Box art for the Dreamcast and PS2 releases.
|Developer(s)||United Game Artists[a]|
|Platform(s)||Android, Dreamcast, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 4, Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360|
|Genre(s)||Rail shooter, music|
Rez[c] is a musical rail shooter developed by United Game Artists and published by Sega for the Dreamcast and PlayStation 2. It was released in Japan in 2001, followed by releases to the United States and Europe in 2002. The game was ported to Xbox 360 as Rez HD by Q Entertainment and HexaDrive in 2008. A virtual reality-compatible expanded version dubbed Rez Infinite was co-developed and released through 2016 and 2017 by Enhance Games, Resonair and Monstars for PlayStation 4, Microsoft Windows and Android.
Following a hacker's journey into a malfunctioning AI system, the game has players controlling their avatar as they shoot down numerous enemies. The gameplay and projectile hits sync with the music and have vibration feedback for different controllers, aiming to create a sense of synesthesia. The narrative is told using little description and no dialogue, and including thematic references to the journey of life and technological singularity.
The game was conceived by Tetsuya Mizuguchi in 1998, drawing inspiration from European disco music. Production began in 1999 after the team finished work on Space Channel 5; the developers included veterans of Panzer Dragoon creators Team Andromeda. The design concept drew from rave culture and classic rail shooters, and level design made extensive use of wire frame graphics drawing from the paintings of Wassily Kandinsky. The music, supervised by Keiichi Sugiyama, featured collaborations with multiple Japanese and Western music artists and influenced level designs.
The game met with low sales, but strong critical reception due to its music, gameplay and graphics. It also received multiple industry and special awards, and has been remembered as one of the Dreamcast's best titles. Rez HD and Rez Infinite have likewise met with praise from journalists. Rez Infinite in particular was hailed for its virtual reality integration and its additional Unreal Engine-powered zone Area X, described as the closest people might see to a true sequel.
Rez is a video game that combines mechanics from the music game genre and rail shooters similar to Panzer Dragoon. Players take the role of a hacker infiltrating a malfunctioning artificial intelligence and fighting off viruses and corrupted security programs. Destroying data nodes in each level raises the "layer level" to a maximum number of 10. Raising a layer level changes the background music, layout and enemies of a level. Achieving 100% leveling score for all four areas of the game unlocks Area 5. There are five levels, dubbed Areas, although at the start only four can be accessed.
The player character can assume six forms at different power levels, with a seventh unlocked for Area 5. The player starts the game by default at Level 01. Upon being damaged, the player devolves into a previous form. The lowest possible is Level 00, and if hit again in this state the game ends. The player raises their level using Progress Nodes, which appear after a certain number of enemies are destroyed. There are singular Progress Nodes, and X3 Progress Nodes which fill three bars on the level meter. The player can also collect up to four Overdrive Nodes, which fill a meter and trigger automatic screen-clearing attacks.
During gameplay, the player runs through a level on rails, able to manually aim a lock-on missile launcher at up to eight targets. As the player shoots down enemies, the impact automatically syncs with the background track to create additional musical layers within each level. The shots can be fed back to the player through controller vibration feedback. Each Area ends in a boss fight. Bosses scale in difficulty depending on the number of enemies killed in the previous layers.
Progress through the game unlocks additional areas and modes including an enemy-free exploration mode, score attack, and boss rush. There is also a mode where all five areas are played back to back with raised difficulty. Each area's completion is scored by Analyzation (data nodes accessed), Shot Down (enemies destroyed) and Support Item (support nodes collected).
The narrative of Rez is told without dialogue and using minimal description, relying on in-game visual storytelling. In the future, amid a rising population and an overflowing amount of information corrupting cyberspace, a new network dubbed "K Project" is created to manage the data. At the heart of K Project is an artificial intelligence called Eden. Overwhelmed by the ever-increasing flow of information, Eden begins doubting its purpose and existence, withdrawing into sleep at the heart of cyberspace when finally confronted with humanity's clashing nature and actions in the real world. The player, a hacker, dives into cyberspace and fights off viruses and infected firewalls to find and wake Eden. When they reach the final area, the hacker is confronted with questions about the meaning of life, then after a final battle succeeds in reconstituting and waking Eden.
Rez was developed by United Game Artists, an internal studio of Sega led by Tetsuya Mizuguchi, who was then known for his work on racing games. The original concept for Rez originated between 1994 and 1995. During research work in Europe on Sega Rally Championship 2, Mizuguchi and a few friends attended the open-air music event Street Parade. Seeing people swaying en masse to the music, he decided that this was the type of game he wished to make. At this time, the technology was inadequate for realising his vision. In 1998, Mizuguchi was approached about forming a dedicated team to work on new innovative titles for Sega's new Dreamcast console; his first project along these lines was Space Channel 5, and during its production he made plans for Rez. He built up his new team at what would become United Game Artists, which was based in Shibuya and described as the perfect place to find visual inspiration for their games. As with Space Channel 5, Mizuguchi wanted to draw in casual gamers from across demographics, along with people who would normally not play games. He had great difficulty pitching the game to Sega, as he found it difficult to explain what Rez was until they played the prototype.
Searching for people who could help realise his vision, he met up with and employed a group of VJs dubbed "Mommy's Endorphin Machine"; among them was eventual director Jun Kobayashi. He had difficulty explaining the concept to staff members before the first programming prototypes were created. Production of the game began on Dreamcast, but during development a version was put into motion for the PlayStation 2 (PS2) which would release simultaneously with the Dreamcast version. This was due to the commercial failure of the Dreamcast and Sega's move to third-party software production. The team's morale was severely affected by the change to a multiplatform release. Rez was the first Sega-produced game released on the PS2, and one of Sega's last first-party titles for the Dreamcast. The production was described by multiple staff members as hard but rewarding. According to technical officer Ryuichi Hattori, a lot of problems stemmed from it being the team's first PS2 title.
Production proper began in 1999 following the completion of Space Channel 5. A large portion of the staff were drawn from Team Andromeda, creators of Panzer Dragoon. Pre-production lasted a year, and due to the variety of staff on the project there were several strife-filled periods and disagreements between groups within the team. The game went through different working titles including "The Sound Project", "Project Eden", "K-Project" and "Vibes". There were early plans to title the final game "K-Project" or "K". Once "Rez" was suggested, Mizuguchi felt it was a name which would be both memorable and have international appeal. The final title was meant to be a contraction of "Resolve", but during a studio visit from Edge Magazine staff, he was inspired to connect it to the concept of "de-rezzing" from the 1982 movie Tron. A different source is given by Kobayashi, who stated the title came from the word "resolute".
The first concept for the gameplay of Rez was that the player shot something down, and it created a sound in synch with background music, coupled with a vibration through the controller. Mizuguchi wanted the game to be a "full body" experience, paying homage to arcade titles he had worked on early in his career at Sega including Sega Rally. The overall design drew from several different sources of inspiration, including rave culture as exemplified in events such as Street Parade, and a video from Africa he saw online where a man started clapping and people either swayed and stamped to the beat or joined in. Figuring that the capacity for music and sights to draw in a crowd would be the essential element to his envisioned game, Mizuguchi began exploring how to programmatically recreate this effect. Much of Mizuguchi's time during development was listening to music to inspire his designs.
A key element for Mizuguchi was allowing for mistakes and fluffs from the player—penalised in other titles within the genre—to be incorporated into the score of Rez. The musical gameplay was developed following a call and response approach (the audience responds to something from a singer or performer), similar to that of what a disc jockey would do to get reaction from the crowd. In parallel with the development of the game's narrative and aesthetic, the team developed its mechanic of quantizing the notes, so that regardless of the player's imprecision that they would play out on the beat, which they "felt like magic" to players of any skill level. The decision to use a rail shooter template for gameplay originated from the number of staff who were veterans of both Sega Rally and the Panzer Dragoon series. Mizuguchi particularly wanted to create a non-violent shooter lots of people could enjoy.
The game went through several prototypes, with different variations on the theme of a musical rail shooter. Its earliest concepts were described by artist Jake Kazdel as "wild", with creations ranging from character action inspired by Space Harrier to abstract characters and enemies designed like musical props. These early stages were difficult for anyone to understand, and eventually it settled down into having a more traditional player character and enemies. The first working prototype featured a figure running through a cyberspace environment, while a later build used a fighter jet. Although designed to emphasize music, Mizuguchi has stated that he did not intend the game to be considered a music or rhythm game. The idea that musical skill would be a prerequisite for full appreciation of the game was something that both Mizuguchi and Kobayashi were anxious to avoid. Instead, the team adopted a quantization mechanic for the gameplay that allowed even players without natural rhythm to interact musically with the game through a process of "locking on" to enemies. This mechanic formed a core theme along which the gameplay developed.
The vibration feedback made use of the Dreamcast vibration pack, the DualShock 2 controller for PS2, and a custom controller created by Mizuguchi's team for the game dubbed the Trance Vibrator. The Trance Vibrator was Mizuguchi's idea, starting as a joke to enhance the visual mechanics of the game. The concept was born alongside the original plan for Rez when Mizuguchi visited Europe. While the standard controllers gave good vibration feedback, it only fed into the hands. Mizuguchi's aim with the Trance Vibrator was to allow a player to place it somewhere else in contact with their skin and feel the vibrations from there. He admitted that this leant itself to situations where it could be used for sexual stimulation.
Art design and scenario
The game's art director and lead artist was Katsumi Yokota, noted for his work on Panzer Dragoon Saga. Kazdel, who worked on Space Channel 5, was on board as a character artist and graphics co-designer with Ryutaro Sugiyama. One of the game's earliest visual inspirations was the work of Wassily Kandinsky, a 19th-century artist whose abstract work made a profound impression on Mizuguchi and his work. The original name "Project K" was a homage to Kandinsky, and Mizuguchi dedicated the game to him. The early plans had levels directly inspired by Kandinsky's artwork, but Mizuguchi decided against this. Other early versions drew direct inspiration from hip hop culture and the evolutionary history of life. One of the principle inspirations was Kandinsky's theories on synesthesia, sensations created by the combination of different sensory inputs that had already inspired Mizuguchi's work on Space Channel 5.
A major decision for the team was using wire frame graphics for everything from character models to environments, paying homage to early video game graphics such as were seen in the 1983 Star Wars game and Missile Command. The decision to use this style was described by Yokota as "quite interesting", as his work on Panzer Dragoon had been aiming for the highest realism possible. All but Area 5 were created using the same methodology; the wire frame was in the level foreground, while any particle effects and other visual elements were placed in the background area. This was done as there was no other way they could synchronise the music and visuals. The first four levels had different visual themes and two key colors each. The first area drew from Ancient Egypt and used red and orange, the second used Indian culture with blue and purple, the third used Mesopotamian designs and the colors green and cyan, while the fourth area drew from Chinese culture and had a yellow and green color design. Each stage boss had a name taken from one of the planets. The final area had a design influenced by the natural world. Kazdel described this last area as Yokota's "personal trip out level".
Mizuguchi's first ideas for the game's plot, which is delivered through sensory means rather than being driven by text and narration, was to form a connection between life and music. While presented as a cyberpunk plot, Mizuguchi envisioned the narrative as a metaphor for the journey of life. Mizuguchi has suggested that the questions during the game's climax are intended to provoke the realization that the player is "not a hacker but a sperm", that Rez is a story of conception set against the backdrop of an emergent AI. The awakening of Eden at the game's end is a reference to the theoretical technological singularity. According to Kobayashi, their journey to awake Eden allows the hacker experiences elevation to a higher existence within cyberspace, achieving something similar to enlightenment. This was visually referenced through the various forms the hacker can take as they raise their level. To achieve this fusion of themes with the visuals and score, Mizugushi worked with Yokota and team musician Nobuhiko Tanuma so the art design and musical progression would illustrate these themes. The narrative poem shown during Area 5 was written by Yokota.
For the musical style, Mizuguchi decided on using electronic dance music, emulating the music he had experienced during his time in Europe. The sound design and some of the music was handled by Keiichi Sugiyama, a member of Sega's WaveMaster label. The music score was coordinated by Masakazu Hiroishi. It drew inspiration from the soundtracks of Xenon 2 Megablast (1989) and Xevious (1982), along with Haruomi Hosono's 1984 Super Xevious remix single. Mizugushi and Yokota began investigating different musical genres that would evoke emotional and psychological responses appropriate to produce the primal and synaesthetic experience Rez was intended to provide. After hours of investigation it was concluded that due to its digital simplicity which allowed a designer to isolate a single note and to alter the timing of the overall rhythm, the techno genre offered the greatest promise for producing the desired effects. Music coordination was done by a DJ called Ebizoo, who helped incorporate the call and response methods into the in-game score. The project went through an intensive period of matching music to visuals requiring multiple iterations of back-and-forth alterations in which both music (sometimes from the first note) and art (including entire bosses) were significantly modified.
During early production, Ebizoo used placeholder tracks by Fatboy Slim and Underworld for test levels. Hiroishi contacted multiple composers to contribute tracks for each zone; these included Ken Ishii and Joujouka; and European disco figures Coldcut and Adam Freeland. These people both contributed original tracks and licensed remixes of existing numbers for the game. The team also reached out to Underworld, Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers and Aphex Twin, but failed to reach an agreement about using their tracks. In the case of Underworld, the team wanted their track for the opening area, but Underworld declined as they did not wish to be associated with any kind of video game violence. This led to Sugiyama creating the opening stage track. The game also included two tracks from Oval, and a track from Ebizoo. The final boss theme was composed by Coldcut and Tim Bran.
Joujouka was a university acquaintance of Mizuguchi who had been working abroad until 2000. The two had long wanted to collaborate on a project, so Mizuguchi invited Joujouka to contribute to Rez. The track used, "Rock is Sponge", was one of a group Joujouka was creating for an album release. Mizuguchi listened to the early versions of tracks, picking "Rock is Sponge" as most suitable. For his work on the project, Ishii was asked by Sega to create five or six variations within his track, which was around five minutes long. Ishii found this challenging, but satisfying. Mizuguchi personally approached Coldcut about using their music. They immediately understood what he was trying to do, but rather than licencing their track "Timber", they composed an original track for the game. Freeland also created his track "Fear" as an original piece, inspired by Mizuguchi's description of the game as being inspired by the artwork of Kandinsky. "Fear" contained the lyric "Fear is the Mind Killer", taken from the novel Dune by Frank Herbert. This was intended as being inspirational, and emblematic of life's struggle. "Fear" was also slower-paced than the other tracks, fitting in with the area's themes and feel.
For the album release, the team asked each composer to create a new remix that was the "highest" form of the track that had been mixed and synced to gameplay. The soundtrack album, titled Rez / Gamer's Guide to..., was co-published in collaboration with United Game Artists by Musicmine, an imprint of Universal, and independent record company Third Ear. It included ten tracks from across the game, including secret areas. The soundtrack was released January 23, 2002. Third Ear also released two vinyl LPs. The Rez soundtracks were Third Ear's first major commercial release, with one of its founders using contacts within Sega to get the publishing contract.
|1.||"Buggie Running Beeps01"||Keiichi Sugiyama||5:50|
|3.||"Creation The State of Art"||Ken Ishii||6:34|
|4.||"Rock Is Sponge"||Joujouka||7:31|
|5.||"Fear (Rez Mix)"||Adam Freeland||5:07|
|6.||"Boss Attacks (Remix)"||Coldcut & Tim Bran||7:15|
|9.||"Creative State"||Ken Ishii||6:21|
The game was first announced at the 2001 Electronic Entertainment Expo under its working title "K-Project". It was shown off by both Sega and Sony for their respective consoles. The game was announced under its official title the following month at the Shibuya-AX Sony PlayStation 2 party. Concerned about the upheavals at Sega, and feeling a lack of support for Rez, Mizuguchi was anxious to make an impression with his presentation of the game. To achieve this he bleached and dyed his hair pure white and made his presentation—a solo demonstration of himself playing the game live—without saying a word after taking the stage. Mizuguchi's intention was for the game to primarily speak for itself, and the reaction he received from both Sega and Sony executives was exactly what he had hoped for. In wrapping up the party, Sony Computer Entertainment chairman and former Sony Music president Shigeo Maruyama took the stage and gave specific praise for Rez, suggesting that it would "not only make, but change history for music in games". Working together, marketing teams from both Sega and Sony developed innovative strategies to market the game including co-promoting it with electronic music festivals. For the launch party in Akasaka, Tokyo, Mizuguchi previewed music from the game alongside Freeland, Joujouka, and Coldcut via a livestream.
The game was released in Japan for both PS2 and Dreamcast on November 22, 2001. A special "Absolute Set" edition, limited to 500 units, was sold exclusively through the Tsutaya store chain. The edition included a copy of the game and the Trance Vibrator, and themed merchandise including a T-shirt, headphones and eyedrops. Further goods along those same lines were sold at special events in the months following the game's release. The Japanese versions also included a Morolian alien from Space Channel 5 as a secret playable character if players had save data from Space Channel 5. While the Dreamcast version was localised into English for a European release, it went unreleased in North America. The PS2 version was marketed and published in Europe as part of Sony's deal with Sega to distribute multiple titles in the region. The game released on January 8, 2002 in North America, and February 20 in Europe.
A high-definition remaster for Xbox 360, titled Rez HD, was developed by Mizuguchi's studio Q Entertainment and HexaDrive. The game was released through Xbox Live Arcade on January 30, 2008. It was published by Microsoft Game Studios. Mizuguchi wanted to release an improved version of Rez on modern consoles, and so acquired the rights from Sega. Production took between seven and eight months. Both Mizuguchi and Yokota were involved in the project. He chose the 360 due to its graphics and 5.1 surround sound capacity. The download service also allowed him to distribute the game at a low price to the widest possible audience. Co-developing the remasted was HexaDrive's first job as a company. They were able to complete the project quickly due to their in-depth knowledge of then-current consoles. The team consisted of around ten people; three came from HexaDrive, and seven or eight from Q Entertainment. For the conversion, the team adjusted the aspect ratio, and raised the framerate from 30 to 60 per second.
Rez Infinite is an expanded release of Rez, first announced in December 2015 for PlayStation 4. While coming packages with the original version, it also came with a new level called Area X, and both modes were made compatible with virtual reality (VR) devices. For the PS4, this was achieved using the PlayStation VR. The biggest addition to the game for Infinite was "Area X", which was built from scratch using Unreal Engine 4 and unlocked after playing the original for one hour. In contrast to the on-rails gameplay of Rez, "Area X" allows the player to roam freely around the environment.
The PS4 version released on October 13, 2016. A notable piece of merchandise was a four-disc vinyl release of the game's soundtrack, which included both the original album tracks and the piece used in Area X. The release, co-created by Iam8bit, also featured a large book detailing the making of both Rez and Rez Infinite, with extensive interviews with Mizuguchi and other staff members. The soundtrack later saw release on CD and digitally. A version for Microsoft Windows was released on August 9, 2017. This version was compatible with the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift. It was also ported to Android on November 20, requiring use of the Google Daydream peripheral.
Mizuguchi wanted to attract both fans of the original game and newcomers who had not heard of or played Rez. Alongside porting the game to new platforms, the team wanted to create something new. He led development under two small studio entities he founded; Enhance Games which oversaw and publicised the project, and the group Resonair. Over an eighteen-month period, Enhance and Resonair created the basics of the project before bringing in external studio Monstars to "color between the lines". Mizuguchi did this to avoid issues he had faced at Q Entertainment, which he left some years prior due to dissatisfaction with the company. He opted to return to gaming after seeing the potential for VR, creating Enhance Games to redevelop Rez for VR gaming. The team received additional marketing support from 8-4. Mizuguchi planned for a Windows version from an early stage, beginning development using Windows before bringing it over into the PS4 environment. He reasoned that while consoles have a finite life, games have far longer lifespans through a digital Windows release.
Area X was born from Enhance Games wanting to strip Rez down to its basics and rebuild it using modern technology. Mizuguchi decided two points; first to have particles generated from impacts so players could see a visualisation of the sounds and music, and second that players could roam freely. He compared the desired experience of Area X to "flying like Peter Pan". This provided a substantial challenge, as without the rail shooter gameplay providing a constant speed they still needed to ensure that notes would sync properly. Area X made extensive use of particle-based rendering in its graphics, with light particles making up everything in the level. Its visual design supplied by Takashi Ishihara at the request of Mizuguchi and designer Osamu Kodera. Enemy AI within Area X was improved and Mizuguchi composed a new poem on the theme of birth to act as a coda to Yokota's original poem. The music for "Area X" was composed by Hydelic, a musical group which formed part of Resonair.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)
Sega originally shipped Rez in fairly small quantities. In Japan, the PS2 version sold just under 37,600 units. By 2003, the PlayStation 2 version had sold over 100,000 copies in North America. Although generally low, North American sales were worse than in Japan, though Mizuguchi held out hope for European sales. On the whole, Rez was classified as a commercial failure worldwide, blamed alternately by poor marketing and support from Sega, and its non-standard gameplay and art style.
Writing for Games in 2002, reviewer Thomas L. McDonald described Rez as "a game that carves out its own niche: the art-house abstract musical rail-shooter", and emphasized the game's differences from traditional rhythm games while noting that "the result is awesome, but trying to describe it in words is like trying to sculpt Jell-O. Simply put, it's like nothing you've ever seen before." The game would go on to receive "Runner Up" in the category of "Electronic - Puzzle and Classic" in Games's annual "The Games 100"
In 2009, Edge ranked the game #49 on its list of "The 100 Best Games To Play Today", calling it "Astonishing to watch [and] uniquely absorbing to play". In 2012, Rez was listed on Time's All-TIME 100 greatest video games list.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)
|The Game Awards 2016||Best Music/Sound Design||Nominated|||
|Best VR Game||Won|
|Game Developers Choice Awards 2016||Best VR/AR Game||Nominated|||
|PlayStation LifeStyle 2016||Best PSVR Game||Won|||
Rez Infinite received widespread acclaim from critics. Review aggregate Metacritic assigned the game a score of 89 out of 100 based on 47 reviews, making Rez Infinite the highest rated PSVR game on the site. The game received unanimous praise for its immersion, sense of place, visual and sound design, and its new level Area X. Despite the age of its previous iterations, many reviewers considered it to be the finest PSVR title to date, and an essential game for anyone owning the device. Martin Robinson of Eurogamer called the game a "modern masterpiece", and Alexa Ray Corriea of GameSpot considered it to be "a new classic". Lucas Sullivan of GamesRadar thought that the game "achieves its full potential with PSVR", while Edge summarized "Rez Infinite is 15 years old, and the best VR game of 2016."
Reviewers praised the choice to remake the game in VR, and agreed that the game was best played in PSVR. Corriea praised the remastering of the visuals noting that "[hazy backgrounds] have been replaced with updated, crystal clear pieces of the cyberworld." Vince Ingenito of IGN thought that the use of VR "elevates [the game] dramatically", and Dominic Leighton of The Sixth Axis commented that the game "looks, and feels, like an experience tailored solely to the format". Ingenito lauded the game's control systems, noting that the aiming via head tracking in VR was "amazingly intuitive". Edge thought that the game was played best with head tracking whilst standing up, but cautioned "if you're a head-nodding dancer, perhaps invest in a neck brace." Robinson thought that in VR, the game gives "a sense of presence and ceaseless motion unlike anything else out there."
The gameplay was well-received, though opinions differed on its length. Ingenito thought the game was "surprisingly deep despite its relatively simple gameplay". Chris Carter of Destructoid thought the game was unique and "challenging as well on higher difficulties", but Leighton considered the game to be "relatively easy". The game's bosses were praised; Corriea considered them to be "most complex and challenging sections" of the game, and Carter thought they were "worth replaying multiple times." Infinite's new level, Area X, was widely considered to be one of the best parts of the game. Robinson considered the level to be "something else entirely", while Edge called the level "astonishing". Sullivan noted that the game's run time "will be a stumbling block for some", but still considered the game to be a "must-buy". Similarly Carter and Corriea thought the game was essential, but were left pining for more. The Official UK PlayStation Magazine listed it as the best PS VR game.
Rez received an award from The Agency for Cultural Affairs Media Art Festival in Japan. Rez was chosen as one of the Dreamcast games to be shown at the Smithsonian American Art Museum's 2012 exhibition, The Art of Video Games.
Despite low sales, a sequel to Rez was being planned at Sega prior to its internal restructuring. Mizuguchi has continued to expand upon his game designs, aiming to bring in casual players and have them experience synesthesia as he wanted to do with Rez. The UbiSoft-published Child of Eden is a spiritual successor to Rez, designed around the same gameplay and sensory principles. Mizuguchi envisioned Rez as being the first in a trilogy of similar titles. According to a 2017 interview, Area X was seen by him partly as a prototype for the conceptual third title.
- Kohler, Chris (2008-01-23). "Interview: Mizuguchi Talks Rez HD". Wired. Archived from the original on 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Leone, Matt (2015-12-07). "Rez Producer Tetsuya Mizuguchi on his return to music games". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
- "Rez - Voices of the Creators". Rez English website. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "PlayStation 2: Rez". Next Generation. Imagine Publishing (81): 35. 2001.
- Jones, Darren (2017-01-01). "Ultimate Guide: Rez". Retro Gamer. Archived from the original on 2017-04-03. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez - The Game". Rez English website. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Sega 2002, p. 10-11.
- Sega 2002, p. 12.
- Infinite 2017, p. 45–49.
- Sega 2002, p. 13.
- Gerstmann, Jeff (2002-01-14). "Rez Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
- Smith, David (2002-01-09). "Review: Rez". IGN. Archived from the original on 2004-07-02. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- 【東京ゲームショウ2001秋】イベントレポート ～「サクラ大戦4」にて神崎すみれ引退!!～ (in Japanese). Game Watch Impress. 2001-10-13. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Sega 2002, p. 16.
- Sega 2002, p. 8-9.
- "Rez - Story". Rez English website. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Tetsuya Mizuguchi Interview 2005". Video Games Daily. Superglobal, Ltd. 2005-10-13. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
- Orlando, Greg (2006-09-01). "Q Made Who?". Play Magazine (in Japanese). Fusion Publishing (September 2006): 60–61.
- "Rez retrospective: A look back at Tetsuya Mizuguchi's early days". Polygon. 2016-11-22. Archived from the original on 2019-10-10. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Interview with Tetsuya Mizuguchi for DENGEKI Online. Dengeki Online (in Japanese). 2001. Archived from the original on 2003-02-02. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- 新世代の『体感』ツコーディソグ. Dorimaga (in Japanese). SoftBank Creative (12): 48–49. 2001-10-26.
- セガ、“コンテンツ戦略発表会”を開催 DC、PS2、PCをネットワークで接続してゲームを遊べる!. Game Watch Impress (in Japanese). 2001-06-05. Archived from the original on 2019-09-22. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- Hawkins, Matthew (2005-05-06). "Go To Synesthesia... Jake Kazdal's Journey Through The Heart Of Rez". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 2019-06-03. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Robinson, Martin (2015-02-08). "In media Rez: the return of Tetsuya Mizuguchi". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
- "Jake Kazdal - An American Gaijin". CoreGamers. 2008-09-16. Archived from the original on 2017-06-18. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
- McWhertor, Michael (2008-03-17). "Sega: Dreamcast Rez Beta "K-Project" Released". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Game Developers Conference (2014-04-25). "Rez: A Classic Game Postmortem". YouTube. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- blackoak. "Rez – 2001 Developer Interview". Shmuplations.com. Archived from the original on 2019-09-14. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Fahay, Rob (2006-07-26). "Still Shinin'". GamesIndustry.biz. Archived from the original on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Mielke, James (2006-07-26). "Tetsuya Mizuguchi: Reexamining Rez and Space Channel 5". 1UP.com. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Parkin, Simon (17 March 2016). "Oral history of Rez recounts a marriage of game and music". Gamasutra. UBM TechWeb. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
- Cocker, Guy (2007-01-24). "Q&A: Every Extend Extra's Tetsuya Mizuguchi". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2019-02-21. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Art and Entertainment: An Interview with Tetsuya Mizuguchi". Sega. 2002. Archived from the original on 2002-06-27. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Infinite 2017, p. 18-27.
- Infinite 2017, p. 29-30.
- "Rez - Visuals". Rez English website. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Classic Levels Deconstructed: Tetsuya Mizuguchi & musician Adam Freeland dissect Rez Infinite's Area 5". PlayStation Blog. 2017-10-20. Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Infinite 2017, p. 58-59.
- "Rez - Sounds". Rez English website. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Infinite 2017, p. 37–41.
- "Chaval Records - Ken Ishii". Chaval Records. Archived from the original on 2019-11-09. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez Infinite Original Soundtrack Releasing on October 11, 2017". Rez Infinite Website. Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Mielke, James (2006-07-28). "Northern Lights: The Music Sounds Better With You". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2016-05-26. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Mielke, James (2005-03-25). "Time Travelling With Tetsuya Mizuguchi". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez Soundtrack Details Announced". IGN. 2001-11-27. Archived from the original on 2019-10-10. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Rez Gamer's Guide to.... Musicmine (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2002-12-23. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Third Ear Record-ings - Releases". Third Ear Records. Archived from the original on 2004-03-19. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Interview: Guy McCreery - Third Ear Recordings". Spannered. 2011-09-17. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- 『PSO』がゲームキューブに！ 『K-Project（仮）』がPS2に……！セガ、E3会場にてマルチプラットホーム戦略を発表！. Dengeki Online (in Japanese). 2001-05-18. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- PS2とDC同時発売! セガ「Rez」画像大量掲載!!. Game Watch Impress (in Japanese). 2001-06-28. Archived from the original on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Infinite 2017, p. 51–52.
- 株式会社ユナイテッド・ゲーム・アーティスツ会社概要. United Game Artists (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2003-06-18. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
- "Rez Absolute Set limited to 500 copies". Gaming Ingelligence Agency. 2001-10-24. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- 限定グッズの販売や試遊スペースを設置、BEAMSTにて「Rez展」本日より開催. Dengeki Online (in Japanese). 2002-03-30. Archived from the original on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Mielke, James (2008-01-24). "The Scoop on Rez HD, Available Next Wednesday". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- Gerstmann, Jeff (2001-09-04). "Rez DC announced for European release". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Ahmed, Shahad (2001-10-19). "Rez confirmed for North American market". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2001-11-09. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Computer game rivals in European deal". BBC. 2001-06-20. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez - News". Rez Website. Archived from the original on 2019-03-03. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- 【ファミキャリ！会社探訪(14)】実力派プログラマー集団からパブリッシャーへ！ ヘキサドライブを訪問！. Famitsu (in Japanese). 2014-06-26. Archived from the original on 2014-08-31. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Hayward, Andrew (2007-03-12). "Upcoming XBL Arcade Titles Detailed". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-26. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Torres, Richardo; Sinclair, Brendan (2008-01-25). "Q&A: Rez HD creator Tetsuya Mizuguchi". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2015-12-11. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- McWhertor, Michael (2015-12-05). "Rez coming to PlayStation VR". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2015-12-07. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
- Mizuguchi, Tetsuya (2016-08-18). "Rez Infinite is a PS VR launch game – ltd. ed. soundtrack, book, shirts revealed". PlayStation Blog. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- McWhertor, Michael (2016-09-20). "Rez Infinite's new level is PlayStation VR's most beautiful experience". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Estrada, Marcus (2017-06-09). "Collector's Cabinet: Rez Infinite Vinyl Soundtrack". Hardcore Gamer. Archived from the original on 2019-10-13. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Pereira, Chris (2017-08-09). "Surprise PC Release Of Acclaimed PS4 Game Rez Infinite Out Now On Steam". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Byford, Sam (2017-11-21). "Rez Infinite is now available in VR for Google Daydream". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-12-05. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Enhance Games (2016-09-29). "Rez Infinite: Behind the Scenes (PS4/PSVR)". YouTube. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Leone, Matt (2018-03-16). "Directing from the sidelines". Polygon. Archived from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- PC版「Rez Infinite」発売！ 新作も構想中の水口哲也氏へインタビュー. Game Watch Impress (in Japanese). 2017-08-10. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez Infinite is out now on PC, as we interview creator Tetsuya Mizuguchi". Metro. 2017-08-09. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Resonair". Resonair Official Website. Archived from the original on 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Sam Kennedy (2008-01-29). "Rez HD (Xbox 360)". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-16. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez Review". Edge. Future plc. 29 November 2001. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
- "Rez Infinite". Edge. Future Publishing (300): 116. December 2016.
- Parkin, Simon (2008-01-30). "Review: Rez HD". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
- (PS2) Rez （レズ）. Famitsu (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-15. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Corriea, Alexa Ray (2016-10-12). "Rez Infinite Review". GameSpot. CBS Interactive Inc. Archived from the original on 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
- Francis, Don (2008-01-31). "Rez HD Review". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
- Ingenito, Vince (2016-10-12). "Rez Infinite review". IGN. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-11.
- Brudvig, Erik (2008-01-29). "Rez HD Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 2008-02-01.
- Savage, Phil (2017-08-15). "Rez Infinite Review". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on 2017-08-19. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- "Rez Infinite for PC Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
- "Rez for PlayStation 2 Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 2009-12-10. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
- "Rez Infinite for PlayStation 4 Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
- "Rez HD for Xbox 360 Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
- Varanini, Giancarlo (2002-01-31). "Rez discontinued?". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2019-10-10. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- 2001年テレビゲームソフト売り上げTOP300. Geimin.net (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- "All Time Top 20 Best Selling Games". 2003-05-21. Archived from the original on 2006-02-21. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- "Tetsuya Mizuguchi Q&A". GameSpot. 2002-03-26. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- McDonald, Thomas L. (May 2002). "Game Views: Electronic". Games. Vol. 26 no. 180. GAMES Publications. p. 70. ISSN 0199-9788.
- McDonald, Thomas L.; Smolka, Rob (December 2002). McDonald, Thomas L. (ed.). "2003 Buyer's Guide To Games". Games. Vol. 26 no. 186. GAMES Publications. p. 55. ISSN 0199-9788.
- Edge Staff (2009-03-09). "The 100 Best Games To Play Today". Edge Online. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- Narcisse, Evan (November 15, 2012). "All-TIME 100 Video Games". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
- "The Top 25 Xbox Live Arcade Games". IGN. 2010-09-16. Archived from the original on 2010-09-18. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- Stark, Chelsea (December 1, 2016). "The Game Awards: Here's the full winners list". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- ""Inside, Overwatch, Firewatch And Uncharted 4: A Thief's End Lead 2017 Game Developers Choice Award Nominations"". 4 January 2017. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Best PlayStation 4 PSVR Video Games of All Time". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- Robinson, Martin (14 October 2016). "Rez Infinite review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Sullivan, Lucas (13 October 2016). "Rez Infinite review: "A spectacular sensory trek into the surreal"". GamesRadar. Bath: Future Publishing. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Leighton, Dominic (14 October 2016). "Rez Infinite Review". TheSixthAxis. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Carter, Chris (12 October 2016). "Review: Rez Infinite". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- PS VR Hall of Fame, Official UK PlayStation Magazine, Issue 136, June 2017, Future Publishing, page 108
- "セガの『Rez』、第6回文化庁メディア芸術祭 審査委員会特別賞を受賞" (Press release) (in Japanese). SEGA. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "The Art of Video Games Voting Results" (PDF). Smithsonian American Art Museum. 2011-05-05. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
- Narcisse, Evan (2011-06-16). "Tetsuya Mizuguchi Talks "Child of Eden"". IFC. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
- "Interview with Tetsuya Mizuguchi". Prankster101. 2017. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
Media related to Rez (video game) at Wikimedia Commons