Revolutionary Communist Party of Argentina

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PCR mural
Revolutionary Communist Party of Argentina
Partido Comunista Revolucionario de la Argentina
General Secretary Otto Vargas
Founded January 6, 1968 (1968-01-06)
Newspaper Hoy
Youth wing Juventud Comunista Revolucionaria
Ideology Maoism

The Revolutionary Communist Party of Argentina (Spanish: Partido Comunista Revolucionario de la Argentina) is a Maoist communist party from Argentina.

PC(CNRR)[edit]

The party was emerged from a split in the Communist Party of Argentina in 1967.[1] On January 6, 1968 (the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party) the dissidents formed the Communist Party – National Revolutionary Recovery Committee (Spanish: Partido Comunista-Comité Nacional de Recuperación Revolucionaria, abbreviated PC(CNRR)).[1][2][3] The founders of PC(CNRR) came mainly from the Communist Youth Federation (FJC), although the group also included some Communist Party cadres.[3] Leaders of PC(CNRR) included Jorge Rocha, Carlos Echagüe, Lucila Irene Edelman, Ricardo Helman, José Ratzer, Antonio Sofía and Otto C. Vargas (veteran leader of FJC and erstwhile secretary of La Plata Zone Committee of the Communist Party).[2][4][5] PC(CNRR) published Nueva Hora.[2] PC(CNRR) rejected the Communist Party line of building a broad democratic front, accusing the Communist Party of 'conciliation with imperialism' and 'class conciliation'.[6] In contrast to the democratic front line of the old party, PC(CNRR) called for the building of a national liberation front.[3] PC(CNRR) sought to work within the Communist Party, to gain followers amongst its ranks.[7][8]

PC(CNRR) was active inside the Argentine University Federation (FUA).[8] In late 1967 the Communist Party dissidents (that soon would form PC(CNRR)) set up the Textile Organizational and Struggle Command (COLT) as its front group amongst textile workers.[9]

On January 10, 1969 the name PCR was adopted,[1] marking a definite break with the old Communist Party.[7]

Development towards Maoism[edit]

Initially PC(CNRR)/PCR had a 'guevarist' orientation.[10] The party turned towards Maoism following a visit to China by a PCR delegation in 1972.[10] The development of a Maoist identity of party led to a split, in which the adherents of immediate armed struggle were expelled from the party.[10]

Automobile industry[edit]

PCR sought to organize workers in the automobile industry, by distribution of pamphlets at factory gates and sending some of its cadres to take up employment at factories.[11] In the wake of the 1969 Cordobazo, the PCR identified the Perdiel plant as a priority for union organizing.[12] Soon the PCR-dominated left opposition began gaining influence at the plant.[10] On May 12, 1970 PCR activists took a group of French supervisors hostage at the Perdriel plant of IKA-Renault.[11][12] This action was done in protest against the removal of leftist candidates in the local union election.[11] The factory management caved in and reinstated the leftist candidates.[11] The May 12, 1970 factory occupation marked the start of more militant industrial struggles in Argentina.[11]

In late 1971, ahead of the 1972 Union of Automotor Transport Mechanics and Similar Trades (Smata) union election in Córdoba, PCR and other left groups (Communist Party, Communist Vanguard, Palabra Obrera, El Obrero, Peronismo de Base and non-affiliated leftists) launched the Trade Union Recovery Movement (MRS).[12] On April 30, 1972 PCR won various leadership posts in the Union of Automotor Transport Mechanics and Similar Trades (Smata) union election in Córdoba.[10] The MRS brown list defeated the Peronist green list.[10][12] René Salamca, a Central Committee member of the party, was elected general secretary of SMATA-Córdoba, accompanied by Roque Romero as assistant secretary.[1][10][12][13]

FRA[edit]

Ahead of the March 11, 1973 general election PCR formed the Fuerza Revolucionaria Antiacuerdista (FRA, 'Revolutionary Anti-Accord Force') together with Communist Vanguard and independent left groups.[14]

1975 crisis[edit]

In 1975 PCR called for support to Isabel Perón's government.[15]

PTP[edit]

PCR set up the Party of Labour and of the People (PTP) as a separate entity to build a broader, legal base.[16] PTP contested the 1987 legislative election.[3]

In the 1989 general election PTP supported the candidature of Carlos Menem for president and his Frejupo alliance. Clelia Íscaro of PTP (i.e. PCR) stood as a parliamentary candidate for Frejupo.[3]

PTP contested the 1993 legislative election.[3]

1996 line[edit]

Following the struggles after the events in Santiago del Estero in 1993, PCR developed a line of electoral abstention (calling for blank vote) and call for insurrection.[3][17]

Piquetero movement[edit]

PCR graffiti: "In the path of the Argentinazo!"

Within the onset of the 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, the party assigned Juan Carlos Alderete to build a section for unemployed within the Corriente Clasista y Combativa (CCC, the PCR trade union front organization).[18][19] Thus the CCC became the key element of the activity of PCR in the piquetero movement[18] CCC formed a tactical alliance with the CTA-linked piquetero group FTV, and the FTV-CCC alliance emerged as the dominant bloc in the piquetero movement 2000–2003.[18][19] The FTV-CCC bloc carried out several mass protests in the Buenos Aires urban area against the social and economic policies of the government.[19] In 2003 the alliance between FTV and CCC broke apart over differences on how to relate to the Nestor Kirchner administration, as FTV favoured cooperation with the new government whilst CCC rejected it.[18][19]

Rural movements[edit]

PCR maintains networks within agrarian movements such as Movimiento Mujeres en Lucha (MML), Juventud Agraria and Federación Agraria Argentina (FAA).[3]

Newspaper[edit]

PCR publishes Hoy as its main organ.[17]

Youth wing[edit]

The youth wing of the party is the Revolutionary Communist Youth (Juventud Comunista Revolucionaria, JCR).[3] JCR publishes the monthly La Chispa.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Partido Comunista Revolucionario de la Argentina. Fundado el 6 de enero de 1968 – Partido Comunista Revolucionario de la Argentina
  2. ^ a b c Eduardo Bilotti (1 January 2006). Enciclopedia argentina de agrupaciones políticas, 1800–2003: Desde la M. (Mov. Recup.) hasta la P. (Part. Nacion. Lib.). De los Cuatro Vientos Editorial. p. 244. ISBN 978-987-564-571-4. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Daniel Kohen (1 January 2012). Marea roja: La familia de la izquierda argentina. Entre el Kirchnerismo, las nuevas luchas s. Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial Argentina. ISBN 978-950-07-3768-5. 
  4. ^ Panorama semanal. Panorama S.A.P. y E. 1968. p. 94. 
  5. ^ Richard Felix Staar; Milorad M. Drachkovitch; Lewis H. Gann (1972). Yearbook on International Communist Affairs. Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University. p. 311. 
  6. ^ William E. Ratliff (1971). Yearbook on Latin American Communist Affairs. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. p. 21. 
  7. ^ a b Otto Vargas; Mariano Andrade (2005). Para una historia del maoísmo argentino: entrevista con Otto Vargas. Imago Mundi. p. 38. 
  8. ^ a b Isidoro Gilbert (1 June 2011). La Fede: Alistándose para la revolución. La federación juvenil comunista 1921–2005. Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial Argentina. ISBN 978-950-07-3412-7. 
  9. ^ Política Obrera. La crisis del COLT y el CNRR
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Clara Eugenia Lida; Horacio Gutiérrez Crespo; Pablo Yankelevich (1 January 2007). Argentina, 1976: estudios en torno al golpe de estado. El Colegio de Mexico AC. pp. 66, 72, 89. ISBN 978-968-12-1301-5. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Antonius C. G. M. Robben (24 November 2010). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8122-0331-3. 
  12. ^ a b c d e James Brennan (1 July 2009). The Labor Wars in Cordoba, 1955–1976: Ideology, Work, and Labor Politics in an Argentine Industrial Society. Harvard University Press. pp. 177, 215, 221. ISBN 978-0-674-02875-3. 
  13. ^ Horacio Verbitsky; Juan Pablo Bohoslavsky (25 September 2015). The Economic Accomplices to the Argentine Dictatorship. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-107-11419-7. 
  14. ^ Norberto Galasso (1 January 2005). Perón: Exilio, resistencia, retorno y muerte, 1955–1974. Ediciones Colihue SRL. p. 1158. ISBN 978-950-581-400-8. 
  15. ^ Carlos Altamirano; Javier Trímboli (1 January 1998). La Izquierda en la Argentina: conversaciones. Ediciones Manantial. p. 14. ISBN 978-987-500-024-7. 
  16. ^ Aníbal Kohan (2002). A las calles!: una historia de los movimientos piqueteros y caceroleros de los '90 al 2002. Ediciones Colihue SRL. p. 144. ISBN 978-950-581-788-7. 
  17. ^ a b Julio Godio (2002). Argentina, en la crisis está la solución: la crisis global desde las elecciones de octubre de 2001 hasta la asunción de Duhalde. Editorial Biblos. pp. 137, 139. ISBN 978-950-786-334-9. 
  18. ^ a b c d Martín Retamozo (2009). Movimientos sociales. Subjetividad y acción de los trabajadores desocupados en Argentina. FLACSO Mexico. p. 68. ISBN 978-607-7629-12-2. 
  19. ^ a b c d Sisifo en Argentina: orden, conflicto y sujetos politicos. Eduvim. 2010. pp. 113, 154. ISBN 978-987-1727-04-9. 

External links[edit]