Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile

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The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile flew the flag of the FNLA

The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile (Portuguese: Govêrno revolucionário de Angola no exílio, GRAE) was a government-in-exile led by the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), based in Kinshasa, Congo-Kinshasa. Holden Roberto was the president of GRAE. GRAE was founded in April 1962. GRAE had its armed forces stationed in Congo-Kinshasa and conducted military training there.[1]

However, as Moïse Tshombe became Prime Minister in Congo-Kinshasa, Congolese aid for GRAE was reduced. In July 1964, the Foreign Minister of GRAE, Jonas Savimbi, resigned (in 1966 he would form a movement of his own, UNITA).[1]

Initially, GRAE forces fought mainly in the northern Dembo forests. However, in early 1969 GRAE opened a second front along the Zambian border.[1]

OAU recognition[edit]

When the Organization for African Unity was founded in 1963, GRAE was granted exclusive recognition as the legitimate government of Angola, a move which spurred the Congolese government to expel the MPLA forces (a rival liberation movement to FNLA) from Congo-Kinshasa.[1] However, in 1964 OAU also recognized MPLA as a legitimate liberation movement, and gradually support was reduced for GRAE.[2] In the period 1971-1972 GRAE received 61666 pounds sterling from the OAU, 5.69% of the total amounts donated by the OAU to different African liberation movements at the time. During the same period, OAU gave MPLA 180334 pounds sterling.[3]

International linkages[edit]

GRAE constituted a bloc of African movements, together with the Pan-Africanist Congress (South Africa), Revolutionary Committee of Mozambique and Zimbabwe African National Union. Through this cooperation, GRAE gave some military assistance to its Mozambican counterpart. In the 1960s, GRAE received a large share of humanitarian aid for Angolan refugees from Western sources. GRAE was supported by China. GRAE did also receive some assistance from the Soviet bloc.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e Whitaker, Paul M.. The Revolutions of 'Portuguese' Africa, in The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1. (Apr., 1970), pp. 15-35.
  2. ^ "Profiles: Accord Angola". Conciliation Resources. 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  3. ^ Gonidec, Pierre François. African Politics. The Hague: Matinus Nijhoff, 1981. p. 272

External links[edit]