Republic of West Florida
|Republic of West Florida|
|•||Established||September 23, 1810|
|•||Disestablished||December 10, 1810|
|Today part of||United States|
The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic in the western region of Spanish West Florida for several months during 1810. It was annexed and occupied by the United States later in 1810, and is today an eastern part of the U.S. state of Louisiana.
The boundaries of the Republic of West Florida comprised an area south of the 31st parallel, west of the Pearl River (now part of the eastern boundary of Louisiana), and east of the Mississippi River. The southern boundary was Lake Pontchartrain and the Gulf of Mexico. Military forces of the short-lived Republic tried but failed to capture the Spanish outpost at Mobile, which lay between the Pearl and the Perdido River (farther east). Despite its name, none of the Republic of West Florida lay within the borders of the present-day state of Florida - it is all in Louisiana.
Louisiana parishes once part of the Republic of West Florida are:
- East Baton Rouge Parish
- East Feliciana Parish
- Livingston Parish
- St. Helena Parish
- St. Tammany Parish
- Tangipahoa Parish
- Washington Parish
- West Feliciana Parish
Before 1762 France had owned and administered the land west of the Perdido River as part of La Louisiane. In 1762 France secretly ceded its lands west of the Mississippi River plus the land west of the Perdido River to Spain. Excluding the island of New Orleans, the area between the Mississippi and Perdido Rivers became part of Spanish Florida.
At the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, France ceded its remaining lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, while Spain ceded its Florida colony to Great Britain. At the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, in which Spain had participated by conquering West Florida, Spain received both East and West Florida from Great Britain. The United States and Spain held long negotiations regarding the northern border of West Florida, concluding with Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. In 1800, under duress from Napoleon of France, Spain ceded Louisiana and the island of New Orleans to France, who promised to return them to Spain should France ever relinquish them. This cession did not include West Florida. In 1803 France then sold Louisiana to the United States.
In the meantime, American settlers established a foothold in the area and resisted Spanish control, and the British settlers who had remained after Spanish takeover also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment of the independent Republic of West Florida, with its capital at St. Francisville, in present-day Louisiana, on a bluff along the Mississippi River.
On September 23, 1810, after meetings beginning in June, rebels overcame the Spanish garrison at Baton Rouge and unfurled the flag of the new republic: a single white star on a blue field. This flag was made by Melissa Johnson, wife of Major Isaac Johnson, the commander of the West Florida Dragoons. The "Bonnie Blue Flag" that was flown 50 years later at the start of the American Civil War resembles it.
Spain, however, did not relinquish its claim until 1819 to any of the West Florida territory that was occupied by the U.S. The United States had claimed West Florida as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, a claim disputed by Spain, as it had ruled West Florida as a province separate from Spanish Louisiana since 1783.
The Constitution of the Republic of West Florida was based largely on the United States Constitution, and divided the government into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The legislature consisted of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Governor was chosen by the legislature. According to the constitution, the official name of the country was the "State of Florida". The first and only governor was Fulwar Skipwith, a former American diplomat who had helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. In his inaugural address, Skipwith mentioned the possibility of annexation to the United States:
...wherever the voice of justice and humanity can be heard, our declaration, and our just rights will be respected. But the blood which flows in our veins, like the tributary streams which form and sustain the father of rivers, encircling our delightful country, will return if not impeded, to the heart of our parent country. The genius of Washington, the immortal founder of the liberties of America, stimulates that return, and would frown upon our cause, should we attempt to change its course.
During the Republic's brief existence, Reuben Kemper led a small force in an attempt to capture Mobile from the Spanish, but the expedition ended in failure. The marching song of the West Floridian army included the lyrics:
- West Floriday, that lovely nation,
- Free from king and tyranny,
- Thru’ the world shall be respected,
- For her true love of Liberty.
United States annexation
The United States did not recognize the independence of the Republic of West Florida, and on October 27, 1810, United States President James Madison proclaimed the possession of West Florida and its annexation into the Territory of Orleans, on the basis that it was part of the Louisiana Purchase. William C. C. Claiborne, the military governor of Orleans Territory, was sent to take possession of the territory.
Claiborne entered St. Francisville with his forces on December 6, 1810, and Baton Rouge on December 10, 1810. After Claiborne refused to recognize the West Florida government, Skipwith and the legislature eventually agreed to accept Madison's annexation proclamation.
The Mobile District, today's coastal Mississippi and Alabama, remained under Spanish control until the War of 1812 with Britain, with whom Spain was allied. Following a Congressional declaration of annexation in 1812,  U.S. General James Wilkinson sailed from New Orleans to Mobile in April 1813 with a force of 600, whereupon he received the surrender of the Spanish commander. The Mobile District was incorporated into the Mississippi Territory.
Present-day Louisiana - "the Florida Parishes"
In the present-day US state of Louisiana, the Louisiana civil parishes (the equivalent in Louisiana to counties elsewhere in the United States of America) which comprised the former Republic of West Florida are commonly known as the "Florida Parishes". This is partly due to the short-lived independent state of which they were a part, and partly in recognition of their heritage as part of a Spanish colony extending eastward to the modern US state of Florida. 
- List of historical unrecognized states
- West Florida Controversy
- Dominion of British West Florida, 21st-century separatist micronation
- Confederate National and Bonnie Blue Flags.
- Dreher, Rod (19 June 2012). "West Florida Republic: The birth of US imperialism". BBC News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- See inserted "Bonnie Blue Flag" image. The Republic of West Florida was also known as the Lone Star Republic.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (1993). The Jeffersonian Gunboat Navy. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-849-2. p. 101.
- ""Florida Parishes"". Center for Southeast Louisiana Studies, Southeastern Louisiana University. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Bice, David A. (2004). The Original Lone Star Republic: Scoundrels, Statesmen & Schemers of the 1810 West Florida Rebellion. Clanton, AL: Heritage Publishing. ISBN 9781891647819.
- Davis, William C. (2011). The Rogue Republic: How Would-Be Patriots Waged the Shortest Revolution in American History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780151009251.
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- The Sons & Daughters of the Province & Republic of West Florida 1763 - 1810
- Republic of West Florida Museum
- West Florida Constitution