Revelation 22

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Revelation 22
ErasmusText LastPage Rev22 8 21.jpg
Erasmus Text of the New Testament, last page (Revelation 22:8-21), 1516.
BookBook of Revelation
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part27

Revelation 22 is the twenty-second (and the last) chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John, and the final chapter of the New Testament and of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle.[1][2][3] This chapter contains the accounts of the throne of God in the New Jerusalem, the conversation between John and the Angel and the epilogue of the book.[4]


The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 21 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are among others:[5][a]

References to Jesus[edit]

Greek letters alpha and omega

Verse 13[edit]

I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.[7]
  • Cross reference: Revelation 21:6
  • "The Beginning and the End, the First and the Last" (KJV; NKJV): NU and M[b] read "First and the Last, the Beginning and the End".[8]

Verse 16[edit]

"I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches.
I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star."[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Book of Revelation is missing from Codex Vaticanus.[6] and this chapter is missing from Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus.
  2. ^ NU: 'the 27th edition of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament' and 'the 4th edition United Bible Societies'; M:'the Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text'.


  1. ^ Davids, Peter H (1982). I Howard Marshall and W Ward Gasque (ed.). New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Epistle of James (Repr. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823882.
  2. ^ Evans, Craig A (2005). Craig A Evans (ed.). Bible Knowledge Bac kground Commentary: John, Hebrews-Revelation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Victor. ISBN 0781442281.
  3. ^ F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45
  4. ^ Bauckham 2007, p. 1289.
  5. ^ Elliott, J. K. "Revelations from the apparatus criticus of the Book of Revelation: How Textual Criticism Can Help Historians." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 63, no. 3-4 (2012): 1-23.
  6. ^ Claremont Coptic Encyclopaedia, Codex Vaticanus, accessed 29 September 2018
  7. ^ Revelation 22:13 NKJV
  8. ^ Note [f] on Revelation 22:13 in NKJV
  9. ^ Revelation 22:16 NKJV


External links[edit]