RAR-related orphan receptor
|RAR-related orphan receptor A (alpha)|
|Alt. symbols||RZRA, ROR1, ROR2, ROR3, NR1F1|
|Locus||Chr. 15 q21-q22|
|RAR-related orphan receptor B (beta)|
|Alt. symbols||RZRB, NR1F2, ROR-BETA|
|Locus||Chr. 9 q22|
|RAR-related orphan receptor C (gamma)|
|Alt. symbols||RZRG, RORG, NR1F3, TOR|
|Locus||Chr. 1 q21|
The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. There are three forms of ROR, ROR-α, -β, and -γ and each is encoded by a separate gene RORA, RORB, and RORC respectively). The RORs are somewhat unusual in that they appear to bind as monomers to hormone response elements as opposed to the majority of other nuclear receptors which bind as dimers.
While the identity of natural ligands for the RORs remains controversial, similar to the liver X receptors (LXRs), it appears that the RORs are activated by oxysterols. Furthermore, the RORs appear to be constitutively active (absence of ligand) and that activity may be due to continuously bound natural ligands. Side chain oxygenated sterols (e.g., 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 22R-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol) are high affinity RORγ agonists while sterols oxygenated at the 7-position, (e.g., (7-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol) function as inverse agonists for both RORa and RORγ. A number of other natural substances have also been reported to bind to the RORs. These include all-trans retinoic acid binds with high affinity to ROR-β and -γ but not ROR-α. Finally the RORs may function as lipid sensors and hence may play a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism.
RORα, RORβ, and RORγ are primarily expressed the following tissues:
- ROR-α – widely expressed in liver, skeletal muscle, skin, lung, adipose tissue, kidney, thymus, and brain.
- ROR-β – expression restricted to the brain and retina.
- ROR-γ – highly expressed in thymus (the thymus-specific isoform is referred to as RORγt), muscle, testis, pancreas, prostate, heart, and liver.
The three forms of RORs fulfill a number of critical roles including:
- ROR-α – Involved in the maintenance of the circadian rhythm by positively regulating the expression of BMAL1. Development of the cerebellum and lymph nodes, lipid metabolism, immune response, maintenance of bone.
- ROR-β – Circadian rhythm, bone metabolism, and retinal neurogenesis.
- ROR-γ – Lymph node development and immune response, survival of T helper 17 cells.
As drug targets
A number of synthetic RORγt inverse agonists are in various stages of drug development for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. RORγt agonists have also been proposed for use as immunooncology agents to activate the immune system to treat cancer.
- Giguère V, Tini M, Flock G, Ong E, Evans RM, Otulakowski G (March 1994). "Isoform-specific amino-terminal domains dictate DNA-binding properties of ROR alpha, a novel family of orphan hormone nuclear receptors". Genes & Development. 8 (5): 538–53. PMID 7926749. doi:10.1101/gad.8.5.538.
- Hirose T, Smith RJ, Jetten AM (December 1994). "ROR gamma: the third member of ROR/RZR orphan receptor subfamily that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 205 (3): 1976–83. PMID 7811290. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2902.
- Jetten AM, Kurebayashi S, Ueda E (2001). "The ROR nuclear orphan receptor subfamily: critical regulators of multiple biological processes". Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. 69: 205–47. ISBN 978-0-12-540069-5. PMID 11550795. doi:10.1016/S0079-6603(01)69048-2.
- Solt LA, Burris TP (December 2012). "Action of RORs and their ligands in (patho)physiology". Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 23 (12): 619–27. PMC . PMID 22789990. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2012.05.012.
- Santori FR (2015). "Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols". European Journal of Immunology. 45 (10): 2730–41. PMC . PMID 26222181. doi:10.1002/eji.201545712.
- Zhang Y, Luo XY, Wu DH, Xu Y (January 2015). "ROR nuclear receptors: structures, related diseases, and drug discovery". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 36 (1): 71–87. PMC . PMID 25500868. doi:10.1038/aps.2014.120.
- Stehlin-Gaon C, Willmann D, Zeyer D, Sanglier S, Van Dorsselaer A, Renaud JP, Moras D, Schüle R (October 2003). "All-trans retinoic acid is a ligand for the orphan nuclear receptor ROR beta". Nature Structural Biology. 10 (10): 820–5. PMID 12958591. doi:10.1038/nsb979.
- Wiesenberg I, Missbach M, Kahlen JP, Schräder M, Carlberg C (February 1995). "Transcriptional activation of the nuclear receptor RZR alpha by the pineal gland hormone melatonin and identification of CGP 52608 as a synthetic ligand". Nucleic Acids Research. 23 (3): 327–33. PMC . PMID 7885826. doi:10.1093/nar/23.3.327.
- Jetten AM (December 2004). "Recent advances in the mechanisms of action and physiological functions of the retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs)". Current Drug Targets. Inflammation and Allergy. 3 (4): 395–412. PMID 15584888. doi:10.2174/1568010042634497.
- Jetten AM, Joo JH (2006). "Retinoid-related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Roles in Cellular Differentiation and Development". Advances in Developmental Biology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 16: 313–355. PMC . PMID 18418469. doi:10.1016/S1574-3349(06)16010-X.
- Feng S, Xu S, Wen Z, Zhu Y (2015). "Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor RORβ, circadian rhythm abnormalities and tumorigenesis (Review)". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 35 (6): 1493–500. PMID 25816151. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2155.
- Cyr P, Bronner SM, Crawford JJ (2016). "Recent progress on nuclear receptor RORγ modulators". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 26 (18): 4387–93. PMID 27542308. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.08.012.
- Bronner SM, Zbieg JR, Crawford JJ (2017). "RORγ antagonists and inverse agonists: a patent review". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 27 (1): 101–112. PMID 27629281. doi:10.1080/13543776.2017.1236918.
- Solt LA, Griffin PR, Burris TP (June 2010). "Ligand regulation of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors: implications for development of novel therapeutics". Current Opinion in Lipidology. 21 (3): 204–11. PMC . PMID 20463469. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e328338ca18.
- Chang MR, Rosen H, Griffin PR (2014). "RORs in autoimmune disease". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 378: 171–82. PMID 24728598. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05879-5_8.
- RAR-related orphan receptor A at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- RAR-related orphan receptor B at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- RAR-related orphan receptor C at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
|This article about a biochemical receptor is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|