Revolution from above
A revolution from above refers to major political and social changes that are imposed by an elite on the population it dominates. It usually occurs in urban areas in the capital city. By contrast, the plain term revolution suggests that pressure from below is a major driving force in events, even if other social groups cooperate with — or ultimately capture —the movement. The phrase was coined by the Spanish writer Joaquín Costa in the 19th century.
In contrast, a "revolution from below" refers to a grassroots campaign against elites.
- Enlightened Despotism in 18th-century Europe
- The Constitution of the German Confederation 1871 and the formation of the German Empire
- Stalin's Collectivization of agriculture
- De-Stalinization under Nikita Khrushchev
- German Reunification
- White Revolution in Iran
Revolution from Above: Military Bureaucrats and Development in Japan, Turkey, Egypt, and Peru, a 1978 book written by Ellen Kay Trimberger, published by Transaction Books.
- Stanley G. Payne, The Franco Regime, p. 10
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