Rewilding (conservation biology)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Rewilding, or re-wilding, activities are conservation efforts aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and wilderness areas. This may include providing connectivity between such areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.

Rewilding is a form of ecological restoration with an emphasis on humans stepping back and leaving an area to nature, as opposed to more active forms of natural resource management. Rewilding efforts can aim to create ecosystems requiring passive management. Successful long term rewilding projects can need little ongoing human attention, as successful reintroduction of keystone species creates a self-regulatory and self-sustaining stable ecosystem, possibly with near pre-human levels of biodiversity.

While rewilding initiatives can be controversial, the United Nations have listed rewilding as one of several methods needed to achieve massive scale restoration of natural ecosystems, which they say must be accomplished by 2030.


The word rewilding was coined by members of the grassroots network Earth First!, appearing in print by 1990,[1] and was refined by conservation biologists Michael Soulé and Reed Noss in a paper published in 1998.[2] According to Soulé and Noss, rewilding is a conservation method based on "cores, corridors, and carnivores."[3] The concepts of cores, corridors, and carnivores were developed further in 1999.[4] Dave Foreman subsequently wrote the first full-length book about rewilding as a conservation strategy.[5]


Rewilding was developed as a method to preserve functional ecosystems and reduce biodiversity loss, incorporating research in island biogeography and the ecological role of large carnivores.[6] In 1967, The Theory of Island Biogeography by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson established the importance of considering the size and isolation of wildlife conservation areas, stating that protected areas remained vulnerable to extinctions if small and isolated.[7] In 1987, William D. Newmark's study of extinctions in national parks in North America added weight to the theory.[8] The publications intensified debates on conservation approaches.[9] With the creation of the Society for Conservation Biology in 1985, conservationists began to focus on reducing habitat loss and fragmentation.[10]

Practice and interest in rewilding grew rapidly in the first two decades of the 21st century. Supporters of rewilding initiatives range from individuals, small land owners, local NGOs and authorities, to national governments and international NGOs such as IUCN. While small scale efforts are generally well regarded, the increased popularity of rewilding has generated controversary, especially regarding large scale projects. These have attracted criticism from academics, practicing conservationists, government officials and business people.[11][12][13][14] In a June 2021 report for the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, the UN listed rewilding as one of several restoration methods which they state should be used for the ecosystem restoration of over 1 billion hectares (a total area bigger than China).[15][16]

Elements required for successful rewilding[edit]

Rewilding aims to restore three key ecological processes: trophic complexity, dispersal, and stochastic disturbances.[17] Rewilding is important on land but perhaps more important is where land meets the water. Dam removal is the first of many steps in the process of rewilding in the riverine ecosystems. However, there are problems that should be addressed before, during, and after the dam removal. The problems are the sediments that have built up and wash out filling in spawning beds should be controlled and directed, then eliminating any and all clear cutting of trees near river banks as it raises the temperature of the water, and stopping industrial discharges.[18] At 90 different dam sites it has been confirmed that after a dam is built the ecosystem does rebound. However, the trend will eventually slow, stop and in some cases decline. This is often due to anthropogenic chemical, light, and noise pollution as the large bodies of water draw human activity and recreation. Nemecek writes that, "researchers found that the number of species within any given area dropped by 50%.[19] Lastly, food sources for native animals and fish need to be introduced so as to improve the long-term sustainability of native species and curtail and/or eliminate the introduction of invasive species.

Key species[edit]

Animals which interact strongly with the environment.


The beaver is by far the most important element of a riverine ecosystem. Firstly, the dams they build create micro ecosystems that can be used as spawning beds for salmon and collect invertebrates for the salmon fry to feed on. The dams, again built by beavers, create wetlands for plant, insect, and bird life.[20] Specific trees, alder, birch, cottonwood, and willow are important to beaver's diets and must be encouraged to grow in areas accessible by the animals. In terms of seeding the birds can do much of the rest.[21] These animals have a trickle down effect as they create ecosystems that have the potential to grow exponentially. There are also problem beavers, such as in the Netherlands: they damage dikes and spread non-native species with rhizomes.[citation needed]

Ecosystem engineers[edit]

Ground disrupting powerful animals that push over trees, trample shrubs and dig holes. These ensure that trees and grassland does not become dominant. One or more of a limited number of: elephants, bison, elk, cattle (as proxies for the extinct aurochs).[22] These species also disperse seeds in their dung. Pig species originally wild boar, dig creating soil where new plants can grow.[23]


Are required to ensure that browsing and grazing animals are kept from over-breeding/over-feeding, destroying vegetation complexity.[6] A lesson learnt from Oostvaardersplassen.For example: Eurasian lynx[24] with no recorded evidence of a human attack[25][26] or wolves.

Rewilding in different locations[edit]

Both grassroots groups and major international conservation organizations have incorporated rewilding into projects to protect and restore large-scale core wilderness areas, corridors (or connectivity) between them, and apex predators, carnivores, or keystone species (species which interact strongly with the environment, such as elephant and beaver).[27] Projects include the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative in North America (also known as Y2Y) and the European Green Belt, built along the former Iron Curtain, transboundary projects, including those in southern Africa funded by the Peace Parks Foundation, community-conservation projects, such as the wildlife conservancies of Namibia and Kenya, and projects organized around ecological restoration, including Gondwana Link, regrowing native bush in a hotspot of endemism in southwest Australia, and the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, restoring dry tropical forest and rainforest in Costa Rica.[28]


A wildlife crossing structure on the Trans-Canada Highway in Banff National Park, Canada. Wildlife-friendly overpasses and underpasses have helped restore connectivity in the landscape for wolves, bears, elk, and other species.

In North America, another major project aims to restore the prairie grasslands of the Great Plains.[29] The American Prairie is reintroducing bison on private land in the Missouri Breaks region of north-central Montana, with the goal of creating a prairie preserve larger than Yellowstone National Park.[29]: 187–199 

Dam removal has led to the restoration of many river systems in the Pacific Northwest. This has been done in an effort to restore salmon populations specifically but with other species in mind. "These dam removals provide perhaps the best example of large-scale environmental remediation in the twenty-first century. This restoration, however, has occurred on a case-by-case basis, without a comprehensive plan. The result has been to put into motion ongoing rehabilitation efforts in four distinct river basins: the Elwha and White Salmon in Washington and the Sandy and Rogue in Oregon."[30]


An organization called Rewilding Australia has formed which intends to restore various marsupials and other Australian animals which have been extirpated from the mainland, such as Eastern quolls and Tasmanian devils.[31]


In 2011, the 'Rewilding Europe' initiative was established with the aim of rewilding one million hectares of land in ten areas including the western Iberian Peninsula, Velebit, the Carpathians and the Danube delta by 2020, mostly abandoned farmland among other identified candidate sites.[32] The present project considers only species that are still present in Europe, such as the Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, grey wolf, European jackal, brown bear, chamois, Iberian ibex, European bison, red deer, griffon vulture, cinereous vulture, Egyptian vulture, great white pelican and horned viper, along with a few primitive breeds of domestic horse/Przewalski's horse and cattle as proxies for the extinct tarpan and aurochs. Since 2012, Rewilding Europe has been heavily involved in the Tauros Programme, which seeks to recreate the phenotype of the aurochs, the wild ancestors of domestic cattle by selectively breeding existing breeds of cattle.[33] Many projects also employ domestic water buffalo as a grazing proxy for the extinct European water buffalo.[34]

European Wildlife, established in 2008, advocates the establishment of a European Centre of Biodiversity at the German–Austrian–Czech borders.


In 2003 de Biosphärenpark Wienerwald was created in Austria. Within this area 37 kernzonen (core zones) covering 5,400 ha in total were designated areas free from human interference.[35]


Since the 1980s, 8.5 million trees have been planted in the United Kingdom in an area of the Midlands around the villages of Moira and Donisthorpe, close to Leicester. The area is called The National Forest.[36] Another, larger, reforestation project, aiming to plant 50 million trees is beginning in South Yorkshire, called The Northern Forest.[37] Despite this, the UK government has been criticised for not achieving its tree planting goals.[38][39] There have also been concerns of non-native tree planting disturbing the ecological integrity and processes of what would be a native habitat restoration.[40]

Knepp Castle started rewilding in 2001 in West Sussex and Roy Dennis Wildlife Foundation have overseen reintroductions of extinct bird species in the UK.[41] Extremely rare species: common nightingale, turtle doves, peregrine falcons and purple emperor butterflies are breeding at Knepp and more common species populations increase.[42]

Celtic Reptile & Amphibian is a limited company established in 2020, with the aim of reintroducing extinct species of reptile and amphibian to Britain, as part of rewilding schemes, such as the European pond turtle,[43] moor frog, agile frog,[44] common tree frog and pool frog.[45][46] Success has already been achieved with the captive breeding of the moor frog.[47][48]


In 2020, nature writer Melissa Harrison reported a significant increase in attitudes supportive of rewilding among the British public, with plans recently approved for the release of European bison, Eurasian elk, and great bustard in England, along with calls to rewild as much as 20% of the land in East Anglia, and even return apex predators to the UK, such as the Eurasian lynx, brown bear, and grey wolf.[49][50][22] More recently, academic on rewilding in England has highlighted that support for rewilding is by no means universal. As in other countries, rewilding in England remains controversial to the extent that some of its more ambitious aims are being 'domesticated' both in a proactive attempt to make it less controversial and in reactive response to previous controversy[51]

The Netherlands[edit]

Wild koniks in the Oostvaardersplassen reserve

In the 1980s, the Dutch government began introducing proxy species in the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve, an area covering over 56 square kilometres (22 sq mi), in order to recreate a grassland ecology.[52][53] Though not explicitly referred to as rewilding, nevertheless many of the goals and intentions of the project were in line with those of rewilding. The reserve is considered somewhat controversial due to the lack of predators and other native megafauna such as wolves, bears, lynx, elk, boar, and wisent. Between 800 and 1150 wild koniks live in the Oostvaardersplassen. The horses were reintroduced together with heck cattle and red deer to keep the landscape open by natural grazing. This provided habitat for geese who are key species in the wetlands of the area. The grazing of geese made it possible for reedbeds to remain and therefore conserved many protected birds species. This is a prime example how water and land ecosystems are connected and how reintroducing keystone species can conserve other protected species.

Bison Introduction[edit]

European bison (Bison bonasus), Europe's largest living land animal, was driven to extinction in the wild in 1927; in the mid-20th century and early 21st century, the bison has been re-introduced into the wild.[54]
Historic range of the European bison.
  Maximum Holocene range
  Range during the high middle ages
  Relict 20th century populations

In 2010 and 2011, an unrelated initiative in the village of San Cebrián de Mudá (190 inhabitants) in Palencia, northern Spain released 18 European bison (a species extirpated from Spain since the Middle Ages) in a natural area already inhabited by roe deer, wild boar, red fox and grey wolf, as part of the creation of a 240-hectare "Quaternary Park". Three Przewalski's horses from a breeding centre in Le Villaret, France were added to the park in October 2012.[55] Onagers and "aurochs" were planned to follow.[56]

On 11 April 2013, eight European bison (one male, five females and two calves) were released into the wild in the Bad Berleburg region of Germany, after 300 years of absence from the region.[57]

In 2014 the German government built a 3 km road tunnel to remove an Autobahn from the Leutratal und Cospoth nature reserve.[58]

In 2016 and 2018, the True Nature Foundation reintroduced in total 7 European bison of the Lowland-Caucasian breeding line in Anciles Wildlife Reserve in the Parque Regional de Picos de Europa in the Cantabrian mountains in northern Spain.

In 2022, the Wilder Blean project in Kent plans to reintroduce bison funded by the People's Postcode Lottery Dream Fund.[59][22]

Pleistocene rewilding[edit]

Saiga antelope are one of the animals which are proposed to be reintroduced in Pleistocene Park, a massive proposal of Pleistocene rewilding in Siberia. Once possessing a natural range from Alaska to France, Saigas are now extinct in Europe and North America, as well as a critically endangered species.

Pleistocene rewilding was proposed by the Brazilian ecologist Mauro Galetti in 2004.[60] He suggested the introduction of elephants (and other proxies of extinct megafauna) from circuses and zoos to private lands in the Brazilian cerrado and other parts of the Americas. In 2005, stating that much of the original megafauna of North America including mammoths, ground sloths, and smilodons became extinct after the arrival of humans, Paul S. Martin proposed restoring the ecological balance by replacing them with species which have similar ecological roles, such as the Asian elephant, or the African elephants.[61]

A reserve now exists for formerly captive elephants on the Brazilian Cerrado[62]

A controversial 2005 editorial in Nature, signed by a number of conservation biologists, took up the argument, urging that elephants, lions, and cheetahs could be reintroduced in protected areas in the Great Plains.[63] The Bolson tortoise, discovered in 1959 in Durango, Mexico, was the first species proposed for this restoration effort, and in 2006 the species was reintroduced to two ranches in New Mexico owned by media mogul Ted Turner. Other proposed species include various camelids such as the Wild Bactrian camel, and various equids such as the Prezwalski's horse.

In 1988, researcher Sergey A. Zimov established Pleistocene Park in northeastern Siberia to test the possibility of restoring a full range of grazers and predators, with the aim of recreating an ecosystem similar to the one in which mammoths lived.[64] Yakutian horses, reindeer, European bison, plains bison, Domestic yak, moose, and Bactrian camels were reintroduced, and reintroduction is also planned for saigas, wood bison, and Siberian tigers. The wood bison, a close relative of an ancient bison called the steppe bison that died out in Siberia 1000 or 2000 years ago, is also an important species for the ecology of Siberia. In 2006, 30 bison calves were flown from Edmonton, Alberta to Yakutsk and placed in the government-run reserve of Ust'-Buotama. This project remains controversial — a letter published in Conservation Biology accused the Pleistocene camp of promoting "Frankenstein ecosystems", stating that "the biggest problem is not the possibility of failing to restore lost interactions, but rather the risk of getting new, unwanted interactions instead."[65]

Rewilding plants[edit]

In 1982 Daniel Janzen and Paul S. Martin originated the concept of evolutionary anachronism in a Science article published in 1982, titled "Neotropical Anachronisms: The Fruits the Gomphotheres Ate".[66] Eighteen years later, Connie C. Barlow in her book The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and Other Ecological Anachronisms (2000),[67] explored the specifics of temperate North American plants whose fruits displayed the characteristics of megafauna dispersal syndrome. Barlow noted that a consequence for such native fruits following the loss of their megafaunal seed dispersal partners was range constriction during the Holocene, made increasingly severe since the mid-20th century by rapid human-driven climate change. Additional details of range contraction were incorporated in Barlow's 2001 article, "Anachronistic Fruits and the Ghosts Who Haunt Them".[68]

A plant species beset with anachronistic features whose range had already become so restricted that it warranted classification[69] as a glacial relict is Torreya taxifolia.[70] For this species, Barlow and Paul S. Martin advocated for assisted migration poleward in an article published in Wild Earth in 2004, titled "Bring Torreya taxifolia North Now".[71] Beginning in 2005 Barlow and Lee Barnes (co-founders of Torreya Guardians[72][73][74][75]) began obtaining seeds from mature horticultural plantings in states northward of Florida and Georgia and distributing seeds to volunteer planters whose lands contained forested habitats potentially suitable for this native of Florida. Documentation of seed distribution and ongoing results, state by state, are publicly available on the Torreya Guardians website.[76]) Articles published in Scientific American in 2009 and in Landscape Architecture Magazine in 2014 referred to the actions of Torreya Guardians as an example of "rewilding".[77][78] Connie Barlow expressly referred to such efforts as "rewilding" in the 2020 book by Zach St. George, The Journeys of Trees.[79] Her earliest reference to the term "rewilding" was in her 1999 essay, "Rewilding for Evolution",in Wild Earth.[80] Because part of Barlow's personal seed plantings occurred on private land for which she did not expressly obtain planting permission,[81] this form of rewilding action could be referred to as guerrilla rewilding,[82] which is an adaptation of the established term guerrilla gardening.


Compatibility with economic activity[edit]

A view expressed by some national governments and officials within multilateral agencies such as the United Nations, is that excessive rewilding, such as large rigorously enforced protected areas where no extraction activities are allowed, can be too restrictive on people's ability to earn sustainable livelihoods.[13][14] The alternative view is that increasing ecotourism can provide employment.[83]


Some farmers have been critical of rewilding for "abandoning productive farmland when the world’s population is growing".[84] Farmers have also attacked plans to reintroduce the lynx in the United Kingdom because of fears that reintroduction will lead to an increase in sheep predation.[85]

Conflicts with animal rights and welfare[edit]

Rewilding has been criticized by animal rights scholars, such as Dale Jamieson, who argues that "most cases of rewilding or reintroducing are likely to involve conflicts between the satisfaction of human preferences and the welfare of nonhuman animals."[86] Erica von Essen and Michael Allen, using Donaldson and Kymlicka’s political animal categories framework, assert that wildness standards imposed on animals are arbitrary and inconsistent with the premise that wild animals should be granted sovereignty over the territories that they inhabit and the right to make decisions about their own lives. To resolve this, Essen and Allen contend that rewilding needs to shift towards full alignment with mainstream conservation and welcome full sovereignty, or instead take full responsibility for the care of animals who have been reintroduced.[87] Ole Martin Moen argues that rewilding projects should be brought to an end because they unnecessarily increase wild animal suffering and are expensive, and the funds could be better spent elsewhere.[88]

Erasure of environmental history[edit]

The environmental historian Dolly Jørgensen argues that rewilding, as it currently exists, "seeks to erase human history and involvement with the land and flora and fauna. Such an attempted split between nature and culture may prove unproductive and even harmful." She calls for rewilding to be more inclusive to combat this.[89] Jonathan Prior and Kim J. Ward challenge Jørgensen's criticism and provide existing examples of rewilding programs which "have been developed and governed within the understanding that human and non‐human world are inextricably entangled".[90]

Harm to conservation[edit]

Some conservationists have expressed concern that rewilding "could replace the traditional protection of rare species on small nature reserves", which could potentially lead to an increase in habitat fragmentation and species loss.[84] David Nogués-Bravo and Carsten Rahbek assert that the benefits of rewilding lack evidence and that such programs may inadvertently lead to "de-wilding", through the extinction of local and global species. They also contend that rewilding programs may draw funding away from "more scientifically supported conservation projects".[91]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jennifer Foote, "Trying to Take Back the Planet," Newsweek, 5 February 1990.
  2. ^ Soulé, Michael; Noss, Reed (Fall 1998), "Rewilding and Biodiversity: Complementary Goals for Continental Conservation" (PDF), Wild Earth, 8: 19–28
  3. ^ Soule and Noss, "Rewilding and Biodiversity," p. 22.
  4. ^ Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks, edited by Soulé and John Terborgh, Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999
  5. ^ Foreman, Dave (2004), Rewilding North America: A Vision for Conservation in the 21st Century, Washington, D.C.: Island Press
  6. ^ a b For more on the importance of predators, see William Stolzenburg, Where the Wild Things Were: Life, Death, and Ecological Wreckage in a Land of Vanishing Predators (New York: Bloomsbury, 2008).
  7. ^ MacArthur, Robert H.; Wilson, Edward O. (1967), The Theory of Island Biogeography, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press
  8. ^ Newmark, William D. (29 January 1987), "A Land-Bridge Island Perspective on Mammalian Extinctions in Western North American Parks", Nature, 325 (6103): 430–432, Bibcode:1987Natur.325..430N, doi:10.1038/325430a0, hdl:2027.42/62554, PMID 3808043, S2CID 4310316
  9. ^ Quammen, David (1996), The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions, New York: Simon & Schuster
  10. ^ Quammen, Song of the Dodo, pp. 443-446.
  11. ^ UNEP staffers (December 2019). "Rewilding London's urban spaces". United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  12. ^ Alex Morss (February 2020). "The race to rewild". Ecohustler. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  13. ^ a b Pettorelli, Nathalie; Durant, Sarah M; du Toit, Johan T., eds. (2019). "Chapt. 1-3". Rewilding. Ecological Reviews. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108560962. ISBN 978-1108460125.
  14. ^ a b "Position Paper on "Ecosystem Restoration"" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. October 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  15. ^ Greenfield, Patrick (3 June 2021). "World must rewild on massive scale to heal nature and climate, says UN". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  16. ^ "Becoming #GenerationRestoration: ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION FOR PEOPLE, NATURE AND CLIMATE" (PDF). United Nations. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  17. ^ Perino, Andrea; Pereira, Henrique M.; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Fernández, Néstor; Bullock, James M.; Ceaușu, Silvia; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; van Klink, Roel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Lomba, Angela; Pe’er, Guy; Plieninger, Tobias; Rey Benayas, José M.; Sandom, Christopher J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wheeler, Helen C. (26 April 2019). "Rewilding complex ecosystems". Science. 364 (6438): eaav5570. doi:10.1126/science.aav5570. PMID 31023897.
  18. ^ Babbit, Bruce (2000). "Restoring Our Natural Heritage". Natural Resources & Environment. 14 (3).
  19. ^ Nemecek, Sasha (August 1997). "Frankly, My Dear, I Don't Want a Dam". Scientific American. 277 (2): 20–22. Bibcode:1997SciAm.277b..20N. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0897-20.
  20. ^ MacDonald, Benedict (2019). Rebirding (2020 ed.). Exeter, EX3 9BR: Pelagic. pp. 16–17, 25, 87–88, 201, 214, 248, plate 30. ISBN 978-1-78427-219-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  21. ^ Aldous, Shaler E. (1938). "Beaver Food Utilization Studies". The Journal of Wildlife Management. 2 (4): 215–222. doi:10.2307/3795668. JSTOR 3795668.
  22. ^ a b c "European Bison bonasus Through grazing, foraging, wallowing and trampling, the hefty bison boosts habitat diversification". Rewilding Britain. Retrieved 3 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ Sandom, Christopher J, Hughes, Joelene and Macdonald, David W (2012). "Rooting for rewilding: quantifying wild boar's Sus scrofa rooting rate in the Scottish Highlands". Restoration Ecology. 21 (3): 329–335. doi:10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00904.x. Retrieved 3 January 2022.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Bath, A.Olszanska & Henryk Okarma, H (2008). "From a human dimensions perspective, the large carnivore: public attitudes towards European lynx in Poland". Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 13: 31–46. doi:10.1080/10871200701812928.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Lynx Trust has found no evidence of a Eurasian Lynx attack on humans (regardless of severity) ever. Enquiries could be made with experts in the field of human-feline contact such as Professor David Macdonald at Oxford University.
  26. ^ Weston, Phoebe. "Rewilding:should we bring the Lynx back to Britain?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  27. ^ Fraser, Rewilding the World, pp. 9-11.
  28. ^ Fraser, Caroline (2009), Rewilding the World: Dispatches from the Conservation Revolution, New York: Metropolitan Books, pp. 32–35, 79–84, 119–128, 203–240, 326–330, 303–312
  29. ^ a b Manning, Richard (2009), Rewilding the West: Restoration in a Prairie Landscape, Berkeley: University of California Press
  30. ^ Blumm, Michael C.; Erickson, Andrew B. (2012). "Dam Removal in the Pacific Northwest: Lessons for the Nation". Environmental Law. 42 (4): 1043–1100. JSTOR 43267821. SSRN 2101448.
  31. ^ Rewild Australia.
  32. ^
  33. ^ "The comeback of the European icon". 8 November 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  34. ^ Reviving Europe
  35. ^ "Kernzonen". Biosphärenpark Wienerwald.
  36. ^ "How millions of trees brought a broken landscape back to life". The Guardian. 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  37. ^ Trust, Woodland. "The Northern Forest". Woodland Trust (in British English). Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  38. ^ "Reality Check: Are millions of trees being planted?". BBC News (in British English). 2017-10-26. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  39. ^ "Tree-planting in England falls 71% short of government target". The Guardian. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  40. ^ Trust, Woodland. "Disappointing planting figures in England still far below Government target". Woodland Trust (in British English). Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  41. ^ "Storks are back in Britain – and they're a beacon of hope for all of us | Isabella Tree". The Guardian. 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  42. ^ Tree, Isabella. "Rewilding in West Sussex". Knepp Wildland. Knepp Castle Estates. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  43. ^ "Pleistocene occurrences of the European pond tortoise (Emys orbicularis L.) in Britain | Request PDF". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  44. ^ Gleed-Owen, Chris Paul (March 2000). "Subfossil records of Rana cf. lessonae, Rana arvalis and Rana cf. dalmatina from Middle Saxon (c. 600-950 AD) deposits in eastern England: Evidence for native status". Amphibia-Reptillia. 21: 57–65. doi:10.1163/156853800507273 – via Research Gate.
  45. ^ "'Who doesn't love a turtle?' The teenage boys on a mission – to rewild Britain with reptiles". the Guardian. 2021-01-10. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  46. ^ "Guest blog by Celtic Reptile and Amphibian - Mark Avery". Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  47. ^ Horton, Helena (2021-04-06). "Frog turns blue for first time in 700 years amid calls for rare amphibians to be reintroduced to Britain". The Telegraph (in British English). ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  48. ^ Davis, Margaret (2021-04-07). "Blue Moor Frog Once Again Seen in the UK After 700 Years in Time for Mating Season". Science Times. Retrieved 2021-10-27.
  49. ^ Melissa Harrison (21 November 2020). "From rewilding to forest schools, our attitude to nature is changing for the better". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  50. ^ Stephen Moss (21 November 2020). "Missing lynx: how rewilding Britain could restore its natural balance". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  51. ^ Thomas, Virginia (2022). "Domesticating Rewilding: Interpreting Rewilding in England’s Green and Pleasant Land". doi:10.3197/096327121x16328186623841. Retrieved 10 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  52. ^ Cossins, Daniel (1 May 2014). "Where the Wild Things Were". The Scientist.
  53. ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (December 24, 2012). "Dept. of Ecology: Recall of the Wild". The New Yorker. pp. 50–60.
  54. ^ Vaughan, Adam (2014-05-21). "Return of the European Bison". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  55. ^ "Tres caballos Przewalski habitan ya reserva San Cebrian" [Three Prewalski horses already residing in San Cebrian reserve] (in Spanish). Diario Palentino. 25 October 2012.
  56. ^ "Los bisontes reviven en San Cebrian de Muda". San Cebrián de Mudá. 20 November 2011.
  57. ^ "Bison return to Germany after 300 year absence". 18 April 2013.
  58. ^ "ZEIT ONLINE | Lesen Sie mit Werbung oder im PUR-Abo. Sie haben die Wahl". Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  59. ^ "European bison to be introduced into Kent woodland". BBC News. BBC. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  60. ^ Galetti, Mauro (2004), Parks of the Pleistocene: Recreating the cerrado and the Pantanal with megafauna
  61. ^ Martin, Paul S. (2005), Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America, Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 209
  62. ^ Global elephants.
  63. ^ Donlan, Josh (August 2005). "Re-wilding North America". Nature. 436 (7053): 913–914. Bibcode:2005Natur.436..913D. doi:10.1038/436913a. PMID 16107817. S2CID 4415229.
  64. ^ Zimov, Sergey A. (6 May 2005). "Pleistocene Park: return of the mammoth's ecosystem". Science. 308 (5723): 796–798. doi:10.1126/science.1113442. PMID 15879196. S2CID 8001757. Gale A132678096.
  65. ^ Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Fernandez, Fernando A. S. (2010), "Pleistocene Rewilding, Frankenstein Ecosystems, and an Alternative Conservation Agenda", Conservation Biology, 24 (1): 4–5, doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01379.x, PMID 20121834
  66. ^ Janzen, D. H.; Martin, P. S. (1 January 1982). "Neotropical Anachronisms: The Fruits the Gomphotheres Ate". Science. 215 (4528): 19–27. Bibcode:1982Sci...215...19J. doi:10.1126/science.215.4528.19. PMID 17790450. S2CID 19296719.
  67. ^ Barlow, Connie C. (2000). The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and Other Ecological Anachronisms. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465005512.
  68. ^ Barlow, Connie (2001). "Anachronistic Fruits and the Ghosts Who Haunt Them". Arnoldia. 61 (2): 14–21. JSTOR 42954842.
  69. ^ U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (23 January 1984). "Final Rule to Determine Torreya taxifolia (Florida Torreya) to be an Endangered Species". Federal Register. 49 (15): 2783–2784.
  70. ^ Barlow, Connie (2009). "Deep Time Lags". In Christ, Eileen (ed.). Gaia in Turmoil. MIT Press. pp. 165–174. ISBN 978-0262033756.
  71. ^ Barlow, Connie (2004). "Bring Torreya taxifolia North Now". Wild Earth. Fall / Winter: 52–56.
  72. ^ Nijhuis, Michelle (2008). "Taking Wildness in Hand: Rescuing Species". Orion.
  73. ^ Beardmore, Tannis (December 2011). "Review of science-based assessments of species vulnerability: Contributions to decision-making for assisted migration". Forestry Chronicle. 87 (6): 745–754. CiteSeerX doi:10.5558/tfc2011-091.
  74. ^ "A Modern Ark: To save endangered species move them to more congenial places". The Economist. December 2015.
  75. ^ Sansilvestre, Roxane (August 2015). "Reconstructing a deconstructed concept: Policy tools for implementing assisted migration for species and ecosystem management". Environmental Science & Policy. 51: 192–201. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.04.005.
  76. ^ "Torreya Guardians". Torreya Guardians. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  77. ^ Appell, David (1 March 2009). "Can "Assisted Migration" Save Species from Global Warming?". Scientific American.
  78. ^ Williams, Kevan (September 2014). "Have Tree, Will Travel". Landscape Architecture Magazine.
  79. ^ St. George, Zach (2020). The Journeys of Trees. W.W. Norton. pp. 86 & 184. ISBN 9781324001607.
  80. ^ Barlow, Connie (Spring 1999). "Rewilding for Evolution". Wild Earth. 9 (1).
  81. ^ St. George, Zach (2020). The Journeys of Trees. W.W. Norton. p. 188. ISBN 9781324001607.
  82. ^ "Welsh woman declares vindication after 'guerrilla rewilding' court case". The Guardian. 29 February 2020.
  83. ^ MacDonald, Benedict (2019). Rebirding (2020 ed.). Exeter, EX3 9BR: Pelagic. pp. 153, 155–156, 180–188, 204. ISBN 978-1-78427-219-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  84. ^ a b Barkham, Patrick (2017-04-03). "'It is strange to see the British struggling with the beaver': why is rewilding so controversial?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  85. ^ "Sheep farmers attack new attempt to reintroduce lynx". FarmingUK. 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
  86. ^ Jamieson, Dale (2008). "The Rights of Animals and the Demands of Nature". Environmental Values. 17 (2): 181–200. doi:10.3197/096327108X303846. JSTOR 30302637.
  87. ^ von Essen, Erica; Allen, Michael (2015-09-29). "Wild-But-Not-Too-Wild Animals: Challenging Goldilocks Standards in Rewilding". Between the Species. 19 (1).
  88. ^ Moen, Ole Martin (9 May 2016). "The ethics of wild animal suffering". Etikk I Praksis. 10 (1): 91–104. doi:10.5324/eip.v10i1.1972.
  89. ^ Jørgensen, Dolly (October 2015). "Rethinking rewilding". Geoforum. 65: 482–488. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.11.016.
  90. ^ Prior, Jonathan; Ward, Kim J. (February 2016). "Rethinking rewilding: A response to Jørgensen" (PDF). Geoforum. 69: 132–135. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.12.003.
  91. ^ Middleton, Amy (2016-02-14). "Rewilding may be death sentence to other animals". Cosmos Magazine (in Australian English). Retrieved 2021-02-13.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]