Resident Commissioner of the Philippines

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Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
Seal of the United States House of Representatives.svg
Inaugural holder Benito Legarda
Pablo Ocampo
Formation November 22, 1907
Final holder Carlos P. Romulo
Abolished July 4, 1946

The Resident Commissioner of the Philippines was a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives sent by the Philippines from 1907 until its internationally recognized independence in 1946. It was similar to current non-voting members of Congress such as Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico and delegates from Washington, D.C., Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and other United States territories.

Like current non-voting members, Resident Commissioners could speak and otherwise participate in the business of the House, but did not have full voting rights. Two were sent until 1937 when after the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the number was changed to one.[1]

History[edit]

Philippine Commissioner J.M. Elizalde with future Philippine president Sergio Osmena and John W. Hausermann, (a Republican Party leader and goldmine owner in the Philippines), in 1938 or 1939, Library of Congress

The Philippines was a United States territory from 13 August 1898 until Philippine independence was internationally recognized on 4 July 1946.

The office was first created by the Philippine Organic Act (1902) section 8 and re-authorized on its subsequent replacements—the Jones Law of 1916 (known as the Philippine Autonomy Act) section 20, and the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934 (known as the Philippine Independence Act) section 7(5).

The procedures for appointment of the Resident Commissioners were ambiguous and a source of friction.[2] Under the Insular Government, they were appointed by the American government-appointed Philippine Commission with agreement of the fully elected, fully Filipino Philippine Assembly. This conflict ended when the Tydings-McDuffle Act dissolved the Commission and replaced it with the Philippine Senate, the upper house of the new Philippine Commonwealth legislature.

Resident Commissioners[edit]

Territorial era
Picture Resident Commissioner
(lifespan)
Party Term start Term end Notes
Res. Comm. Legarda Legarda, BenitoBenito Legarda
(1853–1915)
Federalist
(Republican)
November 22, 1907
60th Congress
March 3, 1912
62nd Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Ocampo Ocampo, PabloPablo Ocampo
(1853–1925)
Democrat November 22, 1907
60th Congress
November 22, 1909
61st Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Quezón Quezón, Manuel L.Manuel L. Quezón
(1878–1944)
Nacionalista November 23, 1909
61st Congress
October 15, 1916
64th Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Earnshaw Earnshaw, ManuelManuel Earnshaw
(1862–1936)
Nonpartisan March 4, 1913
63rd Congress
March 3, 1917
64th Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. de Veyra de Veyra, Jaime C.Jaime C. de Veyra
(1873–1963)
Nacionalista March 4, 1917
65th Congress
March 4, 1923
67th Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Yangco Yangco, Teodoro R.Teodoro R. Yangco
(1861–1939)
Nonpartisan March 4, 1917
65th Congress
March 3, 1920
66th Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Gabaldón Gabaldón, IsauroIsauro Gabaldón
(1875–1942)
Nacionalista March 4, 1920
68th Congress
July 16, 1928
70th Congress
Resigned
Res. Comm. Guevara Guevara, PedroPedro Guevara
(1879–1938)
Nacionalista March 4, 1923
67th Congress
February 14, 1936
74th Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Osias Osías, CamiloCamilo Osías
(1889–1976)
Nacionalista March 4, 1929
71st Congress
January 3, 1935
73rd Congress
Retired
Res. Comm. Delgado Delgado, Francisco AfanFrancisco Afan Delgado
(1886–1964)
Nacionalista January 3, 1935
67th Congress
February 14, 1936
67th Congress
Retired
Commonwealth era
Res. Comm. Paredes Paredes, QuintínQuintín Paredes
(1884–1973)
Nacionalista February 14, 1936
74th Congress
September 29, 1938
75th Congress
Resigned
Res. Comm. Elizalde Elizalde, Joaquín MiguelJoaquín Miguel Elizalde
(1896–1965)
Nonpartisan September 29, 1938
76th Congress
August 9, 1944
78th Congress
Resigned
Res. Comm. Romulo Romulo, Carlos P.Carlos P. Romulo
(1899–1985)
Liberal August 10, 1944
78th Congress
July 4, 1946
79th Congress
Resigned; final Philippine representative

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dorothy B. Fujita-Rony (2003). American Workers, Colonial Power. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23095-7. 
  2. ^ Kramer, Paul Alexander (2006). The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, & the Philippines. University of North Carolina Press. p. 325. ISBN 9780807856536.