Revolutionary Movement 13th November
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Revolutionary Movement 13th November (in Spanish: Movimiento Revolucionario 13 Noviembre) was a leftist movement in Guatemala. MR-13 was founded in 1960 by a group of dissident officers. It grew partly out of the popular protests against the government of Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes following his election in 1958. It was led by Luis Augusto Turcios Lima, Marco Antonio Yon Sosa and Luis Trejo Esquivel. Alejandro de León, co-founder of the group, was captured and shot by the judicial police in 1961. In 1963 MR-13 joined the Rebel Armed Forces (FAR).
A 1968 CIA report stated that: "With some assistance from Cuba, the small band, under the leadership of Marco Antonio Yon Sosa, engaged in sporadic terrorist acts, including harassment of communications lines, buses, and railroad tracks, pillaging of military supply points and plantations for money and arms, assassination of army collaborators, and attacks on commercial and official installations."
MR-13 nominally continued to exist until 1973, after it was severely hampered in the 1966-67 counterinsurgency by the Guatemalan government.
- May 1999, pp. 70-71.
- Central Intelligence Agency. Intelligence Memorandum. The Communist Insurgency Movement in Guatemala. 0624/68, September 20, 1968. In Guatemala and the U.S.; DNSA collection.
- Digital National Security Archive. Revolutionary Movement 13 November (Guatemala). Accessed 09/30/2007.
- May, Rachel (March 1999). ""Surviving All Changes is Your Destiny": Violence and Popular Movements in Guatemala". Latin American Perspectives. 26 (2): 68–91. doi:10.1177/0094582x9902600204.
- Charles A. Russell; James A. Miller; Robert E. Hildner (1974). "The Urban Guerrilla in Latin America: A Select Bibliography". Latin American Research Review. 9 (1): 37–79.
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