Revelation 14

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Revelation 14
Papyrus 47 Rev 13,16-14.4.jpg
Revelation 13:16-14:4 on Papyrus 47 from the third century.
BookBook of Revelation
CategoryApocalypse
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part27

Revelation 14 is the fourteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle,[1][2] but the precise identity of the author remains a point of academic debate.[3] This chapter contains the accounts of the lamb with 144,000 followers, the three angelic messages and the voice from heaven, as well as the harvest of the earth and the vintage of the earth.[4] The Three Angels' messages in verses 6 to 12 form a central feature of the teaching and mission of the Seventh-day Adventist Church: "“Make disciples of Jesus Christ who live as His loving witnesses and proclaim to all people the everlasting gospel of the Three Angels’ Messages in preparation for His soon return".[5]

Text[edit]

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 20 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing this chapter are:[a]

Verse 1[edit]

Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads.[7]

Translated as "a lamb" in the King James and New King James versions, but as "the lamb" in many other translations. This lamb is, "of course, the same as the lamb seen in chapter 5",[8] but there the lamb looked "as if it had been slain",[9] whereas here it is standing triumphant on Mount Zion: "probably the earthly one, [because] the heavenly Jerusalem of chapter 21 has not yet appeared".[8]

The King James Version states that the 144,000 had "his Father's name" written on their foreheads but the majority of English translations refer to "his name and his Father’s name".[10] This reading (Greek: τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ὅνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, to onomo autou kai to onoma tou patros autou) is supported by Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Epraemi Rescriptus as well as most cursives and the writings of the early Fathers of the Church.[11]

Verse 2[edit]

I heard a voice from heaven, like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of loud thunder. And I heard the sound of harpists playing their harps.[12]

Johann Bengel emphasises that the same voice was heard, "first as of many waters and of great thundering, and next as of harpers".[13]

Verse 3[edit]

They sang as it were a new song before the throne, before the four living creatures, and the elders; and no one could learn that song except the hundred and forty-four thousand who were redeemed from the earth.[14]

Verse 6[edit]

Then I saw another angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach to those who dwell on the earth—to every nation, tribe, tongue, and people— [15][16]

Verse 7[edit]

A text from Revelation 14:7 on a metal plaque set in a stone boulder near the parking area and viewpoint on Hawksworth Road north of Baildon (photographed in 2006).
Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.[17]

Verse 8[edit]

New King James Version

And another angel followed, saying,
“Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she has made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.”[18]

Cross reference: Isaiah 21:9, Revelation 18:2

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Book of Revelation is missing from Codex Vaticanus.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Davids, Peter H (1982). I Howard Marshall and W Ward Gasque (ed.). New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Epistle of James (Repr. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823882.
  2. ^ Evans, Craig A (2005). Craig A Evans (ed.). Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: John, Hebrews-Revelation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Victor. ISBN 0781442281.
  3. ^ F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45
  4. ^ Bauckham 2007, p. 1289.
  5. ^ Adventist Review, Adventist Church Presents New ‘I Will Go’ Strategic Plan: Annual Council delegates approve an updated mission statement, published 16 October 2018, accessed 12 November 2018
  6. ^ Claremont Coptic Encyclopaedia, Codex Vaticanus, accessed 29 September 2018
  7. ^ Revelation 14:1 NKJV
  8. ^ a b Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on Revelation 14, accessed 14 November 2018
  9. ^ Revelation 5:6
  10. ^ BibleGateway.com, Translations of Revelation 14:1
  11. ^ Pulpit Commentary on Revelation 14, accessed 15 November 2018
  12. ^ Revelation 14:2 NKJV
  13. ^ Bengel, J. A., Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament on Revelation 14, accessed 12 November 2018
  14. ^ Revelation 14:3 NKJV
  15. ^ Revelation 14:6 NKJV
  16. ^ John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible - Revelation 14:6
  17. ^ Revelation 14:7 KJV
  18. ^ Revelation 14:8

Bibliography[edit]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gill, John. Exposition of the Entire Bible (1746-1763).

External links[edit]