retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ ɻ ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`. The IPA symbol is a turned lowercase letter r with a rightward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the retroflex approximant:
manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream. Its
place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat). Its
phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The
airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
The retroflex approximant occurs in
American English, Hiberno-English, West Country English, Mandarin Chinese, Pashto, a few Brazilian Portuguese dialects and some languages of India such as Tamil and Malayalam, as well as several Australian Aboriginal and Indigenous South American languages.
[ɻoʊ̯˥˩] ( · help ) info 'meat'
Can be a fricative
[ʐ] for some speakers. See Standard Chinese phonology
Dutch Some Netherlandic speakers
Tongue bunched and root retracted, giving rise to retroflex resonance. Used by some speakers. Only occurs in the syllable coda. See
West Country English
Faroese [2 ]
/r/. Sometimes voiceless [2 ] [. ɻ̊] See [2 ] Faroese phonology
Cretan Greek ( Sfakia and Mylopotamos variations) region [3 ]
γά λα gá la
Intervocalic allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. Recessive. See Modern Greek phonology
[kɒɻe] 'to rot'
Koḻe: This consonant, ḻ, widely used in Old Kannada, has fallen out of use in writing and speaking in modern Kannada; however, the Kannada alphabet maintains a character for this consonant and it is present as a phoneme in certain dialects.
retroflex lateral flap /ɭ̆/. See Pashto phonology
Allophone of rhotic consonant, and seldom
/l/, in the syllable codas. The retroflex approximant stigmatised as (or the " erre caipira hillbilly r") is mostly found in rural São Paulo, Paraná, south of Minas Gerais and surrounding areas, but as the more common and prestigious realization in metropolitan areas, / may also have ɾ/ post-alveolar and alveolar approximant and/or rhotic vowel allophones. As with [, it appeared as a mutation of ɽ] [ɾ], what is often attributed to the influence of Amerindian languages. [4 ] [5 ] Localized production is found in half of Brazilian states, and urban speakers in the core region. [6 ] See [7 ] Portuguese phonology.
[ˈgɻatʊ̥] 'thankful' (m.)
Tamil [8 ]
vaḻi "way" See
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Bibliography [ edit ]
Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116, doi: 10.1017/S0025100304001549
Trudgill, Peter (1989), "The Sociophonetics of /l/ in the Greek of Sphakiá", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 15 (2): 18–22, doi: 10.1017/S0025100300002942