Retroflex approximant

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Retroflex approximant
ɻ
IPA number 152
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɻ
Unicode (hex) U+027B
X-SAMPA r\`
Kirshenbaum r.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
Sound

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɻ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`. The IPA symbol is a turned lowercase letter r with a rightward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter.

Features[edit]

Features of the retroflex approximant:

Occurrence[edit]

The retroflex approximant occurs in American English, Hiberno-English, West Country English, Mandarin Chinese, Pashto, a few Brazilian Portuguese dialects and some languages of India such as Tamil and Malayalam, as well as several Australian Aboriginal and Indigenous South American languages.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arrernte [example needed]
Chinese Mandarin ròu About this sound [ɻoʊ̯˥˩]  'meat' Can be a fricative [ʐ] for some speakers. See Standard Chinese phonology
Dutch Some Netherlandic speakers[1] eerst [ɪːɻst] 'first' Tongue bunched and root retracted, giving rise to retroflex resonance. Used by some speakers. Only occurs in the syllable coda. See Dutch phonology
English Some American dialects red [ɻʷɛd] 'red' See English phonology
Some Hiberno-English dialects
Some West Country English
Enindhilyagwa angwura [aŋwuɻa] 'fire'
Faroese[2] hoyrdi [hɔiɻʈɛ] 'heard' Allophone of /r/.[2] Sometimes voiceless [ɻ̊].[2] See Faroese phonology
Greek Cretan Greek (Sfakia and Mylopotamos variations) region[3] γάλα la [ˈɣaɻa] 'milk' Intervocalic allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. Recessive. See Modern Greek phonology
Kannada ಕೊೞೆ [kɒɻe] 'to rot' Koḻe: This consonant, , widely used in Old Kannada, has fallen out of use in writing and speaking in modern Kannada; however, the Kannada alphabet maintains a character for this consonant and it is present as a phoneme in certain dialects.
Malayalam വഴി [ʋɐɻi] vaḻi; "way"
Mapuche rúka [ˈɻuka] 'house'
Pashto سوړ [soɻ] 'cold' Allophone of retroflex lateral flap /ɭ̆/. See Pashto phonology
Portuguese Many Centro-Sul registers cartas [ˈkaɻtə̥̆s] 'letters' Allophone of rhotic consonant, and seldom /l/, in the syllable codas. The retroflex approximant stigmatised as erre caipira (or the "hillbilly r") is mostly found in rural São Paulo, Paraná, south of Minas Gerais and surrounding areas, but as the more common and prestigious realization in metropolitan areas, /ɾ/ may also have post-alveolar and alveolar approximant and/or rhotic vowel allophones. As with [ɽ], it appeared as a mutation of [ɾ], what is often attributed to the influence of Amerindian languages.[4][5][6] Localized production is found in half of Brazilian states, and urban speakers in the core region.[7] See Portuguese phonology.
Caipira temporal [tẽɪ̯̃pʊˈɾaɻ] 'rainstorm'
Conservative piracicabano grato [ˈgɻatʊ̥] 'thankful' (m.)
Tamil[8] வழி [ʋɐɻi] vaḻi "way" See Tamil phonology
Western Desert Pitjantjatjara dialect Uluu [ʊlʊɻʊ] 'Uluru'
Yaghan rho [ˈwaɻo] 'cave'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  3. ^ Trudgill (1989:18–19)
  4. ^ (Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
  5. ^ (Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
  6. ^ (Portuguese) Callou, Dinah. Leite, Yonne. "Iniciação à Fonética e à Fonologia". Jorge Zahar Editora 2001, p. 24
  7. ^ Nas trilhas do -r retroflexo Silvia Figueiredo Brandão. December 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
  8. ^ Keane (2004:111)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Trudgill, Peter (1989), "The Sociophonetics of /l/ in the Greek of Sphakiá", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 15 (2): 18–22, doi:10.1017/S0025100300002942