Restrictive lung disease

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Restrictive lung disease
Other namesRestrictive ventilatory defect[1]
SpecialtyPulmonology

Restrictive lung diseases are a category of extrapulmonary, pleural, or parenchymal respiratory diseases that restrict lung expansion,[2] resulting in a decreased lung volume, an increased work of breathing, and inadequate ventilation and/or oxygenation. Pulmonary function test demonstrates a decrease in the forced vital capacity.

Presentation[edit]

Due to the chronic nature of this disease, the leading symptom of restrictive lung disease is progressive exertional dyspnea.[3]  For acute on chronic cases, shortness of breath, cough, and respiratory failure are some of the more common signs.[3]

Causes[edit]

Restrictive lung diseases may be due to specific causes which can be intrinsic to the parenchyma of the lung, or extrinsic to it.[3]

Intrinsic[edit]

Many cases of restrictive lung disease are idiopathic (have no known cause). Still, there is generally pulmonary fibrosis.[5] Examples are:

Conditions specifically affecting the interstitium are called interstitial lung diseases.

Extrinsic[edit]

Pathophysiology[edit]

In normal respiratory function, the air flows in through the upper airway, down through the bronchi and into the lung parenchyma (the bronchioles down to the alveoli) where gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs.[7]  During inspiration, the lungs expand to allow airflow into the lungs and thereby increasing total volume.  After inspiration follows expiration during which the lungs recoil and push air back out of the pulmonary pathway.  Lung compliance is the difference of volume during inspiration and expiration.[7]

Restrictive lung disease is characterized by reduced lung volumes, and therefore reduced lung compliance, either due to an intrinsic reason, for example a change in the lung parenchyma, or due to an extrinsic reason, for example diseases of the chest wall, pleura, or respiratory muscles.[3]  Generally, intrinsic causes are from lung parenchyma diseases that cause inflammation of scarring of the lung tissue, such as interstitial lung disease or pulmonary fibrosis, or from having the alveoli air spaces filled with external material such as debris or exudate in pneumonitis.[3] As some diseases of the lung parenchyma progress, the normal lung tissue can be gradually replaced with scar tissue that is interspersed with pockets of air.[5]  This can lead to parts of the lung having a honeycomb-like appearance.  The extrinsic causes result in lung restriction, impaired ventilatory function, and even respiratory failure due to the diseases that effect the lungs ability to create a change in lung volumes during respiration due to the diseases of the systems stated above.[3]

Diagnosis[edit]

In restrictive lung disease, both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are reduced, however, the decline in FVC is more than that of FEV1, resulting in a higher than 80% FEV1/FVC ratio. In obstructive lung disease however, the FEV1/FVC is less than 0.7, indicating that FEV1 is significantly reduced when compared to the total expired volume. This indicates that the FVC is also reduced, but not by the same ratio as FEV1.[8]

One definition requires a total lung capacity which is 80% or less of the expected value.[9]

Management[edit]

Medical treatment for restrictive lung disease is normally limited to supportive care since both the intrinsic and extrinsic causes can have irreversible effects on lung compliance.[10] The supportive therapies focus on maximizing pulmonary function and preserving activity tolerance through oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists, and diuretics.[10] Because there is no effective treatment for restrictive lung disease, prevention is key.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johns Hopkins School of Medicine's Interactive Respiratory Physiology > Restrictive Ventilatory Defect Retrieved on February 25, 2010
  2. ^ Sharma, Sat. "Restrictive Lung Disease". Retrieved 2008-04-19.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "eMedicine - Restrictive Lung Disease : Article by Sat Sharma". Retrieved 2008-11-21.
  4. ^ Amaral, André F.S.; Coton, Sonia; Kato, Bernet; Tan, Wan C.; Studnicka, Michael; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Mannino, David; Bateman, Eric D.; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter G.J. (October 2015). "Tuberculosis associates with both airflow obstruction and low lung function: BOLD results". European Respiratory Journal. 46 (4): 1104–1112. doi:10.1183/13993003.02325-2014. PMC 4594762. PMID 26113680.
  5. ^ a b PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS A Workshop on Simple Spirometry & Flow Volume Loops. Dr. S. Osborne, Dept. Cellular & Physiological Sciences. Mars 2009
  6. ^ a b eMedicine Specialties > Pulmonology > Interstitial Lung Diseases > Restrictive Lung Disease Author: Lalit K Kanaparthi, MD, Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, Sat Sharma, MD. Updated: Jul 27, 2009
  7. ^ a b Capriotti, Theresa (2016). Pathophysiology : introductory concepts and clinical perspectives. Frizzell, Joan Parker. Philadelphia. ISBN 978-0-8036-1571-7. OCLC 900626405.
  8. ^ Lee, H., Lim, S., Kim, J., Ha, H., & Park, H. (2015). Comparison Of Various Pulmonary Function Parameters In The Diagnosis Of Obstructive Lung Disease In Patients With Normal Fev1/FVC And Low FVC. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2015, Vol.191.
  9. ^ Brack T, Jubran A, Tobin MJ (May 2002). "Dyspnea and decreased variability of breathing in patients with restrictive lung disease". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165 (9): 1260–4. doi:10.1164/rccm.2201018. PMID 11991875.
  10. ^ a b c Focus on adult health : medical-surgical nursing. Honan, Linda, 1955- (1st ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2013. ISBN 978-1-58255-877-6. OCLC 756895022.CS1 maint: others (link)

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources