retinoid X receptor ( RXR) is a type of  nuclear receptor that is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid, which has never been convincingly proven to be of physiological relevance and to be present endogenously, as well as 9-cis-13,14-dihydro-retinoic acid.  There are three retinoic X receptors (RXR):  , RXR-alpha , and RXR-beta , encoded by the RXR-gamma , RXRA , RXRB genes, respectively. RXRG
heterodimerizes with subfamily 1 nuclear receptors including CAR, FXR, LXR, PPAR,  PXR, RAR, TR, and VDR.
As with other
type II nuclear receptors, the RXR heterodimer in the absence of ligand is bound to hormone response elements complexed with corepressor protein. Binding of agonist ligands to RXR results in dissociation of corepressor and recruitment of coactivator protein, which, in turn, promotes transcription of the downstream target gene into mRNA and eventually protein.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors". Pharmacol Rev 58 (4): 760–72. doi: 10.1124/pr.58.4.7. PMID 17132853.
^ Allenby G, Bocquel MT, Saunders M, Kazmer S, Speck J, Rosenberger M, Lovey A, Kastner P, Grippo JF, Chambon P, Levin AA (1993). "Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 (1): 30–4. doi: 10.1073/pnas.90.1.30. PMC 45593. PMID 8380496.
^ Rühl R, Krzyżosiak A, Niewiadomska-Cimicka A, Rochel N, Szeles L, Vaz B, Wietrzych-Schindler M, Álvarez S, Szklenar M, Nagy L, de Lera AR, Krężel W (2015). "9-cis-13,14-Dihydroretinoic Acid Is an Endogenous Retinoid Acting as RXR Ligand in Mice". PLOS Genetics 11 (6): e1005213. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005213. PMC 4451509. PMID 26030625.
^ Plutzky J (April 2011). "The PPAR-RXR transcriptional complex in the vasculature: energy in the balance". Circ. Res. 108 (8): 1002–16. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.226860. PMID 21493923.
External links [ edit ]