Resistant starch

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A specially developed strain of Barley, high in resistant starch

Resistant starch (RS) is starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.[1][medical citation needed] Resistant starch is considered the third type of dietary fiber, as it can deliver some of the benefits of insoluble fiber and some of the benefits of soluble fiber.[citation needed]

Some carbohydrates, such as sugars and most starch, are rapidly digested and absorbed as glucose into the body through the small intestine and subsequently used for short-term energy needs or stored.[medical citation needed] Resistant starch, on the other hand, resists digestion and passes through to the large intestine where it acts like dietary fiber.[medical citation needed]

Resistant starch functions as a laxative and consuming it can lead to excessive wind. It is widely promoted as a weight loss aid, but the claims made for it are not supported by medical evidence. Resistant starch is being studied for possible health applications but most research is at an early stage; there is some evidence it might be a useful substitute for refined carbohydrates in diets aimed at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, and that it might help maintain a healthy colon.

Definition and categorization[edit]

Resistant starch (RS) is any starch or starch digestion products that are not digested and absorbed in the stomach or small intestine and pass on to the large intestine.[2] RS has been categorized into four types:[2]

  • RS1 Physically inaccessible or undigestible resistant starch, such as that found in seeds or legumes and unprocessed whole grains.
  • RS2 Resistant starch is inaccessible to enzymes due to starch conformation, as in high amylose corn starch
  • RS3 Resistant starch that is formed when starch-containing foods are cooked and cooled, such as pasta. Occurs due to retrogradation, which refers to the collective processes of dissolved starch becoming less soluble after being heated and dissolved in water and then cooled.
  • RS4 Starches that have been chemically modified to resist digestion

Health effects[edit]

Fermentation of resistant starch may produce gas and bloating when high quantities are consumed.[3] One review estimated that daily intake of resistant starch may be as high as 45 grams in adults,[4] an amount exceeding the total recommended intake for dietary fiber of 25-38 grams per day.[5] Resistant starch may contribute to colon health by producing short-chain fatty acids, among which butyrate is a primary energy source for colonic cells.[6]

In its various forms, resistant starch is digested and/or fermented variably,[7] leading to preliminary research of resistant starch subtypes on disease risk.[8] For example, although effects on weight management have been implicated, there is no evidence that resistant starch has an effect on human weight or energy balance.[9][10] Despite the lack of evidence, resistant starch has nevertheless been promoted as a "weight loss wonder food".[9]

There is preliminary evidence that resistant starch, used as a substitute for refined carbohydrate, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.[11]

Nutritional information[edit]

Resistant starch is considered both a dietary fiber and a functional fiber, depending on whether it is naturally in foods or added.[12][13][14] The U.S. Institute of Medicine has defined total fiber as equal to functional fiber plus dietary fiber,[15] and U.S. food labeling doesn't distinguish between them.[16]

Examples of naturally occurring resistant starch[17]
Food Serving size Resistant starch
(grams)
Banana flour,[18] from green bananas 1/4 cup, uncooked 10.5-13.2
Banana, raw, slightly green 1 medium, peeled 4.7
High amylose RS2 corn resistant starch 1 tablespoon (9.5 g) 4.5
Oats, rolled 1/4 cup, uncooked 4.4
Green peas, frozen 1 cup, cooked 4.0
White beans 1/2 cup, cooked 3.7
Lentils 1/2 cup cooked 2.5
Cold pasta 1 cup 1.9
Pearl barley 1/2 cup cooked 1.6
Cold potato 1/2" diameter 0.6 - 0.8
Oatmeal 1 cup cooked 0.5

In 1971, Painter and Burkitt suggested[19] that a significant gap exists between the amount of dietary fiber urbanized people consume and the optimal amount of fiber for health and wellness, but some skepticism remains.[20][21][medical citation needed] In 1982, Englyst et al.[22] gelatinized starch then post-processed it with both alpha-amylase and pullulanase in order to analyze it, found that some starch remained, and called it resistant starch.[23][24] In 1986, Berry formed[25] functional RS3[26] dietary fibers by a process of heating and cooling[27] a variety of starch sources, one of which was amylopectin pre-processed with the enzyme pullulanase. That source had the second highest alpha-amylase resistant starch level, while amylomaize or high-amylose starch had the highest.[28][29][30] In 2007, the Federal Register published a 2001 U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber's response to a request from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The IOM Panel proposed two definitions: functional fiber as "isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans", and dietary fiber as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." They also proposed that the prior classifications of soluble versus insoluble be phased out and replaced with viscous versus fermentable with respect to each specific fiber.[31]

Resistant starch can be used to replace higher calorie food ingredients, such as flour or other rapidly digested carbohydrates. Natural resistant starch delivers between 2-3 kilocalories/gram (8-12 kilojoules/gram) versus 4 kilocalories/gram (16 kilojoules/gram).[32][medical citation needed] [33][medical citation needed] Consequently, resistant starch is a valuable tool for formulators of reduced-calorie foods.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Asp NG. (1992). "Resistant starch. Proceedings from the second plenary meeting of EURESTA: European FLAIR Concerted Action No. 11 on physiological implications of the consumption of resistant starch in man. Crete, 29 May-2 June 1991". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46 (Suppl 2): S1–148. PMID 1425538. 
  2. ^ a b Higgins JA Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(9):1158-66. PMID 24499148 PMC 4220782
  3. ^ Cummings JH, Macfarlane GT, Englyst HN (2001). "Prebiotic digestion and fermentation". Am J Clin Nutr 73 (2 Suppl): 415S–420S. PMID 11157351. 
  4. ^ Grabitske, HA; Slavin, JL (2009). "Gastrointestinal effects of low-digestible carbohydrates". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49 (4): 327–360. doi:10.1080/10408390802067126. PMID 19234944. 
  5. ^ "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids". Institute of Medicine, US National Academy of Sciences. 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  6. ^ Andoh A, Tsujikawa T, Fujiyama Y (2003). "Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon". Curr. Pharm. Des. 9 (4): 347–58. doi:10.2174/1381612033391973. PMID 12570825. 
  7. ^ Haub, MD; Hubach, KL; Al-tamimi, EK; Ornelas, S; Seib, PA. "Different types of resistant starch elicit different glucose responses in humans". Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2010: 230501. doi:10.1155/2010/230501. 
  8. ^ Birt DF, Boylston T, Hendrich S, Jane JL, Hollis J, Li L, McClelland J, Moore S, Phillips GJ, Rowling M, Schalinske K, Scott MP, Whitley EM (2013). "Resistant starch: promise for improving human health". Adv Nutr (Review) 4 (6): 587–601. doi:10.3945/an.113.004325. PMC 3823506. PMID 24228189. 
  9. ^ a b Higgins JA (2014). "Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr (Review) 54 (9): 1158–66. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.629352. PMC 4220782. PMID 24499148. 
  10. ^ Zhang L, Li HT, Shen L, Fang QC, Qian LL, Jia WP (2015). "Effect of dietary resistant starch on prevention and treatment of obesity-related diseases and its possible mechanisms". Biomed Environ Sci (Review) 28 (4): 291–7. doi:10.3967/bes2015.040. PMID 25966755. the effects of RS on the treatment of these diseases in humans are still unknown 
  11. ^ Maki KC, Phillips AK (2015). "Dietary substitutions for refined carbohydrate that show promise for reducing risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women". J. Nutr. (Review) 145 (1): 159S–163S. doi:10.3945/jn.114.195149. PMID 25527674. 
  12. ^ Jo Ann Tatum Hattner; Susan Anderes (2009). Gut Insight: probiotics and prebiotics for digestive health and well-being. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-615-28524-5. Retrieved Mar 16, 2011. 
  13. ^ Lloyd W. Rooney; Lusas, Edmund W. (2001). Snack Foods Processing. Boca Raton: CRC. p. 134. ISBN 1-56676-932-9. Retrieved Mar 16, 2011. 
  14. ^ National Research Council (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. National Academies Press. ISBN 0309085373. 
  15. ^ Jane Higdon (2007). An evidence-based approach to dietary phytochemicals. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers. p. 102. ISBN 3-13-141841-9. Retrieved Mar 16, 2011. 
  16. ^ Bier, Dennis M.; Alpers, David H.; Stenson, William F.; Taylor, Beth Weir (2008). Manual of nutritional therapeutics. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 419. ISBN 0-7817-6841-1. Retrieved Mar 16, 2011. 
  17. ^ Murphy M, Douglass JS, Birkett A. Resistant starch intake in the United States, Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2008; 108:67-78.
  18. ^ Moogngarm et al. (2014). "RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION". American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 (3): 457–465. 
  19. ^ Painter NS, Burkitt DP (May 1971). "Diverticular disease of the colon: a deficiency disease of Western civilization". Br Med J 2 (5759): 450–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5759.450. PMC 1796198. PMID 4930390. 
  20. ^ Floch MH, White JA (May 2006). "Management of diverticular disease is changing". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (20): 3225–8. PMID 16718843. Retrieved Mar 13, 2011. 
  21. ^ Stollman N, Raskin JB (February 2004). "Diverticular disease of the colon". Lancet 363 (9409): 631–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15597-9. PMID 14987890. 
  22. ^ Englyst, H; Wiggins, HS; Cummings, JH (1982). "Determination of the non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates". Analyst 107 (1272): 307–318. doi:10.1039/AN9820700307. PMID 6283946. 
  23. ^ Hedley, C. L. (2001). Carbohydrates in grain legume seeds: improving nutritional quality and agronomic characteristics. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Pub. p. 47. ISBN 0-85199-467-9. Retrieved Mar 25, 2011. 
  24. ^ Nugent A.P. (2005). "Health properties of resistant starch, British Nutrition Foundation". Nutrition Bulletin 30 (1): 27–54. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2005.00481.x. 
  25. ^ Berry CS, "Resistant starch: Formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fibre" Journal of Cereal Science, October 1986;4(4): 301–314. doi:10.1016/S0733-5210(86)80034-0
  26. ^ Claudio P. Ribeiro; Passos, Maria Helena (2009). Innovation in Food Engineering: New Techniques and Products (Contemporary Food Engineering). Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 646. ISBN 1-4200-8606-5. Retrieved Mar 17, 2011. 
  27. ^ Sievert D, Pomeranz Y (Jul–Aug 1989). "Enzyme-resistant starch. I. Characterization and evaluation by enzymatic, thermoanalytical, and microscopic methods" (PDF). Cereal chemistry 66 (4): 342–347. ISSN 0009-0352. 
  28. ^ Chapman, C. Stuart; Henry, C. E. (2002). The nutrition handbook for food processors. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 307. ISBN 1-85573-464-8. Retrieved Mar 17, 2011. 
  29. ^ Johan B Ubbink; Stefan Kasapis; Ian T. Norton (2009). Modern Biopolymer Science: Bridging the Divide between Fundamental Treatise and Industrial Application. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 462–478. ISBN 0-12-374195-5. Retrieved Mar 17, 2011. 
  30. ^ Wiseman, J. D. A.; Varley, M. C. (2001). The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management. Oxon: CAB International. ISBN 0-85199-532-2. Retrieved Mar 17, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Federal Register | Food Labeling: Revision of Reference Values and Mandatory Nutrients". 11/2/2007. Retrieved Mar 18, 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  32. ^ Behall KM, Howe JC (June 1996). "Resistant starch as energy". J Am Coll Nutr 15 (3): 248–54. PMID 8935440. 
  33. ^ Aust L, Dongowski G, Frenz U, Täufel A, Noack R (February 2001). "Estimation of available energy of dietary fibres by indirect calorimetry in rats". Eur J Nutr 40 (1): 23–9. doi:10.1007/pl00007382. PMID 11315502.