The reefs were named after the whaleship Minerva, wrecked on what became known as South Minerva after setting out from Sydney in 1829. Many other ships would follow, for example the Strathcona, which was sailing north soon after completion in Auckland in 1914. In both cases most of the crew saved themselves in whaleboats or rafts and reached the Lau Islands in Fiji.
The reefs were first discovered by Captain John Nicholson of the LMS Haweis December 1818 as reported in the Sydney Gazette 30 January 1819. Capt H. M. Denham of the HMS Herald surveyed the reefs in 1854 and renamed them after the Australian whaler Minerva which ran aground on South Minerva Reef on 9 September 1829.
"Republic of Minerva"
In 1972, Lithuanian-born real-estate millionaire Michael Oliver, of the Phoenix Foundation, sought to establish a libertarian country on the reefs. Oliver formed a syndicate, the Ocean Life Research Foundation, which allegedly had some $100,000,000 for the project and had offices in New York City and London. In 1971, barges loaded with sand arrived from Australia, bringing the reef level—normally a metre below sea level at high tide—above water. In 1972, the Phoenix Foundation began constructing a platform on the Minerva Reefs. The Republic of Minerva issued a "declaration of independence" on 19 January 1972 in letters to neighboring countries and began minting their own currency. In February 1972, Morris C. Davis was elected as "Provisional President" of the Republic of Minerva.
Tonga’s claim to the reef was recognized by the South Pacific Forum in September 1972. A Tongan expedition was sent to enforce the claim, arriving on 18 June 1972. The Flag of the Tonga was raised on 19 June 1972 on North Minerva and on South Minerva on 21 June 1972.
In 1982, a group of Americans led again by Morris C. “Bud” Davis tried to occupy the reefs, but were forced off by Tongan troops after three weeks. According to Reason, Minerva has been "more or less reclaimed by the sea".
In 2005, Fiji declared that it did not recognize any maritime water claims by Tonga to the Minerva Reefs under the UNCLOS agreements. In November 2005, Fiji lodged a complaint with the International Seabed Authority concerning Tonga's maritime waters claims surrounding Minerva. Tonga lodged a counter claim. In 2010 the Fijian Navy destroyed navigation lights at the entrance to the lagoon. In late May 2011, they again destroyed navigational equipment installed by Tongans. In early June 2011, two Royal Tongan Navy ships were sent to the reef to replace the equipment, and to reassert Tonga's claim to the territory. Fijian Navy ships in the vicinity reportedly withdrew as the Tongans approached.
In an effort to settle the dispute, the government of Tonga revealed a proposal in early July 2014 to give the Minerva Reefs to Fiji in exchange for the Lau Group of islands. In a statement to the Tonga Daily News, Lands Minister Lord Maʻafu Tukuiʻaulahi announced that he would make the proposal to Fiji's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ratu Inoke Kubuabola. Some Tongans have Lauan ancestors and many Lauans have Tongan ancestors; Tonga's Lands Minister is named after Enele Ma'afu, the Tongan Prince who originally claimed parts of Lau for Tonga.
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Area: North Reef diameter about 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi), South Reef diameter of about 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi). Terrain: two (atolls) on dormant volcanic seamounts.
Both Minerva Reefs are about 435 kilometres (270 mi) southwest of the Tongatapu Group. The atolls are on a common submarine platform from 549 to 1,097 metres (1,801 to 3,599 ft) below the surface of the sea. North Minerva is circular in shape and has a diameter of about 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi). There is a small sand bar around the atoll, awash at high tide, with a small entrance into the flat lagoon with a somewhat deep harbor. South Minerva is parted into The East Reef and the West Reef, both circular with a diameter of about 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi). Remnants of shipwrecks and platforms remain on the atolls, plus functioning navigation beacons.
Geologically, Minerva Reef is of a limestone base formed from uplifted coral formations elevated by now-dormant volcanic activity.
The climate is basically subtropical with a distinct warm period (December–April), during which the temperatures rise above 32 °C (90 °F), and a cooler period (May–November), with temperatures rarely rising above 27 °C (80 °F). The temperature increases from 23 °C to 27 °C (74 °F to 80 °F), and the annual rainfall is from 170 to 297 centimeters (67–117 in.) as one moves from Cardea in the south to the more northerly islands closer to the Equator. The mean daily humidity is 80 percent.
Both North and South Minerva Reefs are used as anchorages by private yachts traveling between New Zealand and Tonga or Fiji. North Minerva (Tongan: Teleki Tokelau) offers the more protected anchorage, with a single, easily negotiated, west-facing pass that offers access to the large, calm lagoon with extensive sandy areas. South Minerva (Tongan: Teleki Tonga) is in shape similar to an infinity symbol, with its eastern lobe partially open to the ocean on the northern side.
The Tuaikaepau ('Slow But Sure'), a Tongan vessel on its way to New Zealand, became famous when it struck the reefs on 7 July 1962. This 15-metre (49 ft) wooden vessel was built in 1902 at the same yard as the Strathcona. The crew and passengers survived by living in the remains of a Japanese freighter. There they remained for three months and several died. Without tools, Captain Tēvita Fifita built a small boat using wood recovered from the ship. With this raft, named Malolelei ('Good Day'), he and several others sailed to Fiji in one week.
- Ruhen, Olaf. Minerva Reef, Minerva Bookshop Limited, 1963, p. 7
- Jenkins, Doug. "A true record of the Minerva Reef saga of 1972 and the part played by the Tongan Shipping Company Vessel Olovaha". Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "New Foundlands". Cabinet magazine. Summer 2005.
- Mangu-Ward, Katherine (August–September 2008). "Artifact: Hope Floats". Reason Magazine. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- "Fiji and Tonga govts continue talks on reef dispute". Radio New Zealand International. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- "Showdown between Tonga and Fiji looms". One News. 11 June 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
- Gopal, Avinesh (3 July 2014). "'Give up Lau'". Fiji Times. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Staff (3 July 2014). "Lord Ma'afu wants Lau for Minerva Reef". Nuku’alofa: Tonga Daily News. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- James C. Simmons (1998). Castaway in Paradise: The Incredible Adventures of True-Life Robinson Crusoes. Sheridan House, Inc. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-57409-066-6.
- Interview with Oliver at Stay Free Magazine
- Cruising Yachties Experience at Minerva (2003)
- Photo Album of Minerva (2007)
- Photo Album and underwater images of North Minerva Reef (2009)
- Fiji, Tonga War over Minerva Reef by Michael Field (16/05/2011)
- Website of the "Principality of Minerva" micronation, which claims the Minerva Reefs
- "The Danger and Bounty of the Minerva Reefs"
- "On passage from Minerva Reef, November 2, 2003"
- Olovaha & the Republic of Minerva
- "Phoenix: ashes to ashes" – the Phoenix Foundation ("New Internationalist" July 1981)
- Obituary for Tongan King – also comments the Republic of Minerva (12 September 2006)