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Rhabdopleura normani Sedgwick.png
Rhabdopleura normani
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Hemichordata
Class: Pterobranchia
Order: Rhabdopleurida
Family: Rhabdopleuridae
Genus: Rhabdopleura
Allman, 1869

see text

Rhabdopleurida is one of three orders in the class Pterobranchia, which are small, worm-shaped animals. Members belong to the hemichordates.[1][2] Species in this order are sessile, colonial, living in clear water and secrete tubes called coenecium. Rhabdopleura is the best studied pterobranchs in developmental biology.[3] Some claim Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite.[4][5]


This small order is monotypic. It has only a single genus, containing four to six species.

Order Rhabdopleurida


  1. ^ Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu
  2. ^ Eol.org
  3. ^ Sato, A; Bishop JDD; Holland PWH (2008). "Developmental biology of pterobranch hemichordates: history and perspectives". Genesis. 46 (11): 587–91. PMID 18798243. doi:10.1002/dvg.20395. 
  4. ^ Sato, A; Rickards, RB; Holland PWH (2008). "The origins of graptolites and other pterobranchs: a journey from ‘Polyzoa’". Lethaia. 41: 303–316. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00123.x. 
  5. ^ Mitchell, Charles E.; Michael J. Melchin; Chris B. Cameron; Jörg Maletz (2012). "Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite". Lethaia. ISSN 0024-1164. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2012.00319.x. 
  • Marinespecies.org
  • ITIS.gov
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.