Retirement age

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article lists the statutory retirement age in different countries.

In some contexts, the retirement age is the age at which a person is expected or required to cease work. It is usually the age at which such a person may be entitled to receive superannuation or other government benefits, like a state pension.

History and establishment[edit]

The first recorded use of a state pension was established in the Roman Empire in 13 BC by Emperor Augustus Caesar for military veterans who had served for at least 16 years in a legion and four years in the reserves. This was later increased to 20 years in a legion and five years in the reserves.[1] In the United States, states historically lack a retirement age even though labor force participation rates began to fall dramatically after the age of 60.[2]

The first retirement age was set in Germany by Otto Von Bismarck in 1881, originally at 70, before being reduced to 65 in 1916.[3] Following this, more countries began to adopt an official retirement age, such as Britain with the passage of the Old Age Pensions Act 1908, which set the initial retirement age at 70 before it being reduced to 65 for men and 60 for women with the passage of the National Insurance Act 1946.

The United States adopted an initial retirement age of 65, under the bill of the Social Security Act of 1935. By the mid-20th century, almost all countries had adopted a retirement age.

Political considerations[edit]

In the present day, policymakers usually consider the demography, fiscal cost of aging, health, life expectancy, nature of the profession, supply of labor force, etc. while taking the retirement age into account.[4] The increase in life expectancy is used in some jurisdictions as an argument to increase the age of retirement in the 21st century.[5][6]

Retirement age by country and region[edit]

External image
image icon Life expectancy vs retirement age for men in European countries on a map

Many of the countries listed in the table below are in the process of reforming retirement ages. See the notes in the table for details. The ages shown are effective as of the year given in the table. The future trend in some countries is that the retirement age will increase gradually. Where available, explanations are given in the section on notes.

Therefore, one's year of birth determines their age of retirement. In the United States, while a person born before 1937 can retire at the age of 65, those born after 1960 must be 67.[7]

In the United Kingdom the standard is currently 66, but will rise to 68 in 2027[8]

Many countries in Europe follow the same criteria, with one's age of retirement determined by their birth year, for example in Romania, women born in January 1955 had their retirement age in January 2015 set at age 60. Those born in January 1958 could retire in January 2019 at age 61. Those born in January 1961 can retire in January 2023 at age 62. Those born in January 1967 can retire in January 2030 at age 63.[9]

Retirement age
Country Men Women Year Notes Ref
Albania 65 61 2020 [10]
Argentina 65 60 [11]
Armenia 63 2011 [10]
Australia 67 2021 In Australia the retirement age is being increased gradually to 67 years by July 2023. [12]
Austria 65 60 2015 In Austria the retirement age for women is to be equalized to the retirement age for men (65) by 2033.[13] [10][14]
Azerbaijan 65 60 2017 In Azerbaijan the retirement age is to be increased gradually to 65 years by 2021 (for men) and by 2027 (for women)[15] [15]
Belarus 63 58 2021 By 2022, the age will be 63 for men and 58 for women.[16] [17]
Bangladesh 63 2013 [18]
Belgium 60–65 2019 The legal retirement age (the age at which one can retire, regardless of career length) in Belgium is 65 in 2019. in 2025 it will be 66 and in 2030 it will be 67, both for women and men.

Early retirement is possible from 60 onwards with a career of at least 44 years, from 61 onwards with at least 43 years, or from 63 onwards with a career of at least 42 years. Some exceptions exist, mainly in the required number of years.

A career year is considered if it contains at least 104 days (in full time equivalent).

[19][20]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 65 2011 [10]
Brazil 65 62 2019 Certain individuals, such as rural workers, teachers and police officers, have a lower minimum age.

Brazil also requires workers to have contributed to social security for a minimum amount of time before they become eligible to claim benefits. To start receiving partial benefits, all private-sector workers are required have contributed for at least 20 years (for men) or 15 years (for women). Public-sector workers are required to have contributed for at least 25 years. To receive full benefits all workers must have contributed for at least 40 years (for men) or 35 years (for women).

[21]
British Virgin Islands 65 2017 [22]
Bulgaria 64.083 61.167 2018 In Bulgaria the retirement age is to be increased gradually and reach 65 years by 2029 for men and by 2037 for women. [23]
Cameroon 50–60 2019 The legal retirement age at which one (men or women) can retire is 60 with at least 20 years of coverage and at least 180 months of contributions, including 60 months in the last 10 years. Employment must cease.

Early retirement age is 50 with at least 20 years of coverage and at least 180 months of contributions, including 60 months in the last 10 years. The pension is payable abroad only under reciprocal agreement.

[24]
Canada 60–65 By law there is no mandatory retirement (an employer cannot force an employee to retire). The standard age to begin receiving a CPP retirement pension is when one attains age 65 (the month following the 65th birthday). However, one may receive a reduced CPP retirement pension as early as the month following the 60th birthday. Alternatively, one may receive an increased pension after reaching age 65. Canada also has a pension supplement with different rules called Old Age Security (OAS). [25][26]
Chile 65 60 [27]
China 60 50–55 2011 The retirement age in China currently is 60 for men and 55 for female civil servants and 50 for female workers.[28] [29]
Colombia 62 57 2014 [30]
Croatia 65 62.75 2021 By 2030 there will be an equal age for women and men set at 65. [31]
Cuba 65 60 2015 The retirement age threshold was increased by 5 years in 2015 [32]
Cyprus 65 2011 [10][14]
Czech Republic 62.833 58–62 2015 In the Czech Republic, in the year 2015, men had the retirement age of 62 years 10 months and women had it between 58 and 62, depending on number of children.[33][34] In Czech Republic, the retirement age is in the process of being increased, and therefore depends on year of birth (for individuals born after 1977 it may exceed even 67, e.g. a person born in year 1995 must be at least 70 years old.[35]) For women the retirement age depends on the number of raised children as well.[34] For people born in 1975, the retirement age will be the same (66y8m) regardless of sex and number of children raised; and this age will reach 67 for people born in 1977.[34]
Denmark 67 2021 In Denmark, the retirement age will be increased gradually to reach 67 years by 2022. From 2030 onwards, it will be increased a maximum of one year every five years depending on increases in average lifespan.[36][37][13] [14][17]
Egypt 60 2015
Estonia 64 2021 In Estonia the retirement age is to be increased gradually to 65 years by 2026.[38] After 2026, it will be linked to the average life expectancy [14][17][13]
Finland 63.75–68 2021 [14][13]
France 62–67 2018 The minimal retirement age has gradually increased from 60 to 62 years by 2018. [10][14]
Georgia 65 60 2011 [10]
Germany 60–67 2021 In Germany the retirement age is to be increased gradually and reach 67 years by 2029. For a long time the most common mandatory retirement age was 65, although in East Germany it was 60. [14][17][13]
Greece 67 2021 [13]
Hong Kong 60–65 2017 Retirement age 65. Early retirement possible between the ages of 60 and 64. Some disciplined services staff of the government have lower retirement age.[39] [40][41][42]
Hungary 65 2021 The age was 63 in 2018, but was raised to 65 by 2022.[13] Women with 40 years of insurance can retire at any age.[43] [13]
Iceland 67 2007 [17]
India 60–65 2014 In the public sector, the retirement age is 60, 62 in Indian Railways, 62 for the chiefs of army/navy/air force staff (or 3 years of service whichever is earlier), 62 for high court judges, 65 for the chief of defence staff (or 3 years of service whichever is earlier), and 65 for supreme Court judges.[44] while in the private sector it depends on the individual company and the maximum being 65.
Indonesia 58 2022 In Indonesia, provisions relating to pensions are regulated in Government Regulation Number 45 of 2015 Article 15 concerning the Implementation of the Pension Guarantee Program, in PP 45/2015 the following matters are regulated:

For the first time the Retirement Age is set at 56 (fifty six years). Starting January 1, 2019, the retirement age as referred to in paragraph (1) will be 57 (fifty seven) years. The Retirement Age as referred to in paragraph (2) is further increased by 1 (one) year for every subsequent 3 (three) years until it reaches the Retirement Age of 65 (sixty five) years. By referring to the regulation, the retirement age limit in Indonesia is 58 years in 2022 and will reach the maximum retirement age limit, which is 65 years in 2043.

[45]
Iran 60 55 2018
Ireland 66 2021 In Ireland the retirement age is to be increased gradually and reach 68 years by 2028.[13] [10][14][17]
Israel 67 65 2022 In Israel the retirement age for women is to be increased gradually and reach 65 by 2032.[46] [47]
Italy 62–67 2021 Must have paid contributions for at least 20 years (At 67 years and 3 months).
Those who have paid contributions for at least 41 years can retire at 62.
Those who have paid contributions for at least 41 years and 10 months (women) or 42 years and 10 months (men) can retire regardless of age.
[48]
Japan 64 62 2022 While the government is at it with early retirement prevention, the age is expected to increase gradually to 65 years of age by 2025.[49] [13][50]
Kazakhstan 63 58 2015 From 2017 the retirement age for women is to be increased gradually and reach 63 years in 2027[51]
Kosovo 65 65 2014 [52]
Kyrgyzstan 63 58 2011 [10]
Latvia 64 2021 The age will be 65 by 2025.[13] [13]
Libya 65 60 2017 [53]
Liechtenstein 64 2007 [17]
Lithuania 64.167 63.333 2021 In Lithuania, the retirement age will be raised to 65 for both men and women by 2026.[13] [13][54]
Luxembourg 65 2011 [10]
Malaysia 60 2013 In Malaysia, The Congress of Unions of Employees in the Public and Civil Services (Cuepacs) wants the government to consider extending the retirement age for civil servants from 60 to 62,[55] but the government has no immediate plan to extend it as the current retirement age is deemed as sufficient.[56] [57]
Malta 63 2021 In Malta the retirement age is being increased gradually to 65 years by 2027.[13] [13]
Mexico 65 2015 Retirement age is expected to be increased in the coming years.
Moldova 63 60 2022 Retirement age for women is increasing every 6 months until it reaches 63 years in 2028 [58]
Montenegro 66 64 2022 [10]
Morocco 63 2014 Abdelilah Benkirane increased the retirement age to 63 since 2015.
Namibia 50–60 2015 The early retirement age for public employees is 55 years, but will be reduced to 50 years (in 2016). [59][60]
Nepal 65 2021
Netherlands 66–68 2018 Although official retirement age is 68, AOW (Algemene Ouderdomswet, meaning General Old Age Law) state pension will be received starting at the age of 66. AOW eligibility is tied to life expectancy and will gradually increase to 67 in 2021. [61][62]
New Zealand 65 2019 [63]
North Korea 60 55 1999 [64]
North Macedonia 64 62 2011 [10]
Norway 62–67 2018 The general retirement age is currently set to age 67 however, given sufficient pension contributions it is possible to retire as early as at age 62. The longer an individual postpones withdrawing a pension, the greater the government pension provision becomes. [65]
Oman 60 55 2023 The age is 60.
Pakistan 60 2012 [66]
Peru 60 2018
Philippines 60 1990 The retirement age for an employee depends on the employment contract. Upon retirement, the retired employee should be given his/her benefits according to the agreement or contract between the employer and the employee. However, if there is no existing retirement plan or agreement for the employee, he/she may retire at the age of 60, given that he/she has served the employer for 5 years, and shall be given a retirement pay of at least half a month's salary for every year of service (6 months of work given is considered as 1 whole year for the retirement pay). [67][68]
Poland 65 60 2016 [13]
Portugal 66.5 2021 [69][13]
Romania 65 62 2023 The age for women is being increased gradually. It will reach 63 by 2030.[70] [9][13]
Russia 61.5 56.5 2021 From 2019 the retirement age for men (women) would gradually increase from 60 (55) to 65 (60) years by 2028; first it was intended to hike the age for women to 63 but later the plan was softened. [71][72]
Saudi Arabia 60 2014 In Saudi Arabia, the retirement age is based on the Hijiri (lunar) calendar. [73]
Serbia 65 63.5 2023 Both men and women can retire when they reach their respective retirement age and have at least 15 years of insurance coverage. Or, have 45 years of insurance coverage regardless of age. The retirement age for women is increased by 2 months every year and it will be the same as for men, 65 in 2032. [10]
Singapore 62–65 2012 In Singapore, the Retirement Age Act (RAA) has been replaced by the Retirement and Re-employment Act (RRA) in 2012. Under the RRA, the statutory minimum retirement age is still 62, but employers are now required to offer re-employment to eligible employees who turn 62, up to the age of 65. The bill will gradually increase the retirement and re-employment ages for Singapore employees to 65 and 70 years old, respectively. By 2030, the retirement age will have been increased to 65 and the re-employment age will have been raised to 70, in a step-by-step approach. [74][75]
Slovakia 62 2017 In Slovakia the retirement age for women depends on the number of children.[76] The retirement age will be equalized for men and women at 62 in 2017. The retirement age as of October 2022 is 63 years with the conditions. [13] [14]
Slovenia 65 2021 [13]
South Korea 60 2016 Employers with more than 300 employees are required to extend the retiring age to 60. From 1 January 2017, it will be mandatory for all employers nationwide.[77]
Spain 65 2021 The age will be 67 by 2027.[13] [10][14]
Sri Lanka 55 2014 [78]
Sweden 61–67 2023 64-67 is the general age of retirement by 2023 if you are born 1963 or later.[79] [80]
Switzerland 65 64 2021 65 for women by January 2025. [13]
Taiwan 66 2015 In Taiwan the retirement age is to be increased gradually and reach 68 years by 2028.[13] [10][14][17]
Tajikistan 63 58 2011 [10]
Thailand 60 2015 except a president of a university can work beyond 60 years
Trinidad and Tobago 60–65 2015 [81]
Tunisia 62–65 2019
Turkmenistan 62 57 2011 [10]
Turkey 60 58 2014 Retirement age was gradually increased since the 1970s, from 44 for men and 38 for women.[82] Originally, there was no exact retirement age. Current ages will increase to 65 for both genders by 2048. Additionally, various minimum days of service is required, which is currently 7000 days. It will become 7200 days (20 years) by 2048. One is subject to the laws on the day he/she started working. [83]
Ukraine 60 2021 [10][84]
United Arab Emirates 65 2010 In the United Arab Emirates the mandatory retirement age was raised from 60 to 65 in 2010, enabling the UAE to retain its needed expat skilled work force longer for key construction projects.[85]
United Kingdom 66- 2019

State pension age increased to 66 on 6 October 2020, and will go up to 67 by 2028[86] and 68 by 2037.[8]

United States 62 (on reduction) Standard - 66–70[87] 2024 :

The Social Security Administration, is the Government agency responsible for social services in the United States. Pension age in the United States is determined on one's birth year, the earliest a person can retire is 62, but benefits may be a 30% reduction, as the full benefit amount (100%) is for retirees is 67, however if a prospective retiree delays taking out Government benefits until 70, the full pension amount is again increased (125%). [87]

[13]
Uruguay 60–70 2009 60 years and 30 working years minimum (1995), or 65 years and 25 working years and progressive to 70 in age and 15 working years (2009).
Uzbekistan 60 55 2011 [10]
Venezuela 60 55 2015 [88]
Vietnam 60.5 55.67 2022 The retirement age will gradually increase to 62 for males by 2028 and 60 for females by 2035. In 2021, the retirement age is 60.25 (age 60 and 3 months) for males and 50.33 (age 50 and 4 months) for women, the age will be increased by 3 months each year following for males and 4 months for women. [89]

The average of statutory retirement age in the 34 countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2014 was males 65 years and females 63.5 years, but the tendency all over the world is to increase the retirement age.[90] This is also reflected by the findings that just over half the Asian investors surveyed region-wide said they agreed with raising the retirement age, with a quarter disagreeing and the remainder undecided.[91]

Reform[edit]

Reforms tend to be phased in slowly when the retirement age (or pension age) is increased with grandfathering, ensuring a gradual change. In contrast, when the age of retirement is decreased, changes are often brought about rapidly.[92]

One of such examples of grandfathering is the transitional pension rules, which were applied for staff aged 54 years or older, and to some extent, for all staff in place, when in 2014, the retirement age of European civil servants was increased to 66 years of age.[93]

Men retire either later than women or at the same time. This is being addressed in some countries, where the retirement ages are being equalized.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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