|Native to||Ancient Raetia|
|Era||1st millennium BC to 3rd century AD|
uncertain, perhaps Tyrsenian or Celtic
Raetic (also Rhaetic, Rhaetian) is an ancient language spoken in the ancient region of Raetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times. It is documented by a limited number of short inscriptions (found through Northern Italy and Western Austria) in two variants of the Etruscan alphabet. Its linguistic categorization is not clearly established, and it presents a confusing mixture of what appear to be Etruscan, Indo-European, and uncertain other elements.
The most credible theories are that Raetic was:
- a member — along with Etruscan — of a proposed Tyrrhenian language family by German linguist Helmut Rix, possibly influenced by neighboring Indo-European languages. Several recent works support this theory.
- an Indo-European language, with links to Illyrian and Celtic
- a language isolate, later influenced by Etruscan
It is clear that in the centuries leading up to Roman imperial times, the Raetians had at least come under Etruscan influence, as the Raetic inscriptions are written in what appears to be a northern variant of the Etruscan alphabet. The ancient Roman sources mention the Raetic people as being reputedly of Etruscan origin, so there may at least have been some ethnic Etruscans who had settled in the region by that time.
adjoining these (the Noricans) are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states.[a] The Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race[b] driven out by the Gauls; their leader was named Raetus.
Pliny's comment on a leader named Raetus is typical of mythologized origins of ancient peoples, and not necessarily reliable. The name of the Venetic goddess Reitia has commonly been discerned in the Raetic finds, but the two names do not seem to be linked. The spelling as Raet- is found in inscriptions, while Rhaet- was used in Roman manuscripts; whether this Rh represents an accurate transcription of an aspirated R in Raetic or is an error is uncertain.
Many inscriptions are known, but most of them are only short and fairly repetitive, probably mostly votive texts. Raetic became extinct by the 3rd century AD, with its speakers eventually adopting Vulgar Latin in the south and Germanic in the north, and possibly Celtic prior to that.
- Raetic alphabet
- Aegean languages
- Etruscan language
- Etruscan civilization
- Tyrsenian languages
- Camunic language
- Raetic at MultiTree on the Linguist List
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Raetic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Rix 1998.
- Schumacher 1998.
- Scullard & 1967 43.
- Pliny, "XX", Naturalis Historia (in Latin) III, Rackham, H transl, Loeb.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911.
- Morandi, Alessandro (1999), "Il cippo di Castelciès nell’epigrafia retica", Studia archaeologica (Rome: Bretschneider) 103.
- Prosdocimi, Aldo L. (2003-4). "Sulla formazione dell'alfabeto runico. Promessa di novità documentali forse decisive". Archivio per l'Alto Adige 97–98.427–440
- Rix, Helmut (1998), Rätisch und Etruskisch [Raetian & Etruscan], Vorträge und kleinere Schriften (in German) (68), Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.
- Schumacher, Stefan (1998), "Sprachliche Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Rätisch und Etruskisch", Der Schlern (in German) 72: 90–114.
- Schumacher, Stefan (2004) , Die rätischen Inschriften. Geschichte und heutiger Stand der Forschung, Sonderheft (79) (2nd ed.), Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.
- Scullard, HH (1967), The Etruscan Cities and Rome, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Tóth, Alfréd; Brunner, Linus. (2007): "Raetic: An extinct Semitic language in Central Europe.". The Hague: Mikes International. ISBN 978-90-8501-113-2
- Zavaroni, Adolfo, Raetic inscriptions, Tripod.