Resveratrol

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Resveratrol
Chemical 9–69 structure of trans-resveratrol
Chemical structure of trans-resveratrol
Chemical structures of cis- and trans-resveratrols
Chemical structures of cis- ((Z)-resveratrol, left) and trans-resveratrol ((E)-resveratrol, right)[1]
Names
Other names
trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene;
3,4′,5-Stilbenetriol;
trans-Resveratrol;
(E)-5-(p-Hydroxystyryl)resorcinol;
(E)-5-(4-hydroxystyryl)benzene-1,3-diol
Identifiers
501-36-0 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:45713 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL165 YesY
ChemSpider 392875 YesY
DrugBank DB02709 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.121.386
KEGG C03582 YesY
PubChem 445154
RTECS number CZ8987000
UNII Q369O8926L YesY
Properties
C14H12O3
Molar mass 228.25 g·mol−1
Appearance white powder with
slight yellow cast
Melting point 261 to 263 °C (502 to 505 °F; 534 to 536 K)[2]
Solubility in water 0.03 g/L
Solubility in DMSO 16 g/L
Solubility in ethanol 50 g/L
UV-vismax) 304nm (trans-resveratrol, in water)
286nm (cis-resveratrol, in water)[1]
Hazards
Safety data sheet Fisher Scientific[2]
Sigma Aldrich[3]
R-phrases R36 (irritating to eyes)[3]
S-phrases S26 (in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and

seek medical advice)[3]

Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
23.2 µM (5.29 g)[4]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references
UV visible spectrum of trans-resveratrol

Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants in response to injury or when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.[5][6] Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries,[7] lingonberry[8] and senna.

Although it is used as a dietary supplement, there is no clear evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health.[9][10]

Health effects[edit]

Heart disease[edit]

There is no evidence of benefit from resveratrol in those who already have heart disease.[11] A 2014 Chinese meta-analysis found weak evidence that high-dose resveratrol supplementation could reduce systolic blood pressure.[12]

Cancer[edit]

As of 2016, there is no evidence of an effect of resveratrol on cancer in humans.[13]

Metabolism[edit]

There is no conclusive human evidence for an effect of resveratrol on metabolism.[14][15]

Lifespan[edit]

There is no evidence for an effect of resveratrol on lifespan in humans as of 2011.[16]

Adverse effects[edit]

In 2010, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) suspended a small clinical trial of SRT501, a proprietary form of resveratrol, due to safety concerns, and terminated the study later that year.[17]

Although limited human studies have shown resveratrol is well-tolerated,[12][15] one clinical study of Alzheimer's disease patients showed there were side effects from daily intake of up to 2 grams, including nausea, diarrhea and weight loss.[18]

Pharmacology[edit]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Although in vitro studies indicate resveratrol activates sirtuin 1[19] and PGC-1α, and affects functioning of mitochondria,[20] other research disputes this effect.[21][22]

In cells treated with resveratrol, an increase is observed in the action of MnSOD (SOD2)[23] and in GPER activity.[24]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

One way of administering resveratrol in humans may be buccal delivery, that is without swallowing, by direct absorption through tissues on the inside of the mouth. When one milligram of resveratrol in 50 ml 50% alcohol/ water solution was retained in the mouth for one minute before swallowing, 37 ng/ml of free resveratrol were measured in plasma two minutes later. This level of unchanged resveratrol in blood can only be achieved with 250 mg of resveratrol taken in a pill form.[25] However, the viability of a buccal delivery method is called into question due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. For a drug to be absorbed transmucosally it must be in free-form or dissolved.[26][27] Resveratrol fits the criteria for oral transmucosal dosing, except for this caveat. The low aqueous solubility greatly limits the amount that can be absorbed through the buccal mucosa. Resveratrol that is attempted to be taken buccally was expected to pass through the mucous membrane of the mouth and be absorbed as an oral dose,[28] however, the need to explore buccal delivery in future pharmaceutical formulations was expressed.[27][29]

While 70% of orally administered resveratrol is absorbed its oral bioavailability is approximately 0.5% due to extensive hepatic glucuronidation and sulfation.[30] Resveratrol given in a proprietary formulation SRT-501 (3 or 5 g), developed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, reached five to eight times higher blood levels. These levels did approach the concentration necessary to exert the effects shown in animal models and in vitro experiments.[31]

In rats, less than 5% of the oral dose was observed as free resveratrol in blood plasma.[32] There is a hypothesis that resveratrol from wine could have higher bioavailability than resveratrol from a pill.[33]

In a human study involving oral administration of 500 mg over 13 weeks, resveratrol was detected in cerebrospinal fluid, indicating that it had crossed the blood-brain barrier.[18]

Metabolism[edit]

Resveratrol gets extensively metabolized in the body, with the liver and lungs as the major sites of its metabolism.[34]

Chemistry[edit]

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenoid, a derivative of stilbene.

It exists as two geometric isomers: cis- (Z) and trans- (E), with the trans-isomer shown in the top image. The trans- and cis-resveratrol can be either free or bound to glucose.[35]

The trans- form can undergo isomerization to the cis- form when exposed to ultraviolet irradiation,[36] a process called photoisomerization:[37]

Resveratrol photoisomerization

One study showed that ultraviolet irradiation to cis-resveratrol induces further photochemical reaction, producing a fluorescent molecule named "Resveratrone".[38]

Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under "accelerated stability" conditions of 75% humidity and 40 °C in the presence of air.[39] The trans isomer is also stabilized by the presence of transport proteins.[40] Resveratrol content also was stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period.[41] lH- and 13C-NMR data for the four most common forms of resveratrols are reported in literature.[35]

Biosynthesis[edit]

Resveratrol is produced in plants by the action of the enzyme, resveratrol synthase.[42]

Biotransformation[edit]

The grapevine fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is able to oxidise resveratrol into metabolites showing attenuated antifungal activities. Those include the resveratrol dimers restrytisol A, B, and C, resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer, leachinol F, and pallidol.[43] The soil bacterium Bacillus cereus can be used to transform resveratrol into piceid (resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside).[44]

Occurrences[edit]

Plants[edit]

Resveratrol was originally isolated by Takaoka from the roots of hellebore in 1939,[45] and later, in 1963, from the roots of Japanese knotweed.[46]

In grapes, trans-resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced against the growth of fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea.[47] Its presence in Vitis vinifera grapes can also be constitutive, with accumulation in ripe berries of different levels of bound and free resveratrols, according to the genotype.[48] In grapes, resveratrol is found primarily in the skin,[49] and, in muscadine grapes, also in the seeds.[50] The amount found in grape skins also varies with the grape cultivar, its geographic origin, and exposure to fungal infection. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.[35][49]

It is also found in Pinus strobus, the eastern white pine.

Foods[edit]

The levels of resveratrol found in food varies considerably.[51] Red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/l,[52] depending on the grape variety. White wine has much less because red wine is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to extract the resveratrol, whereas white wine is fermented after the skin has been removed.[49][53] The composition of wine is different from that of grapes since the extraction of resveratrol from grapes depends on the duration of the skin contact, and the resveratrol 3-glucosides are in part hydrolysed, yielding both trans- and cis-resveratrol.[35]

Muscadine grapes may contain concentrations of resveratrol possibly as high as 40 mg/l,[50][54] but subsequent studies have found little or no resveratrol in different varieties of muscadine grapes.[55][56]

Peanuts, especially sprouted peanuts, have a content similar to grapes in a range of 2.3 to 4.5 μg/g before sprouting, and after sprouting, in a range of 11.7 to 25.7 μg/g, depending upon peanut cultivar.[57]

Mulberries (especially the skin)[58] are a source of as much as 50 micrograms of resveratrol per gram dry weight.[59]

Cocoa powder, baking chocolate, and dark chocolate also have low levels of resveratrol in normal consumption quantities (0.35 to 1.85 μg/g).[60]

Wine and grape juice[edit]

Beverage Total resveratrol (mg/l)[49][50] Total resveratrol (mg/150 ml)[49][50]
Red wine (global) 1.98 – 7.13 0.30 – 1.07
Red wine (Spanish) 1.92 – 12.59 0.29 – 1.89
Red grape juice (Spanish) 1.14 – 8.69 0.17 – 1.30
Rose wine (Spanish) 0.43 – 3.52 0.06 – 0.53
Pinot noir 0.40 – 2.0 0.06 – 0.30
White wine (Spanish) 0.05 – 1.80 0.01 – 0.27

The trans-resveratrol concentration in 40 Tuscan wines ranged from 0.3 to 2.1 mg/l in the 32 red wines tested and had a maximum of 0.1 mg/l in the 8 white wines in the test. Both the cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol were detected in all tested samples. cis-resveratrol levels were comparable to those of the trans-isomer. They ranged from 0.5 mg/l to 1.9 mg/l in red wines and had a maximum of 0.2 mg/l in white wines.[61]

In a review of published resveratrol concentrations, the average in red wines is 1.9±1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/L (8.2±7.5 µM, ranging from nondetectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 μM) trans-resveratrol. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol.[62]

Reports suggest some aspect[which?] of the wine making process converts piceid to resveratrol in wine, as wine seems to have twice the average resveratrol concentration of the equivalent commercial juices.[50]

In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed the highest level of trans-resveratrol, though no wine or region can yet be said to produce wines with significantly higher concentrations than any other wine or region.[62] Champagne and vinegar also contain appreciable levels of resveratrol.[51]

Selected foods[edit]

Food Serving Total resveratrol (mg)[5][60]
Peanuts (raw) 1 cup (146 grams) 0.01 – 0.26
Peanuts (boiled) 1 cup (180 grams) 0.32 – 1.28
Peanut butter 1 cup (258 grams) 0.04 – 0.13
Red grapes 1 cup (160 grams) 0.24 – 1.25
Cocoa powder 1 cup (200 grams) 0.28 – 0.46

Ounce for ounce, peanuts have about 25% as much resveratrol as red wine.[5][63]

In comparison, some red wines contain approximately 2 mg per litre or 0.3 mg per 5 ounce glass.[5] Resveratrol was detected in grape, cranberry, and wine samples. Concentrations ranged from 1.56 to 1042 nmol/g in Concord grape products, and from 8.63 to 24.84 µmol/L in Italian red wine. The concentrations of resveratrol were similar in cranberry and grape juice at 1.07 and 1.56 nmol/g, respectively.[64] Lingonberry was found to have a content of 5884 ng/g in a dried sample.[65]

Blueberries have about twice as much resveratrol as bilberries, but there is great regional variation. These fruits have less than 10% of the resveratrol of grapes. Cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol, reducing it by up to half.[66]

Dietary supplements[edit]

As a result of news coverage,[67][68] sales of supplements increased in 2006,[69] despite studies cautioning that benefits to humans are unproven.[69][70][71]

Supplements vary in purity and can contain anywhere from 50 percent to 99 percent resveratrol. Many brands consist of an unpurified extract of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), an introduced species in many countries. These contain about 50 percent resveratrol by weight, as well as emodin, which, while considered safe in moderate quantities, can have a laxative effect in high amounts.[72] Resveratrol can be produced from its glucoside piceid from Japanese knotweed fermented by Aspergillus oryzae.[73]

Harvard University scientist and professor David Sinclair was often quoted in online ads for resveratrol supplements, many of which implied endorsement of the advertised product; however, Sinclair, a pioneer in resveratrol research, went on record to say he never uttered many of the statements attributed to him on these sites.[74]

History[edit]

The first mention of resveratrol was in a Japanese article in 1939 by Michio Takaoka, who isolated it from Veratrum album, variety grandiflorum.[45][75] The name presumably derives from the resorcinol derivative of a Veratrum species.[45] In 2003, David Sinclair from Harvard Medical School reported that resveratrol activated sirtuins in yeast cells. The finding eventually led to the launch of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, an early-stage biotechnology company.

Research[edit]

A 2011 systematic review of existing resveratrol research demonstrated there was not enough evidence to demonstrate its effect on longevity or human diseases, nor could there be recommendations for intake beyond the amount normally obtained through dietary sources.[9] Much of the research showing positive effects has been done on animals, with insufficient clinical research on humans.[9]

As of 2016, resveratrol research in animals and humans remains active.[76][77]

Cancer[edit]

As of 2014, the results of limited human clinical trials with small samples sizes of the effects of resveratrol on cancer are inconsistent. Testing of resveratrol in animal models of cancer have also shown mixed results.[13] The strongest evidence of anticancer action of resveratrol exists for tumors it can contact directly, such as skin and gastrointestinal tract tumors. For other cancers, the evidence is uncertain, even if massive doses of resveratrol are used.[78] Resveratrol treatment appeared to prevent the development of mammary tumors in animal models; however, it had no effect on the growth of existing tumors. Paradoxically, treatment of prepubertal mice with high doses of resveratrol enhanced formation of tumors. Injected in high doses into mice, resveratrol slowed the growth of neuroblastomas.[78]

Neurological effects[edit]

A preliminary, one-year clinical trial of subjects with Alzheimer's disease showed that consuming 2 grams of resveratrol daily was well-tolerated and reduced some disease biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, although other biomarkers and progressive dementia were unaffected.[18] Other preliminary human studies indicated that short-term ingestion of resveratrol increased cerebral blood flow in normal subjects[79] and in those with diabetes.[80]

Cardioprotective effects[edit]

Moderate drinking of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.[81] This is best known as "the French paradox".[82][83]

Studies suggest resveratrol in red wine may play an important role in this phenomenon.[84] It appears to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity[85] and inhibit platelet aggregation.[86]

Antidiabetic effects[edit]

Animal studies have demonstrated an antidiabetic effects of resveratrol.[20][87] This compound was shown to act as agonist of PPARgamma, nuclear receptor that is current pharmacological target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.[88] A systematic review and meta-analysis noted that resveratrol is a "leading candidate" compound for serving as an adjunct pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes.[89]

Skin[edit]

Despite considerable in vitro and animal research, there is no evidence that resveratrol taken orally or topically has any effect on human skin.[90][91] Preliminary studies support human research on resveratrol to understand its potential as a therapy for melanoma.[90][91]

Psychological[edit]

In a number of animal models resveratrol has had an antidepressant-like effect.[92] Whether or not there is any effect in humans is unclear.[92]

Related compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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