Chemical structures of cis- ((Z)-resveratrol, left) and trans-resveratrol ((E)-resveratrol, right)
|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||228.25 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||white powder with
slight yellow cast
|Melting point||261 to 263 °C (502 to 505 °F; 534 to 536 K)|
|Solubility in water||0.03 g/L|
|Solubility in DMSO||16 g/L|
|Solubility in ethanol||50 g/L|
|UV-vis (λmax)||304nm (trans-resveratrol, in water)
286nm (cis-resveratrol, in water)
|Safety data sheet||Fisher Scientific
|R-phrases||R36 (irritating to eyes)|
|S-phrases||S26 (in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and
seek medical advice)
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|23.2 µM (5.29 g)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries, lingonberry and senna.
- 1 Health effects
- 2 Adverse effects
- 3 Pharmacology
- 4 Chemistry
- 5 Occurrences
- 6 History
- 7 Research
- 8 Related compounds
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
There is no evidence of benefit from resveratrol in those who already have heart disease. A 2014 Chinese meta-analysis found weak evidence that high-dose resveratrol supplementation could reduce systolic blood pressure.
Although limited human studies have shown resveratrol is well-tolerated, one clinical study of Alzheimer's disease patients showed there were side effects from daily intake of up to 2 grams, including nausea, diarrhea and weight loss.
One way of administering resveratrol in humans may be buccal delivery, that is without swallowing, by direct absorption through tissues on the inside of the mouth. When one milligram of resveratrol in 50 ml 50% alcohol/ water solution was retained in the mouth for one minute before swallowing, 37 ng/ml of free resveratrol were measured in plasma two minutes later. This level of unchanged resveratrol in blood can only be achieved with 250 mg of resveratrol taken in a pill form. However, the viability of a buccal delivery method is called into question due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. For a drug to be absorbed transmucosally it must be in free-form or dissolved. Resveratrol fits the criteria for oral transmucosal dosing, except for this caveat. The low aqueous solubility greatly limits the amount that can be absorbed through the buccal mucosa. Resveratrol that is attempted to be taken buccally was expected to pass through the mucous membrane of the mouth and be absorbed as an oral dose, however, the need to explore buccal delivery in future pharmaceutical formulations was expressed.
While 70% of orally administered resveratrol is absorbed its oral bioavailability is approximately 0.5% due to extensive hepatic glucuronidation and sulfation. Resveratrol given in a proprietary formulation SRT-501 (3 or 5 g), developed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, reached five to eight times higher blood levels. These levels did approach the concentration necessary to exert the effects shown in animal models and in vitro experiments.
In rats, less than 5% of the oral dose was observed as free resveratrol in blood plasma. There is a hypothesis that resveratrol from wine could have higher bioavailability than resveratrol from a pill.
Resveratrol gets extensively metabolized in the body, with the liver and lungs as the major sites of its metabolism.
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenoid, a derivative of stilbene.
Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under "accelerated stability" conditions of 75% humidity and 40 °C in the presence of air. The trans isomer is also stabilized by the presence of transport proteins. Resveratrol content also was stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period. lH- and 13C-NMR data for the four most common forms of resveratrols are reported in literature.
The grapevine fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is able to oxidise resveratrol into metabolites showing attenuated antifungal activities. Those include the resveratrol dimers restrytisol A, B, and C, resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer, leachinol F, and pallidol. The soil bacterium Bacillus cereus can be used to transform resveratrol into piceid (resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside).
In grapes, trans-resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced against the growth of fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea. Its presence in Vitis vinifera grapes can also be constitutive, with accumulation in ripe berries of different levels of bound and free resveratrols, according to the genotype. In grapes, resveratrol is found primarily in the skin, and, in muscadine grapes, also in the seeds. The amount found in grape skins also varies with the grape cultivar, its geographic origin, and exposure to fungal infection. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.
It is also found in Pinus strobus, the eastern white pine.
The levels of resveratrol found in food varies considerably. Red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/l, depending on the grape variety. White wine has much less because red wine is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to extract the resveratrol, whereas white wine is fermented after the skin has been removed. The composition of wine is different from that of grapes since the extraction of resveratrol from grapes depends on the duration of the skin contact, and the resveratrol 3-glucosides are in part hydrolysed, yielding both trans- and cis-resveratrol.
Muscadine grapes may contain concentrations of resveratrol possibly as high as 40 mg/l, but subsequent studies have found little or no resveratrol in different varieties of muscadine grapes.
Peanuts, especially sprouted peanuts, have a content similar to grapes in a range of 2.3 to 4.5 μg/g before sprouting, and after sprouting, in a range of 11.7 to 25.7 μg/g, depending upon peanut cultivar.
Wine and grape juice
|Beverage||Total resveratrol (mg/l)||Total resveratrol (mg/150 ml)|
|Red wine (global)||1.98 – 7.13||0.30 – 1.07|
|Red wine (Spanish)||1.92 – 12.59||0.29 – 1.89|
|Red grape juice (Spanish)||1.14 – 8.69||0.17 – 1.30|
|Rose wine (Spanish)||0.43 – 3.52||0.06 – 0.53|
|Pinot noir||0.40 – 2.0||0.06 – 0.30|
|White wine (Spanish)||0.05 – 1.80||0.01 – 0.27|
The trans-resveratrol concentration in 40 Tuscan wines ranged from 0.3 to 2.1 mg/l in the 32 red wines tested and had a maximum of 0.1 mg/l in the 8 white wines in the test. Both the cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol were detected in all tested samples. cis-resveratrol levels were comparable to those of the trans-isomer. They ranged from 0.5 mg/l to 1.9 mg/l in red wines and had a maximum of 0.2 mg/l in white wines.
In a review of published resveratrol concentrations, the average in red wines is ±1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/L ( 1.9±7.5 µM, ranging from nondetectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 μM) trans-resveratrol. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol. 8.2
Reports suggest some aspect[which?] of the wine making process converts piceid to resveratrol in wine, as wine seems to have twice the average resveratrol concentration of the equivalent commercial juices.
In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed the highest level of trans-resveratrol, though no wine or region can yet be said to produce wines with significantly higher concentrations than any other wine or region. Champagne and vinegar also contain appreciable levels of resveratrol.
|Food||Serving||Total resveratrol (mg)|
|Peanuts (raw)||1 cup (146 grams)||0.01 – 0.26|
|Peanuts (boiled)||1 cup (180 grams)||0.32 – 1.28|
|Peanut butter||1 cup (258 grams)||0.04 – 0.13|
|Red grapes||1 cup (160 grams)||0.24 – 1.25|
|Cocoa powder||1 cup (200 grams)||0.28 – 0.46|
In comparison, some red wines contain approximately 2 mg per litre or 0.3 mg per 5 ounce glass. Resveratrol was detected in grape, cranberry, and wine samples. Concentrations ranged from 1.56 to 1042 nmol/g in Concord grape products, and from 8.63 to 24.84 µmol/L in Italian red wine. The concentrations of resveratrol were similar in cranberry and grape juice at 1.07 and 1.56 nmol/g, respectively. Lingonberry was found to have a content of 5884 ng/g in a dried sample.
Blueberries have about twice as much resveratrol as bilberries, but there is great regional variation. These fruits have less than 10% of the resveratrol of grapes. Cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol, reducing it by up to half.
Supplements vary in purity and can contain anywhere from 50 percent to 99 percent resveratrol. Many brands consist of an unpurified extract of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), an introduced species in many countries. These contain about 50 percent resveratrol by weight, as well as emodin, which, while considered safe in moderate quantities, can have a laxative effect in high amounts. Resveratrol can be produced from its glucoside piceid from Japanese knotweed fermented by Aspergillus oryzae.
Harvard University scientist and professor David Sinclair was often quoted in online ads for resveratrol supplements, many of which implied endorsement of the advertised product; however, Sinclair, a pioneer in resveratrol research, went on record to say he never uttered many of the statements attributed to him on these sites.
The first mention of resveratrol was in a Japanese article in 1939 by Michio Takaoka, who isolated it from Veratrum album, variety grandiflorum. The name presumably derives from the resorcinol derivative of a Veratrum species. In 2003, David Sinclair from Harvard Medical School reported that resveratrol activated sirtuins in yeast cells. The finding eventually led to the launch of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, an early-stage biotechnology company.
A 2011 systematic review of existing resveratrol research demonstrated there was not enough evidence to demonstrate its effect on longevity or human diseases, nor could there be recommendations for intake beyond the amount normally obtained through dietary sources. Much of the research showing positive effects has been done on animals, with insufficient clinical research on humans.
As of 2014[update], the results of limited human clinical trials with small samples sizes of the effects of resveratrol on cancer are inconsistent. Testing of resveratrol in animal models of cancer have also shown mixed results. The strongest evidence of anticancer action of resveratrol exists for tumors it can contact directly, such as skin and gastrointestinal tract tumors. For other cancers, the evidence is uncertain, even if massive doses of resveratrol are used. Resveratrol treatment appeared to prevent the development of mammary tumors in animal models; however, it had no effect on the growth of existing tumors. Paradoxically, treatment of prepubertal mice with high doses of resveratrol enhanced formation of tumors. Injected in high doses into mice, resveratrol slowed the growth of neuroblastomas.
A preliminary, one-year clinical trial of subjects with Alzheimer's disease showed that consuming 2 grams of resveratrol daily was well-tolerated and reduced some disease biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, although other biomarkers and progressive dementia were unaffected. Other preliminary human studies indicated that short-term ingestion of resveratrol increased cerebral blood flow in normal subjects and in those with diabetes.
Studies suggest resveratrol in red wine may play an important role in this phenomenon. It appears to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and inhibit platelet aggregation.
Animal studies have demonstrated an antidiabetic effects of resveratrol. This compound was shown to act as agonist of PPARgamma, nuclear receptor that is current pharmacological target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis noted that resveratrol is a "leading candidate" compound for serving as an adjunct pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes.
|This section needs to be updated. (October 2016)|
Despite considerable in vitro and animal research, there is no evidence that resveratrol taken orally or topically has any effect on human skin. Preliminary studies support human research on resveratrol to understand its potential as a therapy for melanoma.
- Epsilon-viniferin, Pallidol and Quadrangularin A three different resveratrol dimers
- Trans-diptoindonesin B, a resveratrol trimer
- Hopeaphenol, a resveratrol tetramer
- Oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, a compound found in Morus alba, the white mulberry
- Piceatannol, an active metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine
- Piceid, a resveratrol glucoside
- Pterostilbene, a doubly methylated resveratrol
- 4'-Methoxy-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-rutinoside, a compound found in the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii
- Camont L, Cottart CH, Rhayem Y, Nivet-Antoine V, Djelidi R, Collin F, Beaudeux JL, Bonnefont-Rousselot D; Cottart; Rhayem; Nivet-Antoine; Djelidi; Collin; Beaudeux; Bonnefont-Rousselot (February 2009). "Simple spectrophotometric assessment of the trans-/cis-resveratrol ratio in aqueous solutions". Anal. Chim. Acta. 634 (1): 121–8. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.12.003. PMID 19154820.
- Resveratrol MSDS on Fisher Scientific website
- Resveratrol MSDS on www.sigmaaldrich.com
- Bechmann LP, Zahn D, Gieseler RK, Fingas CD, Marquitan G, Jochum C, Gerken G, Friedman SL, Canbay A; Zahn; Gieseler; Fingas; Marquitan; Jochum; Gerken; Friedman; Canbay (June 2009). "Resveratrol amplifies profibrogenic effects of free fatty acids on human hepatic stellate cells". Hepatol. Res. 39 (6): 601–8. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2008.00485.x. PMC . PMID 19207580.
- Higdon J, Drake VJ, Steward WP (2016). "Resveratrol". Micronutrient Information Center. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
- Fremont, Lucie (January 2000). "Biological Effects of Resveratrol". Life Sciences. 66 (8): 663–673. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00410-5. PMID 10680575. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Jasiński M, Jasińska L, Ogrodowczyk M; Jasińska; Ogrodowczyk (August 2013). "Resveratrol in prostate diseases - a short review". Cent European J Urol. 66 (2): 144–9. doi:10.5173/ceju.2013.02.art8. PMC . PMID 24579014.
- Rimando AM, Kalt W, Magee JB, Dewey J, Ballington JR (July 2004). "Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries". J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 4713–9. doi:10.1021/jf040095e. PMID 15264904.
- Vang O, Ahmad N, Baile CA, Baur JA, Brown K, Csiszar A, et al. (2011). "What is new for an old molecule? Systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e19881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019881. PMC . PMID 21698226.
- Sahebkar A, Serban C, Ursoniu S, Wong ND, Muntner P, Graham IM, Mikhailidis DP, Rizzo M, Rysz J, Sperling LS, Lip GY, Banach M (2015). "Lack of efficacy of resveratrol on C-reactive protein and selected cardiovascular risk factors--Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Int. J. Cardiol. 189: 47–55. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.008. PMID 25885871.
- Tomé-Carneiro J, Gonzálvez M, Larrosa M, Yáñez-Gascón MJ, García-Almagro FJ, Ruiz-Ros JA, Tomás-Barberán FA, García-Conesa MT, Espín JC; Gonzálvez; Larrosa; Yáñez-Gascón; García-Almagro; Ruiz-Ros; Tomás-Barberán; García-Conesa; Espín (Jul 2013). "Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1290: 37–51. Bibcode:2013NYASA1290...37T. doi:10.1111/nyas.12150. PMID 23855464.
- Liu Y, Ma W, Zhang P, He S, Huang D; Ma; Zhang; He; Huang (March 2014). "Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Nutrition. 34 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.009. PMID 24731650.
- Carter LG, D'Orazio JA, Pearson KJ; d'Orazio; Pearson (June 2014). "Resveratrol and cancer: focus on in vivo evidence". Endocr. Relat. Cancer. 21 (3): R209–25. doi:10.1530/ERC-13-0171. PMC . PMID 24500760.
- Poulsen MM, Jørgensen JO, Jessen N, Richelsen B, Pedersen SB; Jørgensen; Jessen; Richelsen; Pedersen (Jul 2013). "Resveratrol in metabolic health: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1290: 74–82. Bibcode:2013NYASA1290...74P. doi:10.1111/nyas.12141. PMID 23855468.
- Hausenblas HA, Schoulda JA, Smoliga JM; Schoulda; Smoliga (19 August 2014). "Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis". Molecular nutrition & food research. 59 (1): 147–59. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400173. PMID 25138371.
- Fernández AF, Fraga MF; Fraga (Jul 2011). "The effects of the dietary polyphenol resveratrol on human healthy aging and lifespan". Epigenetics. 6 (7): 870–4. doi:10.4161/epi.6.7.16499. PMID 21613817.
- Clinical trial number NCT00920556 for "A Clinical Study to Assess the Safety and Activity of SRT501 Alone or in Combination With Bortezomib in Patients With Multiple Myeloma" at ClinicalTrials.gov
- Turner RS, Thomas RG, Craft S, van Dyck CH, Mintzer J, Reynolds BA, Brewer JB, Rissman RA, Raman R, Aisen PS; Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (2015). "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease". Neurology. 85 (16): 1383–91. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002035. PMC . PMID 26362286.
- Alcaín FJ, Villalba JM; Villalba (April 2009). "Sirtuin activators". Expert Opin Ther Pat. 19 (4): 403–14. doi:10.1517/13543770902762893. PMID 19441923.
- Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhart-Hines Z, Meziane H, Lerin C, Daussin F, Messadeq N, Milne J, Lambert P, Elliott P, Geny B, Laakso M, Puigserver P, Auwerx J; Argmann; Gerhart-Hines; Meziane; Lerin; Daussin; Messadeq; Milne; Lambert; Elliott; Geny; Laakso; Puigserver; Auwerx (December 2006). "Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha". Cell. 127 (6): 1109–22. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.013. PMID 17112576.
- Beher D, Wu J, Cumine S, Kim KW, Lu SC, Atangan L, Wang M; Wu; Cumine; Kim; Lu; Atangan; Wang (December 2009). "Resveratrol is not a direct activator of SIRT1 enzyme activity". Chem Biol Drug Des. 74 (6): 619–24. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00901.x. PMID 19843076.
- Pacholec M, Bleasdale JE, Chrunyk B, Cunningham D, Flynn D, Garofalo RS, Griffith D, Griffor M, Loulakis P, Pabst B, Qiu X, Stockman B, Thanabal V, Varghese A, Ward J, Withka J, Ahn K; Bleasdale; Chrunyk; Cunningham; Flynn; Garofalo; Griffith; Griffor; Loulakis; Pabst; Qiu; Stockman; Thanabal; Varghese; Ward; Withka; Ahn (March 2010). "SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (11): 8340–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.088682. PMC . PMID 20061378.
- Macmillan-Crow LA, Cruthirds DL; Cruthirds (April 2001). "Invited review: manganese superoxide dismutase in disease". Free Radic. Res. 34 (4): 325–36. doi:10.1080/10715760100300281. PMID 11328670.
- Prossnitz, Eric R.; Barton, Matthias (2014). "Estrogen biology: New insights into GPER function and clinical opportunities". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 389 (1–2): 71–83. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2014.02.002. ISSN 0303-7207. PMC . PMID 24530924.
- Asensi M, Medina I, Ortega A, Carretero J, Baño MC, Obrador E, Estrela JM; Medina; Ortega; Carretero; Baño; Obrador; Estrela (August 2002). "Inhibition of cancer growth by resveratrol is related to its low bioavailability". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33 (3): 387–98. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00911-5. PMID 12126761.
- Madhav NV, Shakya AK, Shakya P, Singh K; Shakya; Shakya; Singh (November 2009). "Orotransmucosal drug delivery systems: a review". J Control Release. 140 (1): 2–11. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.07.016. PMID 19665039.
- Ansari KA, Vavia PR, Trotta F, Cavalli R; Vavia; Trotta; Cavalli (March 2011). "Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges for delivery of resveratrol: in vitro characterisation, stability, cytotoxicity and permeation study". AAPS PharmSciTech. 12 (1): 279–86. doi:10.1208/s12249-011-9584-3. PMC . PMID 21240574.
- Shojaei AH (1998). "Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review". J Pharm Pharm Sci. 1 (1): 15–30. PMID 10942969.
- Santos AC, Veiga F, Ribeiro AJ; Veiga; Ribeiro (August 2011). "New delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol". Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 8 (8): 973–90. doi:10.1517/17425247.2011.581655. PMID 21668403.
- Walle T, Hsieh F, DeLegge MH, Oatis JE, Walle UK; Hsieh; Delegge; Oatis Jr; Walle (December 2004). "High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans". Drug Metab. Dispos. 32 (12): 1377–82. doi:10.1124/dmd.104.000885. PMID 15333514.
- Elliott PJ, Jirousek M; Jirousek (April 2008). "Sirtuins: novel targets for metabolic disease". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 9 (4): 371–8. PMID 18393104.
- Abd El-Mohsen M, Bayele H, Kuhnle G, Gibson G, Debnam E, Kaila Srai S, Rice-Evans C, Spencer JP; Bayele; Kuhnle; Gibson; Debnam; Kaila Srai; Rice-Evans; Spencer (July 2006). "Distribution of [3H]trans-resveratrol in rat tissues following oral administration". Br. J. Nutr. 96 (1): 62–70. doi:10.1079/BJN20061810. PMID 16869992.
- Wenzel E, Somoza V; Somoza (May 2005). "Metabolism and bioavailability of trans-resveratrol". Mol Nutr Food Res. 49 (5): 472–81. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500010. PMID 15779070.
- Sharan S, Nagar S; Nagar (2013). "Pulmonary Metabolism of Resveratrol: In Vitro and in Vivo Evidence". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 41 (5): 1163–9. doi:10.1124/dmd.113.051326. PMC . PMID 23474649.
- Mattivi F, Reniero F, Korhammer S; Reniero; Korhammer (1995). "Isolation, characterization, and evolution in red wine vinification of resveratrol monomers". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43 (7): 1820–3. doi:10.1021/jf00055a013.
- Lamuela-Raventos RM, Romero-Perez AI, Waterhouse AL, de la Torre-Boronat MC; Romero-Perez; Waterhouse; de la Torre-Boronat (1995). "Direct HPLC Analysis of cis- and trans-Resveratrol and Piceid Isomers in Spanish Red Vitis vinifera Wines". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43 (2): 281–283. doi:10.1021/jf00050a003.
- Resveratrol Photoisomerization: An Integrative Guided-Inquiry Experiment Elyse Bernard, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Nicholas Gernigon Vol. 84 No. 7 July 2007 Journal of Chemical Education 1159.
- Yang I, Kim E, Kang J, Han H, Sul S, Park SB, Kim SK; Kim; Kang; Han; Sul; Park; Kim (2012). "Photochemical generation of a new, highly fluorescent compound from non-fluorescent resveratrol". Chemical Communications. 48 (32): 3839–41. doi:10.1039/C2CC30940H. PMID 22436889.
- Prokop J, Abrman P, Seligson AL, Sovak M; Abrman; Seligson; Sovak (2006). "Resveratrol and its glycon piceid are stable polyphenols". J Med Food. 9 (1): 11–4. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.11. PMID 16579722.
- Pantusa M, Bartucci R, Rizzuti B; Bartucci; Rizzuti (2014). "Stability of trans-resveratrol associated with transport proteins". J Agric Food Chem. 62 (19): 4384–91. doi:10.1021/jf405584a. PMID 24773207.
- Bertelli AA, Gozzini A, Stradi R, Stella S, Bertelli A; Gozzini; Stradi; Stella; Bertelli (1998). "Stability of resveratrol over time and in the various stages of grape transformation". Drugs Exp Clin Res. 24 (4): 207–11. PMID 10051967.
- Schröder G, Brown JW, Schröder J; Brown; Schröder (February 1988). "Molecular analysis of resveratrol synthase. cDNA, genomic clones and relationship with chalcone synthase". Eur. J. Biochem. 172 (1): 161–9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb13868.x. PMID 2450022.
- Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA, Hamann MT; Kouzi; Hamann (January 2000). "Dimerization of resveratrol by the grapevine pathogen Botrytis cinerea". J. Nat. Prod. 63 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1021/np990266n. PMID 10650073.
- Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA; Kouzi (October 1998). "Biotransformation of resveratrol to piceid by Bacillus cereus". J. Nat. Prod. 61 (10): 1313–4. doi:10.1021/np980139b. PMID 9784180.
- Takaoka M (1939). "Resveratrol, a new phenolic compound, from Veratrum grandiflorum". Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan. 60: 1090–1100. doi:10.1246/nikkashi1921.60.1090.
- Nonomura; Kanagawa (1963). "Chemical constituents of Polygonaceous plants. I. studies on the components of Ko-jo-kon. (Polygonum cuspidatum SIEB et ZUCC)". Yakugaku Zasshi. 83: 988–990.
- Favaron, F.; Lucchetta, M.; Odorizzi, S.; Pais da Cunha, A.T.; Sella, L. (2009). "The role of grape polyphenols on trans-resveratrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and of fungal laccase on the solubility of putative grape PR proteins". Journal of Plant Pathology. 91 (3): 579–88. doi:10.4454/jpp.v91i3.549 (inactive 2016-08-24).
- Gatto P, Vrhovsek U, Muth J, Segala C, Romualdi C, Fontana P, Pruefer D, Stefanini M, Moser C, Mattivi F, Velasco R; Vrhovsek; Muth; Segala; Romualdi; Fontana; Pruefer; Stefanini; Moser; Mattivi; Velasco (December 2008). "Ripening and genotype control stilbene accumulation in healthy grapes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (24): 11773–85. doi:10.1021/jf8017707. PMID 19032022.
- Roy, H., Lundy, S., Resveratrol, Pennington Nutrition Series, 2005 No. 7
- LeBlanc, Mark Rene (13 December 2005). "Cultivar, Juice Extraction, Ultra Violet Irradiation and Storage Influence the Stilbene Content of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx.)". Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- "Stilbenes-resveratrol in foods and beverages, version 3.6". Phenol-Explorer. 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Gu X, Creasy L, Kester A, Zeece M; Creasy; Kester; Zeece (August 1999). "Capillary electrophoretic determination of resveratrol in wines". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (8): 3223–7. doi:10.1021/jf981211e. PMID 10552635.
- Mattivi F (June 1993). "Solid phase extraction of trans-resveratrol from wines for HPLC analysis". Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 196 (6): 522–5. doi:10.1007/BF01201331. PMID 8328217.
- Ector BJ, Magee JB, Hegwood CP, Coign MJ (1996). "Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, Juice, Pomace, Purees, Seeds, and Wines". American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 47 (1): 57–62.
- Pastrana-Bonilla E, Akoh CC, Sellappan S, Krewer G; Akoh; Sellappan; Krewer (August 2003). "Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (18): 5497–503. doi:10.1021/jf030113c. PMID 12926904.
Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol was the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The HPLC solvent system used coupled with fluorescence detection allowed separation of ellagic acid from resveratrol and detection of resveratrol." "[T]rans-resveratrol had the lowest concentrations of the detected phenolics, ranging from not detected in two varieties to 0.2 mg/ 100 g of FW (Tables 1 and 2). Our result for resveratrol differed from previous results [Ector et al., 1996] indicating high concentrations. These researchers apparently were not able to separate ellagic acid from resveratrol with UV detection alone.
- Hudson TS, Hartle DK, Hursting SD, Nunez NP, Wang TT, Young HA, Arany P, Green JE; Hartle; Hursting; Nunez; Wang; Young; Arany; Green (September 2007). "Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by muscadine grape skin extract and resveratrol through distinct mechanisms". Cancer Res. 67 (17): 8396–405. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4069. PMID 17804756.
MSKE [muscadine grape skin extract] does not contain significant quantities of resveratrol and differs from MSEE. To determine whether MSKE contains significant levels of resveratrol and to compare the chemical content of MSKE (skin) with MSEE (seed), HPLC analyses were done. As depicted in Supplementary Fig. S1A and B, MSKE does not contain significant amounts of resveratrol (<1 ?g/g by limit of detection).
- Wang KH, Lai YH, Chang JC, Ko TF, Shyu SL, Chiou RY; Lai; Chang; Ko; Shyu; Chiou (January 2005). "Germination of peanut kernels to enhance resveratrol biosynthesis and prepare sprouts as a functional vegetable". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (2): 242–6. doi:10.1021/jf048804b. PMID 15656656.
- Stewart JR, Artime MC, O'Brian CA; Artime; O'Brian (July 2003). "Resveratrol: a candidate nutritional substance for prostate cancer prevention". J. Nutr. 133 (7 Suppl): 2440S–2443S. PMID 12840221.
- Shrikanta A, Kumar A, Govindaswamy V (2015). "Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits". J Food Sci Technol. 52 (1): 383–90. doi:10.1007/s13197-013-0993-z. PMC . PMID 25593373.
- Hurst WJ, Glinski JA, Miller KB, Apgar J, Davey MH, Stuart DA; Glinski; Miller; Apgar; Davey; Stuart (September 2008). "Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (18): 8374–8. doi:10.1021/jf801297w. PMID 18759443.
- Mozzon M (1996). "Resveratrol content in some Tuscan wines". Ital. J. Food Sci. Chiriotti, Pinerolo, ITALIE. 8 (2): 145–52. INIST:3123149.
- Stervbo U, Vang O, Bonnesen C; Vang; Bonnesen (2007). "A review of the content of the putative chemopreventive phytoalexin resveratrol in red wine". Food Chemistry. 101 (2): 449–57. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.047.
- Sanders, T. H.; McMichael Jr, R. W.; Hendrix, K. W. (2000). "Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48 (4): 1243–6. doi:10.1021/jf990737b. PMID 10775379.
- Wang Y, Catana F, Yang Y, Roderick R, van Breemen RB; Catana; Yang; Roderick; Van Breemen (January 2002). "An LC-MS method for analyzing total resveratrol in grape juice, cranberry juice, and in wine". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (3): 431–5. doi:10.1021/jf010812u. PMID 11804508.
- Rimando, A. M.; Kalt, W; Magee, J. B.; Dewey, J; Ballington, J. R. (2004). "Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (15): 4713–9. doi:10.1021/jf040095e. PMID 15264904.
- Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, Cho SY, Reiboldt W, Lee J, van Breemen RB; Yu; Toma; Cho; Reiboldt; Lee; Van Breemen (September 2003). "Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (20): 5867–70. doi:10.1021/jf034150f. PMID 13129286.
- Rimas A (2006-12-11). "His research targets the aging process". The Boston Globe.
- Stipp D (2007-01-19). "Can red wine help you live forever?". Fortune magazine.
- Seward ZM (2006-11-30). "Quest for youth drives craze for 'wine' pills". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Caution urged with resveratrol". United Press International. 2006-11-30.
- Aleccia J (2008-04-22). "Longevity quest moves slowly from lab to life". MSNBC.
- Gocze T (2008-09-08). "Japanese Knotweed a Resilient Invader". Bangor Daily News.
- Wang H, Liu L, Guo YX, Dong YS, Zhang DJ, Xiu ZL; Liu; Guo; Dong; Zhang; Xiu (June 2007). "Biotransformation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by Aspergillus oryzae". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 75 (4): 763–8. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0874-3. PMID 17333175.
- Weintraub A (2009-07-29). "Resveratrol: The Hard Sell on Anti-Aging". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Takaoka, Michio (1940). "The Phenolic Substances of White Hellebore (Veratrum Grandiflorum Loes. Fill). V". Nippon Kagaku Kaishi. 61 (10): 1067–1069. doi:10.1246/nikkashi1921.61.1067.
- Pangeni R, Sahni JK, Ali J, Sharma S, Baboota S; Sahni; Ali; Sharma; Baboota (2014). "Resveratrol: review on therapeutic potential and recent advances in drug delivery". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. 11 (8): 1285–1298. doi:10.1517/17425247.2014.919253. ISSN 1742-5247. PMID 24830814.
- Tomé-Carneiro J, Larrosa M, González-Sarrías A, Tomás-Barberán FA, García-Conesa MT, Espín JC; Larrosa; González-Sarrías; Tomás-Barberán; García-Conesa; Espín (2013). "Resveratrol and clinical trials: the crossroad from in vitro studies to human evidence". Curr. Pharm. Des. 19 (34): 6064–93. doi:10.2174/13816128113199990407. PMC . PMID 23448440.
- Athar M, Back JH, Tang X, Kim KH, Kopelovich L, Bickers DR, Kim AL; Back; Tang; Kim; Kopelovich; Bickers; Kim (November 2007). "Resveratrol: a review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 224 (3): 274–83. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.025. PMC . PMID 17306316.
- Kennedy, D. O.; Wightman, E. L.; Reay, J. L.; Lietz, G; Okello, E. J.; Wilde, A; Haskell, C. F. (2010). "Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91 (6): 1590–7. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28641. PMID 20357044.
- Wong, R. H.; Nealon, R. S.; Scholey, A; Howe, P. R. (2016). "Low dose resveratrol improves cerebrovascular function in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 26 (5): 393–9. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2016.03.003. PMID 27105868.
- Szmitko PE, Verma S; Verma (January 2005). "Cardiology patient pages. Red wine and your heart". Circulation. 111 (2): e10–1. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000151608.29217.62. PMID 15657377.
- Ferrières J (January 2004). "The French paradox: lessons for other countries". Heart. 90 (1): 107–11. doi:10.1136/heart.90.1.107. PMC . PMID 14676260.
- Simini B (January 2000). "Serge Renaud: from French paradox to Cretan miracle". Lancet. 355 (9197): 48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71990-5. PMID 10615898.
- Kopp P (June 1998). "Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'?". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 138 (6): 619–20. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1380619. PMID 9678525.
- Duffy SJ, Vita JA; Vita (2003). "Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function". Current Opinion in Lipidology. 14 (1): 21–7. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000052857.26236.f2 (inactive 2016-08-24). PMID 12544657.
- Olas B, Wachowicz B; Wachowicz (August 2005). "Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant with effects on blood platelet functions". Platelets. 16 (5): 251–60. doi:10.1080/09537100400020591. PMID 16011975.
- Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, Sinclair DA; Pearson; Price; Jamieson; Lerin; Kalra; Prabhu; Allard; Lopez-Lluch; Lewis; Pistell; Poosala; Becker; Boss; Gwinn; Wang; Ramaswamy; Fishbein; Spencer; Lakatta; Le Couteur; Shaw; Navas; Puigserver; Ingram; De Cabo; Sinclair (November 2006). "Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet". Nature. 444 (7117): 337–42. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..337B. doi:10.1038/nature05354. PMID 17086191.
- Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Kopp B, Bauer R, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Atanasov AG; Waltenberger; Pferschy-Wenzig; Blunder; Liu; Malainer; Blazevic; Schwaiger; Rollinger; Heiss; Schuster; Kopp; Bauer; Stuppner; Dirsch; Atanasov (2014). "Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review". Biochem Pharmacol. 92 (1): 73–89. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PMC . PMID 25083916.
- Hausenblas HA, Schoulda JA, Smoliga JM (2015). "Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus--systematic review and meta-analysis". Mol Nutr Food Res. 59 (1): 147–59. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400173. PMID 25138371.
Though limitations in sample size and treatment duration preclude definitive changes in clinical practice, significant improvements in multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers and an excellent safety profile support resveratrol as a leading candidate as an adjunct to pharmacological management of T2DM.
- Uzarska, M; Czajkowski, R; Schwartz, R. A.; Bajek, A; Zegarska, B; Drewa, T (2013). "Chemoprevention of skin melanoma: Facts and myths". Melanoma Research. 23 (6): 426–33. doi:10.1097/CMR.0000000000000016. PMID 24077511.
- Pal, H. C.; Hunt, K. M.; Diamond, A; Elmets, C. A.; Afaq, F (2016). "Phytochemicals for the Management of Melanoma". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (12): 953–79. doi:10.2174/1389557516666160211120157. PMC . PMID 26864554.
- Pathak L, Agrawal Y, Dhir A; Agrawal; Dhir (Jul 2013). "Natural polyphenols in the management of major depression". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 22 (7): 863–80. doi:10.1517/13543784.2013.794783. PMID 23642183.
- Kim JK, Kim M, Cho SG, Kim MK, Kim SW, Lim YH; Kim; Cho; Kim; Kim; Lim (June 2010). "Biotransformation of mulberroside A from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition". J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37 (6): 631–7. doi:10.1007/s10295-010-0722-9. PMID 20411402.
- Alemika Taiwo E, Onawunmi Grace O and Olugbade Tiwalade O, Antibacterial phenolics from Boswellia dalzielii. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicines, 2006