Rhamnaceae

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Buckthorn family
Rhamnus pumila Atlas Alpenflora.jpg
Rhamnus pumila Turra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales[1]
Family: Rhamnaceae
Juss.
Type genus
Rhamnus
L.
Genera

See text.

Rhamnaceae Distribution.svg
The range of Rhamnaceae.
Synonyms

Frangulaceae DC.
Phylicaceae J.Agardh
Ziziphaceae Adans. ex Post & Kuntze[2]

The Rhamnaceae are a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs, and some vines, commonly called the buckthorn family.[3]

The family contains about 55 genera and 950 species.[4] The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Eocene.

Leaves of Rhamnaceae family members are simple, i.e., the leaf blades are not divided into smaller leaflets.[3] Leaves can be either alternate and spiraling, or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.

Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus
Bisexual flower of Helinus, with five sepals and petals, and a yellow, annular nectary disk. The small, clawed petals embrace the stamens.
Flowers of Ziziphus mucronata
Flowers of Rhamnus saxatilis

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are opposite the petals.[3] The ovary is superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes, or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.

Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

Genera[edit]

Tribe Ampelozizipheae
Tribe Bathiorhamneae
Tribe Colletieae
Tribe Doerpfeldieae
Tribe Gouanieae
Tribe Maesopsideae
Tribe Paliureae
Tribe Phyliceae
Tribe Pomaderreae
Tribe Rhamneae
Tribe Ventilagineae
Incertae sedis

Systematics[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics recommend the following clade-based classification of Rhamnaceae:

Rhamnaceae

Ampeloziziphoids

Ventilago




Bathiorhamnus




Ampelozizyphus



Doerpfeldia





Rhamnoids

Maesopsis





Scutia




Rhamnus



Frangula






Sageretia




Berchemia





Rhamnidium



Rhamnella





Reynosia




Krugiodendron




Karwinskia



Condalia











Ziziphoids

Schistocarpeia






Hovenia




Ziziphus



Paliurus







Gouania



Helinus





Pleuranthodes




Crumenaria



Reissekia









Lasiodiscus



Colubrina





Emmenosperma





Noltea




Trichocephalus




Nesiota



Phylica








Granitites



Alphitonia



Colletieae


Adolphia



Trevoa





Discaria



Kentrothamnus



Colletia



Retanilla






Ceanothus


Pomaderreae

Siegfriedia



Cryptandra




Stenanthemum




Trymalium




Pomaderris



Spyridium














References[edit]

  1. ^ Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313.  (full text )
  2. ^ "Family: Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 
  3. ^ a b c Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed. 2000, p. 166
  4. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., and Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  5. ^ "Granitites". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. 
  6. ^ "GRIN Genera of Rhamnaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 

External links[edit]