Respiratory tract infection

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Respiratory tract infection
Illu conducting passages.svg
Conducting passages
Classification and external resources

Respiratory tract infection refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold.

Upper respiratory tract infection[edit]

Although some disagreement exists on the exact boundary between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the upper respiratory tract is generally considered to be the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx.

Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, certain types of influenza, and the common cold.[1] Symptoms of URIs can include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, headache, low grade fever, facial pressure and sneezing.

Lower respiratory tract infection[edit]

The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs.

Lower respiratory tract infections are generally more serious than upper respiratory infections. LRIs are the leading cause of death among all infectious diseases.[2] The two most common LRIs are bronchitis and pneumonia.[3] Influenza affects both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but more dangerous strains such as the highly pernicious H5N1 tend to bind to receptors deep in the lungs.[4]

Diagnosis[edit]

Deaths from respiratory infections per million persons in 2012
  24-120
  121-151
  152-200
  201-244
  245-346
  347-445
  446-675
  676-866
  867-1,209
  1,210-2,090
Disability-adjusted life year for respiratory infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
  less than 100
  100-700
  700-1400
  1400-2100
  2100-2800
  2800-3500
  3500-4200
  4200-4900
  4900-5600
  5600-6300
  6300-7000
  more than 7000

Rapid viral testing in the emergency department for childre with acute febrile respiratory infections does not reduce the rates of antibiotic use, blood testing, urine testing or length of hospital stay. However, the relative risk reduction of chest x-ray utilization in children screened with rapid viral testing is 77% compared with controls. [5][needs update] In 2013 researchers developed a breath tester that can promptly diagnose lung infections.[6][7]

Prevention[edit]

Normal surgical masks and N95 masks appear equivalent with respect to prevention respiratory infections.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM, Johnston M, et al. (2007). "Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics". Implement Sci. 2: 26. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-2-26. PMC 2042498free to read. PMID 17683558. 
  2. ^ Robert Beaglehole...; et al. (2004). The World Health Report 2004 - Changing History (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 120–4. ISBN 92-4-156265-X. 
  3. ^ Antibiotic Expert Group. Therapeutic guidelines: Antibiotic. 13th ed. North Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines; 2006.
  4. ^ van Riel D, Munster VJ, de Wit E, et al. (April 2006). "H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract". Science. 312 (5772): 399. doi:10.1126/science.1125548. PMID 16556800. 
  5. ^ Doan, Q; Enarson, P; Kissoon, N; Klassen, TP; Johnson, DW (2012). Doan, Quynh, ed. "Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 5: CD006452. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006452.pub3. PMID 22592711. 
  6. ^ "Breath Test Could Sniff Out Infections in Minutes". Scientific American. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  7. ^ Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W; Hill, Jane E (2013). "Detecting bacterial lung infections:in vivoevaluation ofin vitrovolatile fingerprints". Journal of Breath Research. 7 (1): 016003. doi:10.1088/1752-7155/7/1/016003. PMID 23307645. 
  8. ^ Smith, JD; MacDougall, CC; Johnstone, J; Copes, RA; Schwartz, B; Garber, GE (17 May 2016). "Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis". CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal (Journal de l'Association medicale canadienne). 188 (8): 567–74. PMID 26952529.