Revised Romanization of Korean
|Korean writing systems|
|= Chosŏn'gŭl (in North Korea)|
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop. op; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system. The new system eliminated various problems that McCune–Reischauer system caused, including but not limited to: failing to differentiate between Korean consonants "ㄱ(g), ㄷ(d), ㅂ(b), and ㅈ(j)" and "ㅋ(k), ㅌ(t), ㅍ(p), and ㅊ(ch)" by assigning k,t,p and ch to each four consonant; failing to distinguish between Korean vowels "어(eo)" and "오(o)" and "으(eu)" and "우(u)" by assigning o and u to each two vowel. The revision of the Romanization of Korean was undertaken with the belief that if the old system was left unrevised, the McCune–Reischauer system will continue to confuse people, both Koreans and foreigners, and therefore needs to be corrected as soon as possible.
The Revised Romanization was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No. 2000-8.
|Revised Romanization of Korean|
|Revised Romanization||gugeoui romaja pyogibeop|
|McCune–Reischauer||kugŏŭi romaja p'yogibŏp|
These are notable features of the Revised Romanization system:
- "ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ" have been changed from "k, t, p, and ch" to "g, d, b, and j."
- In phonology, "g=k+voice", "d=t+voice", "b=p+voice", so "g,d,b" can sound like "k,t,p" depending on the location, but the opposite can never happen.
- Hence, more comprehensive "g,d,b" has been assigned to "ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ" in order to differentiate them from ㅋ, ㅌ and ㅍ, which are pure sounds of k,t and p. And the environment in which ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ are pronounced as k, t and p (although rare and indiscernible) is articulated by the law.
- For example, consonants "ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ" were decided to be romanized as "k, t and p" when placed in the final position, as they are neutralized to unreleased stops: 벽[pjʌk̚] → byeok, 밖[pak̚] → bak, 부엌[pu.ʌk̚] → bueok, 벽에[pjʌ.ɡe̞] → byeoge, 밖에[pa.k͈e̞] → bakke, 부엌에[pu.ʌ.kʰe̞] → bueoke, 컵[k'ŏp] → keop However, note that romanizing them as g,d,b will make no difference in pronunciation, either, because sound became fainter before the stops.
- "ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅊ" have been changed from k', t', p', and ch' to k, t, p, and ch. (removing the apostrophe of the McCune–Reischauer system).
- Vowels ŏ and ŭ are written as eo and eu, respectively (replacing the ŏ and ŭ of the McCune–Reischauer system).
- However, ㅝ/wʌ/ is written as wo (not weo), and ㅢ/ɰi/ is written as ui (not eui)
- "ㅅ" used to be written as "sh" and "s," depending on context. Now it will be written as "s" in all cases.
- ㅅ/s/ is written as s regardless of the following vowels and semivowels; there is no sh: 사[sa] → sa, 시[ɕi] → si.
- When followed by another consonant or when in final position, it is written as t: 옷[ot̚] → ot (but 옷에[o.se̞] → ose).
- ㄹ/l/ is r before a vowel or a semivowel and l everywhere else: 리을[ɾi.ɯl] → rieul, 철원[tɕʰʌ.ɾwʌn] → Cheorwon, 울릉도[ul.lɯŋ.do] → Ulleungdo, 발해[pal.ɦɛ̝] → Balhae. Like in McCune–Reischauer, ㄴ/n/ is written l whenever pronounced as a lateral rather than as a nasal consonant: 전라북도[tɕʌl.la.buk̚.do] → Jeollabuk-do
In addition, special provisions are for regular phonological rules in exceptions to transliteration (see Korean phonology).
Other rules and recommendations include the following:
- A hyphen optionally disambiguates syllables: 가을 → ga-eul (fall; autumn) versus 개울 → gae-ul (stream). However, few official publications make use of this provision since actual instances of ambiguity among names are rare.
- A hyphen must be used in linguistic transliterations to denote syllable-initial ㅇ except at the beginning of a word: 없었습니다 → eops-eoss-seumnida, 외국어 → oegug-eo, 애오개 → Ae-ogae
- It is permitted to hyphenate syllables in the given name, following common practice. Certain phonological changes, ordinarily indicated in other contexts, are ignored in names, for better disambiguating between names: 강홍립 → Gang Hongrip or Gang Hong-rip (not *Hongnip), 한복남 → Han Boknam or Han Bok-nam (not *Bongnam or "Bong-nam")
- Administrative units (such as the do) are hyphenated from the placename proper: 강원도 → Gangwon-do
- One may omit terms "such as 시, 군, 읍": 평창군 → Pyeongchang-gun or Pyeongchang, 평창읍 → Pyeongchang-eup or Pyeongchang.
- However, names for geographic features and artificial structures are not hyphenated: 설악산 → Seoraksan, 해인사 → Haeinsa
- Proper nouns are capitalized.
Almost all road signs, names of railway and subway stations on line maps and signs etc. have been changed according to Revised Romanization of Korean (RR, also called South Korean or Ministry of Culture (MC) 2000). All Korean textbooks were required to comply with the new system by February 28, 2002. Romanization of surnames and existing companies' names has been left untouched due to credibility issue. However, the Korean government encourages using the revised romanization of Korean for the new names.
Like several European languages that have undergone spelling reforms (such as Portuguese, German or Swedish), the Revised Romanization is not expected to be adopted as the official romanization of Korean family names. This is because the conditions for allowing changes in romanization of surnames in passport is very strict. The reasons are outlined below.
1. Countries around the world manage information about foreigners who are harmful to the public safety of their countries, including international criminals and illegal immigrants by the Roman name and date of birth of the passport they have used in the past. And if a passport is free to change its Roman name, it will pose a serious risk to border management due to difficulties in determining the same person.
2. The people of a country where it is free to change its Roman name will be subject to strict immigration checks, which will inevitably cause inconvenience to the people of that country.
3. Arbitrary changes in the Romanization of passports can lead to a fall in the credibility of the passports and national credit, which can have a negative impact on the new visa waiver agreement, etc.
Also, with very few exceptions, if you have ever left the country under your romanized name, it is impossible to change your family name again. 
However, South Korea's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism encourages those who "newly" register their romanized names to follow the Revised Romanization of Korean.
In addition, North Korea continues to use a version of the McCune–Reischauer system of Romanization, a different version of which was in official use in South Korea from 1984 to 2000.
Textbooks and dictionaries intended for students of the Korean language tend to include this Romanization. However, some publishers have acknowledged the difficulties or confusion it can cause for non-native Korean speakers who are unused to the conventions of this style of Romanization.
ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㄹ are transcribed as g, d, b, and r when placed at the initial of a word or before a vowel, and as k, t, p, and l when followed by another consonant or when appearing at the end of a word.
The revised romanization transcribes certain phonetic changes that occur with combinations of the ending consonant of a character and the initial consonant of the next like Hanguk → Hangugeo. These significant changes occur (highlighted in yellow):
|ㄷ||t||d, j||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅅ||t||s||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅈ||t||j||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅊ||t||ch||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
|ㅌ||t||t, ch||tg||nn||td||nn||nm||tb||ts||tj||tch||tk||t-t||tp||th, t, ch|
Phonetic changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed: 정석민 → Jeong Seokmin or Jeong Seok-min, 최빛나 → Choe Bitna or Choe Bit-na.
Phonological changes are reflected where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ: 좋고 → joko, 놓다 → nota, 잡혀 → japyeo, 낳지 → nachi. However, aspirated sounds are not reflected in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ: 묵호 → Mukho, 집현전 → Jiphyeonjeon.
- "Romanization of Korean". Korea.net. Ministry of Culture & Tourism. July 2000. Archived from the original on 16 September 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- "로마자성명 표기 변경 허용 요건". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2007. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- Tuttle Publishing: "In addition, easy-to-use phonetic spellings of all Korean words and phrases are given. For example, "How are you?"—annyeonghaseyo? is also written as anh-nyawng-hah-seyo?", blurb for two Korean phrasebooks: Making Out in Korean ISBN 9780804843546 and More Making Out in Korean Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine ISBN 9780804838498. All accessed 2016-03-02.
- "Romanization of Korean". National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
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