A research spin-off is a company that falls into at least one of the four following categories:
- Companies that have an Equity investment from a national library or university
- Companies that license technology from a public research institute or university
- Companies that consider a university or public sector employee to have been a founder
- Companies that have been established directly by a public research institution
The two main research spin-off models in Russia are those developed from the Institutes of the Academy of Science and Svetlana. QinetiQ is an example of a research spin-off in the United Kingdom.
- Government spin-off, civilian goods which are the result of military or governmental research
- NASA spin-off, a spin-off of technology that has been commercialized through NASA funding, research, licensing, facilities, or assistance
- University spin-off, a company founded on the findings of a member or by members of a research group at a university
- Benedicte Callan (2001). "Generating Spin-offs:Evidence from Across the OECD". STI Review. OECD Publishing. 2000 (26): 18. ISBN 92-64-17580-6.
- Fostering Public-Private Partnership for Innovation in Russia. OECD Publishing. 2005. p. 50. ISBN 92-64-00965-5.
- PJ Connolly (14 May 2001). "Block that email!". InfoWorld. 23 (20): 100. ISSN 0199-6649.