# Resonance method of ice destruction

The Resonance method of ice destruction means breaking sheet-ice which has formed over a body of water by causing the ice and water to oscillate up and down until the ice suffers sufficient mechanical fatigue to cause a fracture.

## Resonance

If static force is applied to a sheet of ice it will flex slightly before suffering a catastrophic failure. Since the ice will bend slightly when any vehicle capable of travelling on ice-covered water, it follows that travelling at some critical speed may impose sufficient flexing of the ice sheet to cause resonance, and this may result in positive feedback effectively amplifying the oscillation within the body of water supporting the ice beneath the vehicle.

## Flexural gravity waves

These are three-dimensional oscillations of forces which occur within a disturbed liquid and are usually observed as surface waves.[1]

There have been cases of destruction of ice by flexural gravity waves (FGW) produced by moving cars, trains on railway crossings, aircraft during takeoff and landing, etc. However, at present the most appropriate vehicles for implementation of the method are amphibious hovercraft, also known as air cushion vehicles (ACV).[citation needed]

The primary means to break the ice cover is the icebreaker fleet. However, large energy consumption for the destruction of the ice, the inability to perform icebreaking operations in shallow waters because of the deep draught of icebreakers, and other difficulties, have prompted a search for fundamentally new ways of destruction of ice. One of them is designed by Viktor Kozin author of the study: "Resonance method of destruction of ice cover".[2]

## Overview of technique

It is known that the motion of a load over ice cover develops a system of flexural gravity waves (FGW). This is a combination of flexural vibrations of the ice plate and associated gravitational waves in the water. When the velocity of the load is close to the minimum phase velocity of the FGW, the water ceases to support the ice sheet and support is achieved only by the elastic properties of the ice. The amplitude of the FGW increase sharply and, with a sufficient load, destruction begins. The power consumption is several times lower (depending on the thickness of the ice) compared with icebreakers and ice-breaking attachments. This method of ice destruction is known as the resonance method.

The advantages of hovercraft are: the lack of exposure of the vehicle body to the ice, the ability to cross safely over snow and ice cover, broken ice, and open water. The virtual absence of draught in hovercraft can break the ice in pools of any depth.

Using a hovercraft for destruction of ice is desirable because this type of vehicle makes possible a combination of transport and ice-breaking, and its all-terrain qualities facilitate year-round operation.

The high speed of destruction of ice by hovercraft can effectively make an early opening of individual sections of rivers and reservoirs. This may not only increase the period of navigation, but also prevent the phenomenon of mash. Working an ACV in the resonant regime is effective not only on surface ice, but also on deep ice, and this can prevent disasters occurring during freeze-up and drifting.

## Research

Scientist Viktor Kozin has obtained experimental theoretical curves, which reveal all the possibilities of his method.

## References

1. ^ Milewski, P. & Wang, Z (2013). "Three Dimensional Flexural–Gravity Waves (abstract)". Bath university, UK.
2. ^ Kozin, V.M. (2007). Resonance method of destruction of ice cover. invention and experimentation. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo "The Academy of Natural Sciences". pp. –355 with. ISBN 978-5-91327-017-7.

### Patents

• Method of ice cover destruction, RF Patent № 1605471 from 19.11.1993 Kozin V.M.
• Method of destruction of ice hovercraftRussian Patent № 1766012 from 01.06.1992 Kozin V.M.

### Publications in refereed journals

• Kozin V.M., Pogorelov, AV Wave resistance amphibious hovercraft when driving on ice. / Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House SB RAS. - 2003. - T. 44. - № 2. - S. 49-55
• Kozin V.M., Pogorelova A.V. Mathematical Modeling of Shocr Loading of Solid Ice Cover / / The Sixth (2004) ISOPE Pacific / Asia Offshore Mechanics Syptember 12-16, 2004, Vladivostok Russia
• Kozin V.M., Pogorelova A.V. Mathematical Modeliing of Shock Loadiing of a Solid Ice Cover / / International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineeriing (ISSN 1053-5381) Copyright © by International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. Vol., 1916, № 1, march, 2005, pp. 1–4
• Kozin V.M., Pogorelova A.V. Nonstationary Motion of Amphibian Air-Cushion Vehicll on Ice Fields / / The Seventh (2006) ISOPE Pacific / Asia Offshore Mechanics Simposium. Dalian, China, September, 17-21, 2006

### Articles in scientific books and periodical publications

• Kozin V.M., Pogorelova A.V. Viscoelastic response of floating ice plate to a stationary moving SVPA. In Sat "Far Eastern. Mathematical School-Seminar. Acad. E.V. Zolotov. - Vladivostok: Izd Dalnvost. Press, 2003. - P. 117
• V.M. Kozin, A.V. Onischuk Investigation of one of the problems surfacing submarine vessels in the ice cover. / / Modern technologies in shipbuilding education, science and industry., Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk State Technical University, 2003

### Publications in materials research activities

• Kozin V.M., Pogorelova, A.V. New perspectives in the use of amphibious hovercraft. Proceedings of the International Forum on science, technology and education. T2/pod edited VPSavinykh, V.V.Vishnevskogo.-M.: Academy of Earth Sciences, 2004, p. 98-99
• Kozin V.M., Tereschenkova ES Analysis of the causes and the recommended methods of destruction of congestion. Problems of continuum mechanics and related problems of mechanical engineering: Sat. Reports of the Third Conference. Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, September, 2004. Komsomolsk-on-Amur: IMiM FEBRAS, 2005, p. 130-133
• Kozin V.M. Lomakin N.S. Problems outlined with hovercrafts. Problems of continuum mechanics and related problems of mechanical engineering: Sat. Reports of the Third Conference. Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, September, 2004. Komsomolsk-on-Amur: IMiM FEBRAS, 2005, p. 134-137
• Kozin V.M., Koloshenko JB Experimental studies of deformation of the ice cover caused by moving loads. Problems of continuum mechanics and related problems of mechanical engineering: Sat. Reports of the Third Conference. Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, September, 2004. Komsomolsk-on-Amur: IMiM FEBRAS, 2005, p. 138-142