Resurgam (latin: "I shall rise again") is the name given to two early Victorian submarines designed and built in Britain by Reverend George Garrett as a weapon to penetrate the chain netting placed around ship hulls to defend against attack by torpedo vessels.
The first Resurgam, built in 1878, was a 14 ft (5 m), hand powered, one-man vessel nicknamed "the curate's egg" due to its shape. Its small size and one-man crew meant it would have been ineffective as a weapon.
The second Resurgam was built by Cohran & Co. at Birkenhead, England, and launched on 26 November 1879. Her construction was of iron plates fastened to iron frames, with the central section of the vessel clad with wood secured by iron straps. As built, she was 45 feet (14 m) long by 10 feet (3.0 m) in diameter, weighed 30 long tons (30 t), and had a crew of 3. She was powered by a closed cycle steam engine originally patented in 1872 by the American engineer Eugene Lamm which provided enough steam to turn the single propeller for up to 4 hours. She was designed to have positive buoyancy, and diving was controlled by a pair of hydroplanes amidships. At the time she cost £1,538.
However, during the voyage mechanical problems caused the crew to dock at Rhyl for repairs. Once completed, the crew set sail at night in a high wind, towed by the steam yacht Elphin, which Garrett had bought to act as a tender. The Elphin developed engine problems and the Resurgam's crew transferred to her to assist. Because the entry hatch on the Resurgam could not be fastened from outside, the submarine began to ship water and the towrope broke under the added weight, the Resurgam sinking in Liverpool Bay off Rhyl on 25 February 1880.
Discovery of wreck
For many years the exact location of Resurgam was a mystery. In 1995, it was found by an experienced wreck diver, Keith Hurley, while he was attempting to clear snagged fishing nets in 60 feet (18 m) of water. On 4 July 1996 Resurgam was designated protected wreck n.o 42 under the Protection of Wrecks Act. The site of the wreck covers an area 900 feet (270 m) in radius at Coordinates: .
The Resurgam's hull is intact although partially damaged and remains at risk from illegal diving and trawling. Since her discovery, the conning tower steering wheel has been broken and portable items have gone missing.
In 1997, a project called SUBMAP was undertaken by the Archaeological Diving Unit to study the wreck site. Over one hundred volunteer divers, coordinated by the Nautical Archaeology Society, surveyed the structure of the hull and the colonising marine life around it by using remote sensing equipment to search for debris in the surrounding area. The results of the SUBMAP project have been published as a comprehensive digital archive using Site Recorder. The wreck is currently protected against further corrosion by sacrificial anodes that had been attached to the hull. Plans to raise her have so far not been fruitful.
A replica of the vessel was put on display at Woodside, Birkenhead, in 1997.
In popular culture
- Resurgam was featured in the TV programme Wreck Detectives in 2004.
- "Resurgam was featured in the TV programme Supernatural in 2012.
- Kevin Rolph Ronan's novel Peregrine's Funny Adventure on Board the Resurgam, 1990. Random House Ltd., Sydney, Australia
- 'Resurgam' is inscribed on the headstone of the character Helen Burns in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre.
- Resurgam is a fictional planet in Alastair Reynold's novel "Revelation Space".
Media related to Resurgam submarines at Wikimedia Commons
- "Construction and launch of the Resurgam". E. Chambré Hardman Archive. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- 3H Consulting http://www.3hconsulting.com/SitesResurgam.htm Resurgam Archive
- BBC News - Chester divers attempt to save Resurgam II submarine
- , The Father of the Submarine, Scanlan Murphy W., 1987, William Kimber & Co Ltd, ISBN 0-7183-0654-6
- Divernet article about discovering the submarine Retrieved 20 November 2006
- Fenwick, Valerie and Gale, Alison (1998), pp 143–144, Historic Shipwrecks, Discovered, Protected and Investigated, Tempus Publishing Limited, ISBN 0-7524-1473-9.
- Statutory Instrument 1996 No. 1741 Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 19 October 2006
- Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck Annual Report 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2006
- Wreck Detectives 2004
- Mersey Shipping News (16 March 1997) Retrieved 12 October 2007
- SUBMAP Photographs Retrieved 4 September 2009
- Compton-Hall R. (1999), pp 81–94, The Submarine Pioneers, Sutton Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-7509-2154-4
- Scanlan Murphy W. (1987), pp 62–83, The Father of the Submarine, William Kimber & Co Ltd, ISBN 0-7183-0654-6
- Bowers P. (1999), pp89–129, The Garrett Enigma, Airlife Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-84037-066-1
- BBC article about Resurgam