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A residence permit (less commonly residency permit) is a document or card required in some regions, allowing a foreign national to reside in a country for a fixed or indefinite length of time. These may be permits for temporary residency, or permanent residency. The exact rules vary between regions. In some cases (e.g. the UK) a temporary residence permit is required to extend a stay past some threshold, and can be an intermediate step to applying for permanent residency.
Residency status may be granted for a number of reasons and the criteria for acceptance as a resident may change over time. In New Zealand the current range of conditions include being a skilled migrant, a retired parent of a New Zealand National, an investor and a number of others 
Biometric residence permit
In Italy the residence permit (permesso di soggiorno) is released by the state police (Polizia di Stato); it must be requested by the immigrant to be allowed to reside in the country for more than eight days, or more than ninety days if having a travel visa (visto d'ingresso) for tourism. It is not required for European citizens.
In the United States
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