|Classification and external resources|
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the joints and/or connective tissue. The study of, and therapeutic interventions in, such disorders is called rheumatology.
The term "rheumatism" is still used in colloquial speech and historical contexts, but is no longer frequently used in medical or technical literature; there is no longer any recognized disorder simply called "rheumatism". The traditional term covers such a range of different problems that to ascribe symptoms to "rheumatism" is not to say very much. Nevertheless, sources dealing with rheumatism tend to focus on arthritis. However, "non-articular rheumatism", also known as "regional pain syndrome" or "soft tissue rheumatism", can cause significant discomfort and difficulty. Furthermore, arthritis and rheumatism between them cover at least 200 different conditions.
The major rheumatic disorders currently recognized include
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Back pain
- Bursitis/Tendinitis, Shoulder pain, wrist, biceps, leg, knee (patellar), ankle, hip, and Achilles
- Neck pain
Although these disorders probably have little in common in terms of their epidemiology, they do share two characteristics: they cause chronic (though often intermittent) pain, and they are difficult to treat. They are also, collectively, very common.
Other rheumatic diseases which are caused by autoimmunity include:
- Relapsing polychondritis
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- rheumatoid arthritis
- juvenile arthritis
- Sjögren syndrome
- Behçet's disease
- Reactive arthritis
- Psoriatic arthritis
A vast number of traditional herbal remedies were recommended for "rheumatism". Modern medicine, both conventional and alternative, recognises that the different rheumatic disorders have different causes (and several of them have multiple causes) and require different kinds of treatment.
Nevertheless, initial therapy of the major rheumatological diseases is with analgesics, such as paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), members of which are ibuprofen and naproxen. Often, stronger analgesics are required.
The ancient Greeks recorded that bee venom had some beneficial effects on some types of rheumatism. Bee and ant stings were known as a folk remedy in the late 19th century, and at least one physician developed a treatment consisting of repeated formic acid injections. Certain Amazonian tribes, including the Zo'é use fire ant stings as a remedy for aches and pains.
Cod liver oil has also been used as a remedy.
There has long been said to be a link between "rheumatic" pain and the weather. There appears to be no firm evidence in favour or against; a 1995 questionnaire given to 557 people by A. Naser and others at the Brigham and Women's Hospital's Pain Management Center concludes that "changes in barometric pressure are the main link between weather and pain. Low pressure is generally associated with cold, wet weather and an increase in pain. Clear, dry conditions signal high pressure and a decrease in pain."
- "rheumatism" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- "eMedicine - Nonarticular Rheumatism/Regional Pain Syndrome : Article by Daniel Muller".
- Rheumatic Diseases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Salvador G, Gomez A, Vinas O, et al. (August 2003). "Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and antikeratin antibodies in palindromic rheumatism. An abortive form of rheumatoid arthritis?". Rheumatology (Oxford) 42 (8): 972–5. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg268. PMID 12730510.
- Puéchal, X; Terrier, B; Mouthon, L; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N; Guillevin, L; Le Jeunne, C (March 2014). "Relapsing polychondritis.". Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme 81 (2): 118–24. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.01.001. PMID 24556284.
- Janeways: "immunology"
- Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, AG; Heiss, EH; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, VM; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of ethnopharmacology 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
- Isolated: The Zo'é tribe (documentary)
- The Rheumatology Handbook (WSPC 2012) ISBN 978-1-84816-320-1
- American College of Rheumatology
- EULAR - The European League Against Rheumatism
- BBC "Your Health" website on Arthritis and Rheumatism
- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases