In India, a binding decision of the Supreme Court/High Court can be reviewed in Review Petition. The parties aggrieved on any order of the Supreme Court on any apparent error can file a review petition. Taking into consideration the principle of stare decisis, courts generally do not unsettle a decision, without a strong case. This provision regarding review is an exemption to the legal principle of stare decisis.[need quotation to verify]
Article 137 of the Constitution provides that subject to provisions of any law and rule made under Article 145 the Supreme Court of India has the power to review any judgement pronounced (or order made) by it. Under Supreme Court Rules, 1966 such a petition needs to be filed within 30 days from the date of judgement or order. It is also recommended that the petition should be circulated without oral arguments to the same bench of judges that delivered the judgement (or order) sought to be reviewed.
While a civil review petition can be moved in accordance with Order XLVII, Rule 1(1) of the Code of Civil Procedure,1908 a criminal review petition can be moved only on the ground of an error apparent on the face of the record. (Source: CPC, 1908 and CRPC, 1973)
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2G spectrum scam
On 2 March 2012, Govt of India filed a review petition in Supreme Court seeking partial review of the court's 2 February 2012 order which had quashed 122 licenses. The Govt questioned Supreme Court's authority over ruling against the first-come first-served policy but stayed away from challenging the cancellation of 122 licences issued during the tenure of A Raja as Telecom Minister. On the same day Sistema, majority shareholder in MTS India, too filed a review petition in Supreme Court. The Supreme Court on 4 April 2012 accepted Government's review petition on limited grounds and dismissed all other 10 review petitions.
On 18 July 2013 the SC had quashed National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test for admission to MBBS/BDS courses.The government of India subsequently filed a review petition.The Supreme Court agreed to hear the review petition on 23 October 2013.It recalled the 18 July order on 11 April 2016 and allowed the government to conduct NEET for admission to MBBS/BDS courses.It decided to hear afresh on the validity of NEET.
Vodafone-Hutchison Tax Case
On 17 February 2012, Govt of India moved the Supreme Court seeking a review of its verdict holding that the Indian Income Tax Department does not have jurisdiction to impose Rs.11,000 crore as tax on the overseas deal between Vodafone and Hutchison. On 20 March 2012, SC dismissed the review petition during an in-chamber proceeding saying the petition has no merit.
Mayawati Disproportionate Assets case
On 4 October 2012, based on a review petition filed by a person named Kamlesh Verma, the Supreme Court decided to review its earlier verdict in open court in a Disproportionate assets case against Mayawati. The case dates back to 2003 when CBI filed a case against Mayawati for owning assets disproportionate to her known sources of income. Mayawati described the CBI investigation against her as illegal. The assets case was finally quashed on 6 July 2012—nine years later—by the Supreme Court; the court found that the case was unwarranted. The CBI decided not to file an appeal.
- When review petition can be filed in high court and supreme court
- "Supreme Court of India Manual of Office Procedure" (PDF). Supreme Court of India. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "Economic Times". Economic Times. 3 March 2012.
- "2G verdict: Auction can't be only way to allot natural assets, government says". Times of India. 3 March 2012.
- "2G licences cancellation: Sistema files review petition in Supreme Court". Economic Times. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012.
- "2G spectrum scam: Supreme Court dismisses all but one review petition Close". Economic Times. 4 April 2012.
- "Govt seeks review of Vodafone tax verdict". Feb 18, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- "Centre seeks review of Vodafone verdict". Feb 18, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- "Govt seeks review of Vodafone tax case verdict". Feb 17, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- "Second slap: SC junks govt’s Vodafone review petition". First Post. Mar 20, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- "SC dismisses govt's review petition on Vodafone tax verdict". Indian Express. Mar 20, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- "SC order on REVIEW PETITION (CRL.) NO(s). 453 OF 2012". S U P R E M E C O U R T O F I N D I A. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "SC agrees to hear review of quashing of Mayawati DA case". DNA. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "SC to hear review of quashing of Mayawati's assets case". Rediff.com. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- Hasan, Masoodul (21 April 2010). "CBI probe in DA case illegal: Mayawati". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Supreme Court quashes FIR in Mayawati assets case (July 6, 2012). The Hindu. Chennai, India http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article3609174.ece. Retrieved 4 October 2012. Missing or empty
- "Assets case: Relief for Mayawati as CBI admits defeat". The Indian Express. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.