Retinoic acid receptor

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retinoic acid receptor alpha
Identifiers
SymbolRARA
Entrez5914
HUGO9864
OMIM180240
RefSeqNM_000964
UniProtP10276
Other data
LocusChr. 17 q21.1
retinoic acid receptor beta
Identifiers
SymbolRARB
Entrez5915
HUGO9865
OMIM180220
RefSeqNM_000965
UniProtP10826
Other data
LocusChr. 3 p24
retinoic acid receptor gamma
Identifiers
SymbolRARG
Entrez5916
HUGO9866
OMIM180190
RefSeqNM_000966
UniProtP13631
Other data
LocusChr. 12 q13

The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a type of nuclear receptor which can also act as a transcription factor[1] that is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid.[2] There are three retinoic acid receptors (RAR), RAR-alpha, RAR-beta, and RAR-gamma, encoded by the RARA, RARB, RARG genes, respectively. Each receptor isoform has ten splice variants: four for alpha, four for beta, and two for gamma. As with other type II nuclear receptors, RAR heterodimerizes with RXR and in the absence of ligand, the RAR/RXR dimer binds to hormone response elements known as retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) complexed with corepressor protein. Binding of agonist ligands to RAR results in dissociation of corepressor and recruitment of coactivator protein that, in turn, promotes transcription of the downstream target gene into mRNA and eventually protein. In addition, the expression of RAR genes is under epigenetic regulation by promoter methylation.[3]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors". Pharmacol Rev. 58 (4): 712–25. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.4. PMID 17132850.
  2. ^ Allenby G, Bocquel MT, Saunders M, Kazmer S, Speck J, Rosenberger M, Lovey A, Kastner P, Grippo JF, Chambon P, Levin AA (1993). "Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 90 (1): 30–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.1.30. PMC 45593. PMID 8380496.
  3. ^ Rotondo JC, Borghi A, Selvatici R, Mazzoni E, Bononi I, Corazza M, Kussini J, Montinari E, Gafà R, Tognon M, Martini F (2018). "Association of Retinoic Acid Receptor β Gene With Onset and Progression of Lichen Sclerosus-Associated Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma". JAMA Dermatology. 154 (7): 819–823. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.1373. PMID 29898214.

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