Republic of Negros

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Republic of Negros
Filipino: Republika ng Negros
Provisional Revolutionary Government(1898-1899)
US Protectorate (1899–1901)
1898–1901
Flag
Flag of the Revolutionary Government in Bacolod (1899)[1][2]
Anthem
Lupang Hinirang
Location of Negros in the Philippines
Capital Bacolod
Languages Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Spanish
Government Republic
President Aniceto Lacson
Governor General of the Provinces Melecio Severino
President of the Chamber of Deputies José Ruiz de Luzurriaga
Legislature Chamber of Deputies
Historical era Century XIX-XX
 •  End of the Negros Revolution November 27, 1898
 •  Disestablished April 30, 1901
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Spanish East Indies
United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands
Today part of  Philippines

The Republic of Negros (Spanish: República de Negros; Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros; Cebuano: Republika sa Negros; Filipino: Republika ng Negros) was a short-lived revolutionary republic in the eponymous island, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty.

History[edit]

From 3 November to 6 November 1898, the people of Negros rose in revolt against the Spanish authorities headed by politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod, the main city of the island. The revolutionaries, led by generals Juan Araneta, from Bago and Aniceto Lacson, from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. On 5 November, Spanish officials surrendered themselves to native leaders. A provisional government was then established with Aniceto Lacson as President, and a notice of this was sent to Emilio Aguinaldo in Luzon.[3]

On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros (Spanish: República Cantonal de Negros). The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution.

With the looming invasion of the United States Army, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. Despite the initial protest from the Negros Oriental deputies, the republic came under U.S. protection on April 30, 1899 as a separate state from the rest of the Philippine Islands and on the next day, the constitution was passed. On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros. However, on 30 April 1901, it had been dissolved and the island of Negros was annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States,[4] which retained control until the Japanese imperial occupation in the Second World War.

Republican leaders[edit]

The leaders of the short-lived republic were:[5]

Aniceto Lacson
(November 5, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Occidental only until November 27, 1898)
President
Demetrio Larena
(November 24, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Oriental only)
Vice-President
José Luzuriaga
July 22, 1899 - November 6, 1899
President of the Chamber of Deputies
Eusebio Luzurriaga Secretary of the Treasury
Simeon Lizares Secretary of the Interior
Nicolas Golez Secretary of Public Works
Agustin Amenablar Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
Juan Araneta Secretary of War
Antonio Ledesma Jayme
July 24, 1854 - October 9, 1937
Secretary of Justice
Melecio Severino
November 6, 1899 - April 30, 1901
Governor-General of the Provinces

Commemoration[edit]

In Bago City, the event was chronicled in a historic marker found in the Public Plaza, which bears the following inscriptions:

5 November has been observed as a special non-working holiday in Negros Occidental through Republic Act № 6709, signed by President Corazon Aquino on 10 February 1989.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Two Republics of Negros". Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "What is the República Negrénse?". Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1921). The Present Government of the Philippines. Oriental commercial. p. 148. ISBN 1-4067-4636-3. (Note: 1. The book cover incorrectly lists author as "Maximo M Lalaw", 2. Originally published in 1921 by The McCullough Printing Co., Manila)
  4. ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1970). Philippine Constitutional History and Constitutions of Modern Nations: With Full Texts of the Constitutions of the Philippines and Other Modern Nations. Modern Book Co. p. 34. 
  5. ^ WorldStatesmen. "Philippines - Republic of Negros". Retrieved 10 August 2010. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 10°N 123°E / 10°N 123°E / 10; 123