Reserved IP addresses

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In the Internet addressing architecture, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) have reserved various Internet Protocol (IP) addresses for special purposes.[1]

IPv4[edit]

There are a number of addresses with special meaning in IPv4:[1]

Special address blocks
Address block Address range Number of addresses Scope Description
0.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0–0.255.255.255 16777216 Software Current network[1] (only valid as source address).
10.0.0.0/8 10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255 16777216 Private network Used for local communications within a private network.[2]
100.64.0.0/10 100.64.0.0–100.127.255.255 4194304 Private network Shared address space[3] for communications between a service provider and its subscribers when using a carrier-grade NAT.
127.0.0.0/8 127.0.0.0–127.255.255.255 16777216 Host Used for loopback addresses to the local host.[1]
169.254.0.0/16 169.254.0.0–169.254.255.255 65536 Subnet Used for link-local addresses[4] between two hosts on a single link when no IP address is otherwise specified, such as would have normally been retrieved from a DHCP server.
172.16.0.0/12 172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255 1048576 Private network Used for local communications within a private network.[2]
192.0.0.0/24 192.0.0.0–192.0.0.255 256 Private network IETF Protocol Assignments.[1]
192.0.2.0/24 192.0.2.0–192.0.2.255 256 Documentation Assigned as TEST-NET-1, documentation and examples.[5]
192.88.99.0/24 192.88.99.0–192.88.99.255 256 Internet Reserved.[6] Formerly used for IPv6 to IPv4 relay[7] (included IPv6 address block 2002::/16).
192.168.0.0/16 192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255 65536 Private network Used for local communications within a private network.[2]
198.18.0.0/15 198.18.0.0–198.19.255.255 131072 Private network Used for benchmark testing of inter-network communications between two separate subnets.[8]
198.51.100.0/24 198.51.100.0–198.51.100.255 256 Documentation Assigned as TEST-NET-2, documentation and examples.[5]
203.0.113.0/24 203.0.113.0–203.0.113.255 256 Documentation Assigned as TEST-NET-3, documentation and examples.[5]
224.0.0.0/4 224.0.0.0–239.255.255.255 268435456 Internet In use for IP multicast.[9] (Former Class D network).
240.0.0.0/4 240.0.0.0–255.255.255.254 268435456 Internet Reserved for future use.[10] (Former Class E network).
255.255.255.255/32 255.255.255.255 1 Subnet Reserved for the "limited broadcast" destination address.[1][11]

IPv6[edit]

There are a number of addresses with special meaning in IPv6:[1]

Special address blocks
Address block (CIDR) First address Last address Number of addresses Usage Purpose
::/0 :: ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2128 Routing Default route.
::/128 :: 1 Software Unspecified address.
::1/128 ::1 1 Host Loopback address to the local host.
::ffff:0:0/96 ::ffff:0.0.0.0 ::ffff:255.255.255.255 2128-96 = 232 = 4294967296 Software IPv4 mapped addresses.
::ffff:0:0:0/96 ::ffff:0:0.0.0.0 ::ffff:0:255.255.255.255 232 Software IPv4 translated addresses.
64:ff9b::/96 64:ff9b::0.0.0.0 64:ff9b::255.255.255.255 232 Global Internet IPv4/IPv6 translation.[12]
100::/64 100:: 100::ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 264 Routing Discard prefix.[13]
2001::/32 2001:: 2001::ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 296 Global Internet Teredo tunneling.
2001:20::/28 2001:20:: 2001:2f:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2100 Software ORCHIDv2.[14]
2001:db8::/32 2001:db8:: 2001:db8:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 296 Documentation Addresses used in documentation and example source code.[15]
2002::/16 2002:: 2002:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2112 Global Internet The 6to4 addressing scheme (now deprecated).[6]
fc00::/7 fc00:: fdff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2121 Private network Unique local address.[16]
fe80::/10 fe80:: febf:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2118 Link Link-local address.
ff00::/8 ff00:: ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff 2120 Global Internet Multicast address.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g M. Cotton; L. Vegoda; R. Bonica; B. Haberman (April 2013). Special-Purpose IP Address Registries. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC6890. BCP 153. RFC 6890. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6890.  Updated by RFC 8190.
  2. ^ a b c Y. Rekhter; B. Moskowitz; D. Karrenberg; G. J. de Groot; E. Lear (February 1996). Address Allocation for Private Internets. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC1918. BCP 5. RFC 1918. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1918.  Updated by RFC 6761.
  3. ^ J. Weil; V. Kuarsingh; C. Donley; C. Liljenstolpe; M. Azinger (April 2012). IANA-Reserved IPv4 Prefix for Shared Address Space. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). doi:10.17487/RFC6598. ISSN 2070-1721. BCP 153. RFC 6598. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6598. 
  4. ^ S. Cheshire; B. Aboba; E. Guttman (May 2005). Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC3927. RFC 3927. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3927. 
  5. ^ a b c J. Arkko; M. Cotton; L. Vegoda (January 2010). IPv4 Address Blocks Reserved for Documentation. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC5737. ISSN 2070-1721. RFC 5737. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5737. 
  6. ^ a b O. Troan (May 2015). B. Carpenter. ed. Deprecating the Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC7526. BCP 196. RFC 7526. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7526. 
  7. ^ C. Huitema (June 2001). An Anycast Prefix for 6to4 Relay Routers. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC3068. RFC 3068. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3068.  Obsoleted by RFC 7526.
  8. ^ S. Bradner; J. McQuaid (March 1999). Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC2544. RFC 2544. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2544.  Updated by: RFC 6201 and RFC 6815.
  9. ^ M. Cotton; L. Vegoda; D. Meyer (March 2010). IANA Guidelines for IPv4 Multicast Address Assignments. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC5771. BCP 51. RFC 5771. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5771. 
  10. ^ J. Reynolds, ed. (January 2002). Assigned Numbers: RFC 1700 is Replaced by an On-line Database. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC3232. RFC 3232. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3232.  Obsoletes RFC 1700.
  11. ^ Jeffrey Mogul (October 1984). Broadcasting Internet Datagrams. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC0919. RFC 919. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc919. 
  12. ^ C. Bao; C. Huitema; M. Bagnulo; M. Boucadair; X. Li (October 2010). IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC6052. RFC 6052. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6052. 
  13. ^ N. Hilliard; D. Freedman (August 2012). A Discard Prefix for IPv6. Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC6666. RFC 6666. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6666. 
  14. ^ J. Laganier; F. Dupont (September 2014). An IPv6 Prefix for Overlay Routable Cryptographic Hash Identifiers Version 2 (ORCHIDv2). Internet Engineering Task Force. doi:10.17487/RFC7343. RFC 7343. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7343. 
  15. ^ G. Huston; A. Lord; P. Smith (July 2004). IPv6 Address Prefix Reserved for Documentation. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC3849. RFC 3849. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3849. 
  16. ^ R. Hinden; B. Haberman (October 2005). Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses. Network Working Group. doi:10.17487/RFC4193. RFC 4193. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4193. 

External links[edit]