaper, the authorities, including the State Council chair Vladimir Konstantinov unofficially promised that certain quotas would be reserved for Crimean Tatars in various government bodies. On the same day a new revision of the Russian Constitution was officially released with the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation.
On April 12, 2014, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, adopted at the session of the State Council on April 11 entered into legal force. The Constitution was published by the Krymskiye Izvestiya newspaper, and it has entered into legal force today, the State Council of Crimea said. The Constitution of Crimea consists of 10 chapters and 95 articles; its main regulations are analogous to the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The text states that the Republic of Crimea is a democratic, legal state within the Russian Federation and an equal subject of the Russian Federation. The source of power in the Crimean Republic is its people, which is part of the multinational people of the Russian Federation. It is noted that the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people is referendum and free elections, seizure of power and appropriation of power authorization is unacceptable.
Government and politics
The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister (officially called Head of the Republic). The authority and operation of the State Council and the Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of Crimea and other Crimean laws, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Council.
Justice is administered by courts, as part of the judiciary of Russia.
While not an official body controlling Crimea, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, which addresses grievances to the State Council, the Prime Minister, and international bodies.
Till July 2015 20,000 Crimeans had renounced their Ukrainian citizenship.
The Republic of Crimea continues to use the administrative divisions previously used by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and is thus subdivided into 25 regions: 14 districts (raions) and 11 city municipalities (gorodskoj sovet or gorsovet), officially known as territories governed by city councils.[not in citation given]
Crimea is one of two parts of European Russia that have no land connection to the rest of the country, the other being Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea. There are plans to construct a bridge over the Kerch Strait to link the Republic of Crimea to its closest neighbour in Russia, Krasnodar Krai.
If Crimea is considered separate from Ukraine, which continues to claim sovereignty over the peninsula, then Ukraine is the only country with which it shares a land border, with a number of road and rail connections. These crossings have been under the control of pro-Russian troops since at least mid-March 2014.
According to the 2014 Crimean Federal District census (Russian: Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе (2014)) the ethnic makeup of the population of the whole Crimean peninsula at the time comprised the following self-reported groups:
- Russians:1,188,978 (65.2%),
- Ukrainians: 291,603 (16.0%),
- Crimean Tatars: 229,526 (12.6%),
- Tatars: 42,254 (2.3%),
- Belarusians: 17,919 (1.0%),
- Armenians: 9,634 (0.5%),
It was the first official Russian census in Crimea since Ukrainian that held in 2001.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea:
According to the Republic of Crimea Ministry of Education, Science, and Youth, most primary and secondary school pupils have decided to study in Russian in 2015.
- In Russian - 96,74%
- In Crimean Tatar - 2.76%. 5083 pupils (+188 to 2014 year) study in Crimean Tatar language in 53 schools in 17 districts. There have been opened 37 the 1st grade classes of primary school.
- In Ukrainian - 0.5%. 949 pupils study in Ukrainian language in 22 schools in 13 districts. There have been opened 2 the 1st grade classes of primary school (in 2014 - 0).
Its Education Minister Natalia Goncharova announced mid-August 2014 that (since no parents of first-graders wrote an application for learning Ukrainian) Crimea had decided not to form Ukrainian language classes in its primary schools. Goncharova said that since more than a quarter of parents at the Ukrainian gymnasium in Simferopol had written an application to teach children in Ukrainian; this school might have Ukrainian language classes. Goncharova also added that the parents of first-graders had written application for learning the Russian language, and (in areas inhabited by Crimean Tatars) for learning Crimean Tatar. Goncharova stated on 10 October 2014 that at that time Crimea had 20 schools where all subjects were conducted in Ukrainian.
United Nations monitors (that had been in Crimea from 2 April to 6 May 2014) expressed concern on the treatment of journalists, sexual, religious and ethnic minorities and AIDS patients. The monitors had found that journalists and activists who had opposed the 2014 Crimean referendum had been harassed and abducted. They also claimed that Crimeans who had not applied for Russian citizenship faced harassment and intimidation. Russia criticized their report as politically motivated and as an attempt to whitewash "the self-proclaimed Kiev authorities". Russia added that it did not support the deployment of human rights monitors in Crimea. The (new) Crimean authorities vowed to investigate the reports of human rights violations.
According to Human Rights Watch "Russia has violated multiple obligations it has as an occupying power under international humanitarian law – in particular in relation to the protection of civilians’ rights."
In its November 2014 report on Crimea Human Rights Watch stated that "The de facto authorities in Crimea have limited free expression, restricted peaceful assembly, and intimidated and harassed those who have opposed Russia’s actions in Crimea”. According to the report 15 people had gone missing since March 2014, according to Ukrainian authorities this number was 21 people. Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov pledged to find the missing men and the culprits behind the kidnappings. Aksyonov regularly meets with a group of parents, whose children have gone missing, and human rights activists. These parents and human rights activists have complained that rotation of the team of investigators into these missing persons has harmed these investigations.
The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People has come under the scrutiny of the Russian Federal Security Service, which reportedly took control of the building where the Mejlis meets and searched it on 16 September 2014. Crimean Tatar media said FSB officers also searched the office of the Avdet newspaper, which is based inside the Mejlis building. Several members of the Mejlis were also reportedly subjected to FSB searches at their homes. Several Crimean Tatar opposition figures were banned from entering Crimea for five years. Since Russia annexed Crimea several Crimean Tatars have disappeared or have been found dead after being reported missing. Crimean authorities state these deaths and disappearances are connected to "smoking an unspecified substance" and volunteers for the Syrian civil war; human rights activists claim the disappearances are part of a repression campaign against the Crimean Tatar.
In March 2014 Crimean GDP was estimated at $4.3 billion or 0.2% of Russia based on current prices and 0.5% based on purchasing power parity. The Russian rouble became an official currency in Crimea on 21 March 2014. Until 1 June 2014, the Ukrainian hryvnia could also be used for cash payments only. At first it was planned that the Ukrainian hryvnia could be used till 1 January 2016.
According to the Crimean authorities local food prices have grown 2.5 times since Russia's annexation. Since then the peninsula now has to import most of its food from Russia. Ukrainian news agency UNIAN claimed in June 2015 that many Crimeans travel to mainland Ukraine to buy groceries.
Starting in the summer of 2014 Crimea's government nationalized various large Crimean companies and assets; reasons given for this were (among others) "the company helped to finance military operations against Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic" and "the resort complex illegally blocked public access to nearby park lands". The government can nationalise assets considered to have “particular social, cultural, or historical value”. In the case of the Zalyv Shipbuilding yard, Crimean “self-defense” forces stormed the company’s headquarters to demand nationalization. Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov claimed that in at least one case “Employees established control of the enterprise on their own, we just helped them a little”.
By late October 2014 90% of the heads of Crimean government-owned corporation were fired as part of a supposed anti-corruption campaign, although no charges have been filed against anyone. Human rights activists in the region have described the seizures as lacking a legal basis and dismissed the "anti-corruption" rationle. In June 2015 the Federal Security Service (FSB) started several anti-corruption criminal cases against high ranking Crimean officials. According to Aksyonov the FSB had opened these criminal cases because it was "interested in destabilizing the situation in Crimea".
In 2014 about two million tourists holidayed in Crimea, including 300,000 Ukrainians. In 2013 3.5 million Ukrainian and 1.5 million Russian tourists visited Crimea. Tourism is the mainstay of the Crimean economy. In August 2014 Head of the Republic Aksyonov was confident that in 2015 Crimea will welcome "at least five million visitors - I have no doubts about that". Early August 2015 the press service of his government stated that in 2015 2.02 million tourist had visited Crimea (16.5% more than in 2014).
On 6 May 2014 the National Bank of Ukraine ordered Ukrainian banks to cease operations in Crimea; the following weeks the Central Bank of Russia closed all Ukrainian banks on the peninsula because "they had failed to meet their obligations to creditors". 8 months after the 21 March 2014 formal annexation of Crimea by Russia it had become impossible for clients of Ukrainian banks to access their deposit and most of them did not by their interest (on loans).[clarification needed] A "Fund for the Protection of Depositors in Crimea", as part of Russia's Deposit Insurance Agency, was set up by Russia to compensate Crimeans. By 6 November 2014 it had paid out more than $500 million to 196,400 depositors; the fund has a limit of about $15,000 per bank account. In July 2015 25 banks operated in Crimea, prior to Russia's annexation of the peninsula there were 180 banks in Crimea.
Many international businesses have left Crimea but because of fear of sanctions few Russian companies invest in Crimea.
The status of the republic is disputed as Russia and some other states recognised the independence declared by the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol and their subsequent incorporation into the Russian Federation. Most other nations do not recognise these actions due to the Russian military intervention that occurred as these events unfolded. Russia argues that the results of a referendum held in Crimea and Sevastopol justify the accession. In the West, Russia's actions have been widely condemned as a violation of sovereignty of Ukraine and as an act of aggression. Ukraine still considers both the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol as subdivisions of Ukraine under Ukrainian territory and subject to Ukrainian law. According to some unverified media reports, The Ukrainian government did however discontinue supplying the region with water through the North Crimean Canal.
The official line of the US, EU and Australia is that they don't grant visas for Crimeans with Russian passports. Nevertheless, Russian media claims Crimeans get visas from some EU countries.
On March 21, 2014, Armenia recognised the Crimean referendum, which led to Ukraine recalling its ambassador to that country. The unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic also recognised the referendum earlier that week on March 17. On March 22, 2014, President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan told a U.S. delegation that he recognised and supported the Crimean referendum and "respects the free will of the people of Crimea and Sevastopol to decide their own future". On March 23, 2014, Belarus recognised Crimea as de facto part of Russia. On March 27, 2014, Nicaragua unconditionally recognised the incorporation of Crimea into Russia.
On March 27, 2014, the UN General Assembly voted on a non-binding resolution claiming that the referendum was invalid and reaffirming Ukraine’s territorial integrity, by a vote of 100 to 11, with 58 abstentions and 24 absent. Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States and other 89 countries voted for; Armenia, Belarus, Bolivia, Cuba, North Korea, Nicaragua, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Zimbabwe, as well as Russia, voted against. Among the abstaining countries were China, India, and Brazil; Israel was among the countries listed as absent. RT reported that Western countries resorted to "political blackmail and economic threats" to coerce diplomats to vote for the resolution, whereas Reuters reported per anonymous UN diplomats, the Russian delegation threatened punitive action against certain Eastern European and Central Asian countries if they supported the resolution.
On December 22, 2014, Zimbabwe's Minister of the Environment Saviour Kasukuwere became the first non-Russian politician to visit Crimea since March 2014. Zimbabwe had also voted against the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262.
On July 23–24, 2015, a delegation of ten members of the French Parliament visited Crimea. MPs were in the Crimean parliament, spoke with habitants on streets of Simferopol, Yalta, Sevastopol. Their trip was declared to be unofficial and was condemned by French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and politicians in Ukraine.
On September 11, 2015, former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi has visited Crimea to lay flowers with President Putin at a memorial to Sardinian soldiers killed in the Crimean war.
On October 27, 2015, a Serbian delegation ot eight members of the Serbian Parlament and the Dveri Movement arrived on a visit to Crimea. "We want to express support for the Russian people and residents of Crimea who have returned to their historical homeland," - said Sanda Raskovic, the head of the delegation. Raskovic Ivic underscored that in the same way that the Christianization of Rus started in Crimea the Christianization of Serbia began in Kosovo. Serbian politicians are expected to hold an official meeting with Presidential Envoy to Crimea Oleg Belaventsev, Crimea Leader Sergei Aksenov and speaker of the Crimean Parliament Vladimir Konstantinov.
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- Sputnik (October 26, 2015). "Serbian Politicians Visit Crimea to Support Its Reunification With Russia". sputniknews.com.
- "Two Serbian pro-Russian parties visit Crimea". uatoday.tv.
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