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Respondent error

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In survey sampling, respondent error refers to any error introduced into the survey results due to respondents providing untrue or incorrect information.[1] It is a type of systemic bias.

Language and educational issues can lead to a misunderstanding of the question by the respondent, or similarly, a misunderstanding of the response by the surveyor. Recall bias can lead to misinformation based on a respondent misrecalling the facts in question. Social desirability bias can lead a respondent to respond in a fashion that he or she thinks is correct or better or less embarrassing, rather than providing true and honest responses.


  1. ^ Biemer, Paul; Stokes, S. Lynne (2004-08-10). "Approaches to the Modeling of Measurement Errors". Measurement Errors in Surveys: 485–516. doi:10.1002/9781118150382.ch24. ISSN 1940-6347.