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In sports, particularly association football, a reserve team is a team composed of players under contract to a club but who do not normally play in matches for the first team. Reserve teams often include back-up players from the first team, young players who need playing time to improve their skills, as well as members of the first team recovering from injury. In some countries, reserve or development teams compete in entirely separate competitions from first teams, while some countries allow reserve teams or farm teams to compete in the same league system as their club's first team, although usually in separate divisions.
In association football
Reserve teams usually consist of a combination of emerging youth players and first-team squad players. These teams are distinct from a club's youth team, which usually consists of players under a certain age and plays in an age-specific league. In England, Argentina and the United States the term reserve is commonly used to describe these teams. In Germany and Austria the terms Amateure or II is used, while B team is used in the Spanish football league system, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Portugal. In the Netherlands and Norway these teams are distinguished by a 2.
In England reserve teams of professional clubs play in completely separate leagues and competitions such as the Professional Development League or the Central League, although further down the pyramid, reserve clubs feature in the same system as their parent clubs and can be promoted through the system. They cannot usually play in the same division as their parent team.
However, in other countries, reserve teams play in the same football league as their senior team and have competed in the domestic cup competitions. In Spain this has seen the reserve team of CD Málaga change identity and play in La Liga while Castilla CF, the reserve team of Real Madrid, reached the Copa del Rey final, qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup and won the Segunda División.
In France, the reserve teams of professional clubs playing in Ligue 1, Ligue 2 or National is restricted to play in fourth-tier Championnat National 2 if the club has a youth center or in fifth-tier Championnat National 3 if a team doesn't has a youth center. Reserve teams have not been allowed to play the Coupe de France to serve the non-reserve team's interests.
If a reserve team finishes first in his National 2 group, the promotion is awarded to the second. Additionally, if a reserve team finishes first in his National 3 group but the club doesn't have a youth center, the promotion instead awarded to the second.
Some clubs even have C or D-sides that play at regional or district levels.
In Germany, Hertha BSC II, the reserve team of Hertha Berlin, reached the 1992–93 DFB-Pokal final after their first team were eliminated in the Round of 16. They lost the final 1–0 to Bayer Leverkusen. In the German football league system, however, reserve teams are not allowed to be promoted above the 3. Liga and since 2008–09 have not been allowed to play in the cup competition to serve the non-reserve team's interests. In the 2003–04 season, Bayern Munich's reserve team won the Regionalliga Süd, a semi-professional league then in the third tier of German football (now the fourth), finishing nine points clear of the second-placed FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt. Due to the rule which prohibits one club from having two teams in fully professional leagues, the third-placed 1. FC Saarbrücken was promoted to the Second Bundesliga instead.
In 2018, the Italian Football Federation allowed the possibility for Serie A teams to register a reserve Under-23 team in the third-tier Serie C league, with only Juventus taking that opportunity. Juventus F.C. Under-23 is, as of 2021–22, still the only reserve team playing in the Italian national leagues.
Japan Soccer League reserve teams
These teams were never promoted to the top flight due to their senior squad's presence there.
- Toyo Industries/Mazda: Mazda Auto Hiroshima
- Furukawa Electric: Furukawa Electric Chiba
- Yomiuri Soccer Club: Yomiuri S.C. Juniors
- Yanmar Diesel: Yanmar Club
Reserve clubs were usually localized in the same city as their senior team and should not be confused with clubs from sister companies within a keiretsu or otherwise, which were separate clubs competing for the same championships. An example is Toyota Automated Loom Works, founding member of the JSL in 1965, later relegated and now competing in the Aichi Prefecture league, and Toyota Motors, now known as Nagoya Grampus, founding member and mainstay of the J. League.
J. League reserve teams today
Most J. League reserve teams these days are in the corresponding regional league. The most successful is JEF United Ichihara Chiba Reserves, who compete in the national third division, the Japan Football League. (Furukawa Electric Chiba still exists but is no longer affiliated with the JEF club.)
In Norway, reserve football teams are permitted to participate at all levels of league football except for the two highest divisions, making the 2. divisjon the highest league they can enter. However, if the first team plays in the second-tiered 1. divisjon, the reserve team is restricted to a fourth-tier league, maintaining a league difference of two. Reserve teams bear the same name as their respective first teams with a "2" attached as a suffix. If a reserve team ends the season in a promotion spot to a league it cannot enter, that promotion is instead awarded to the best following team.
Scotland has two reserve leagues under the umbrella of the SPFL Reserve League, where 27 of the senior clubs competed in its first year, only for several (including Celtic and Rangers) withdrew to pursue their own programme of fixtures. The predecessor was the SPFL Development League until 2018. It was described as a development league for under-20s, but teams could field up to five over-age players in each game.
Reserve teams (limited to under-21 players) of the clubs in the Scottish Premiership enter the Scottish Challenge Cup for lower division clubs (and some entrants from other parts of the British Isles). Proposals have been made by the bigger clubs to have 'B teams' placed into the Scottish football league system, but as of 2020 these have been rejected.
The South-Korean R League serves as a dedicated competition for reserve teams and has been intermittently active since 1990, with several interruptions and format changes throughout its history. In its current form, the league has been played since 2016.
In 1951–52 CD Mestalla, the reserve team of Valencia CF, won the Segunda División promotion play-off but were denied promotion because their senior team was already in the Primera División. The following season CD España Industrial, the reserve team of FC Barcelona, also finished as runners-up in the same play-off but were similarly denied. However, after winning another promotion play-off in 1956, España Industrial separated from FC Barcelona and were renamed CD Condal. The club were now able to be promoted to the Primera División. However, they survived only one season and were relegated in 1957. In 1968 the club rejoined the FC Barcelona family as the reserve team and eventually evolved into FC Barcelona B.
In 1983–84 Castilla CF and Bilbao Athletic, the reserve teams of Real Madrid and Athletic Bilbao respectively, finished as winners and runners-up of the Segunda División. Castilla, Bilbao Athletic and Atlético Madrid B finished third in 1987–88, 1989–90 and 1998–99 respectively. In normal circumstances, these teams would have all been promoted except for the fact that their senior team was already in the Primera División.
Castilla CF in Copa del Rey
In 1980 Castilla CF also reached the Copa del Rey final and qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup. During their cup run, they beat four Primera División teams including Hércules CF, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad and Sporting de Gijón. The latter two eventually finished second and third in the Primera División. In the final they played Real Madrid but lost 6–1. However, because Real also won La Liga, Castilla CF qualified for European Cup Winners' Cup. Despite beating West Ham United 3–1 in the opening game at the Bernabéu, they lost the return 5–1 and went out in the first round.
Málaga CF was originally formed in 1948 as Atlético Malagueño, the reserve team of CD Málaga. In 1992 CD Málaga was disbanded and two years later Atlético Malagueño were relaunched as Málaga CF. They were eventually promoted to the Primera División in 1999.
In Ukraine, there are two types of reserve teams, one doubles and the other dvushky (dviyky, triyky) or second teams. The second teams compete in regular league competitions usually in the Ukrainian Second League or lower, some better have competed in the Ukrainian First League (such as FC Dynamo-2 Kyiv). Also some smaller clubs voluntarily would join bigger club as its farm (Ternopil-Nyva-2, Poltava-2 Karlivka, others), while other would be forced to be revived anew as the original club would be changed into a new better club. On rare occasions in the professional league competitions were allowed to compete some clubs' academies (Sports school of Olympic Reserve (SSOR) Metalurh, FC Dnipro-75 Dnipropetrovsk, others). Until 1999 second teams and third teams were allowed to compete in the Ukrainian Cup.
Since 1999–2000 in Ukraine started to talk about reviving some kind of separate competition for such teams or youth competitions. In 2004 there was organized competition for the Vyshcha Liha teams doubles. Some doubles were formed out of already existing second teams, other clubs kept their second teams as well as created additional doubles. It certainly reduced the number of second teams in regular league competitions as well eliminated some farm clubs. In 2008, championship among doubles was transitioned to youth competition (under-21) as Vyshcha Liha was also transformed into Premier Liha. In 2012, there was introduced additional competition in Premier Liha, the under-19 championship (see Ukrainian Premier League Reserves and Under 19). All these youth competitions "cleaned" the lower league structure of the second teams, but some clubs continue field them at national or regional levels.
In Ukraine, second teams act same as farm teams and they do not have an age restriction as youth teams. Second teams are not allowed to compete in the same division with their primary team (senior team). On several occasions, the second team of Dynamo Kyiv (Dynamo-2 Kyiv) won the Ukrainian First League, but was not allowed to be promoted to premiers where the primary team of Dynamo Kyiv competes due to the rule. As any rules there are some exceptions, the second team of FC Nyva Ternopil (FC Ternopil) were allowed promotion to the same division after it lost its affiliation with the main club and promoted to professional ranks starting again from regional competitions.
As it was mentioned above, farm teams in Ukraine are not necessary denoted with 2 (or 3), but could be a separate club that have an agreement with another club. Among examples there are FC Karlivka that used to be called FC Poltava-2 (the second team of FC Poltava), FC Kalush was known as LUKOR Kalush and Prykarpattia Kalush (the second team of FC Spartak Ivano-Frankivsk), FC Krasyliv was known as FC Krasyliv-Obolon as the second team of FC Obolon Kyiv, and there are other examples.
List of all second teams (competed at national competitions): FC Dynamo-2 Kyiv (FC Dynamo-3 Kyiv), FC Shakhtar-2 Donetsk (FC Shakhtar-3 Donetsk), FC Dnipro-2 Dnipropetrovsk (FC Dnipro-3 Dnipropetrovsk), FC Karpaty-2 Lviv (FC Karpaty-3 Lviv), FC Chornomorets-2 Odesa, FC Metalist-2 Kharkiv (FC Metalist-3 Kharkiv), FC Vorskla-2 Poltava, FC Metalurh-2 Zaporizhzhia (SSOR Metalurh Zaporizhzhia), FC Kryvbas-2 Kryvyi Rih (FC Kryvbas-Ruda Kryivyi Rih), FC Metalurh-2 Donetsk, FC Arsenal-2 Kyiv, FC Illichivets-2 Mariupol, FC Zirka-2 Kirovohrad, FC Polihraftekhnika-2 Oleksandriya, FC Prykarpattia-2 Ivano-Frankivsk, FC Zakarpattia-2 Uzhhorod, FC Obolon-2 Kyiv, FC Nyva-2 Vinnytsia, FC Kharkiv-2, MFC Mykolaiv-2, FC Stal-2 Alchevsk, FC Bukovyna-2 Chernivtsi, FC Sevastopol-2, FC Borysfen-2 Boryspil, FC Lviv, FC Naftovyk-2 Okhtyrka, FC Desna-2 Chernihiv, FC Spartak Molodizhne, FC Avanhard-2 Kramatorsk.
Major League Soccer, the highest level of competition in the United States, ran its own reserve league from 2005 to 2014. Beginning in 2014, the second-tier United Soccer League began accepting affiliated MLS club teams, such as LA Galaxy II and Seattle Sounders FC 2, into their league with special rules as a result of a partnership signed with MLS.
The term is analogous to junior varsity, a concept in high school and college sports which serves the same purpose in American football, basketball, and other sports to give players not usually featured in the first team, or varsity, playing time and experience.
In the Russian Government Cup, the Russian national bandy reserve team Russia-2 has appeared a couple of times. Some of the professional Russian bandy clubs in the top-tier Russian Bandy Super League have reserve teams playing in the second-tier Russian Bandy Supreme League.
- Australian Football League reserves affiliations
- National Rugby League reserves affiliations
- Farm team
- Scout team, team that practices against the main roster
- "Les équipes de Vendée les Herbiers Football" (in French). FFF.
- "Les équipes de Vendée les Herbiers Football" (in French). FFF.
- Regionalliga Süd 2003–04 - final standings
- "LA SECONDA SQUADRA BIANCONERA È REALTÀ!" (in Italian). 3 August 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- "Reserve League fixtures published". SPFL. 24 July 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- "Development League fixtures". SPFL. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- SPFL urged to introduce Premiership reserve teams into regionalised lower leagues in radical shake-up, Glasgow Times, 4 April 2020
- Would Scottish football benefit from B teams?, BBC Sport, 19 June 2020
- "K리그 챌린지, 3월 26일 개막... 부산 vs 안산 격돌" [K-League Challenger kicks off on March 26th... Pusan vs. Ansan clash]. interfootball.heraldcorp.com (in Korean). 26 January 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- Reserve teams in the lower leagues? That idea doesn't even work in Spain, The Guardian, 26 February 2019
- What are Football Club ‘B’ Teams and are they Successful?, Goal Profits, 20 December 2018