Rhipicephalus microplus

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Rhipicephalus microplus
female and male
Scientific classification
R. microplus
Binomial name
Rhipicephalus microplus
(Canestrini, 1888)
  • Boophilus annulatus australis Lahille, 1905
  • Boophilus annulatus calcaratus Sharif, 1928
  • Boophilus annulatus caudatus Lahille, 1905
  • Boophilus annulatus microdus Arnold, 1935 (misapplied name)
  • Boophilus annulatus microplus Lahille, 1905
  • Boophilus australis Stiles & Hassall, 1901
  • Boophilus caudatus Lahille, 1905
  • Boophilus intraoculatus Minning, 1936
  • Boophilus microplus Lahille, 1905
  • Boophilus microplus annulatus Floch, 1956
  • Boophilus (Margaropus) annulatus australis Toumanoff, 1944
  • Boophilus (Palpoboophilus) minningi Kishida, 1936
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) caudatus Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) cyclops Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) distans Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) fallax Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) krijgsmani Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) longiscutatus Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) microplus Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) rotundiscutatus Minning, 1934
  • Boophilus (Uroboophilus) sharifi Minning, 1934
  • Haemaphysalis micropla Canestrini, 1888
  • Ixodes australis Ruotsalainen, 1903 (misapplied name)
  • Margaropus annulatus argentinus Castellani & Chalmers, 1910
  • Margaropus annulatus australis Newstead, 1909
  • Margaropus annulatus caudatus Neumann, 1911
  • Margaropus annulatus mexicanus Macias Valadez, 1923
  • Margaropus annulatus microphilus Castellani & Chalmers, 1919
  • Margaropus annulatus microplus Rohr, 1909
  • Margaropus australis Manson, 1907
  • Margaropus caudatus Castellani & Chalmers, 1910
  • Margaropus microphilus Castellani & Chalmers, 1910 (misapplied name)
  • Margaropus micropla Neumann, 1911
  • Margaropus microplus Hunter & Hooker, 1907
  • Palpoboophilus brachyuris Kishida, 1939
  • Palpoboophilus minningi Kishida, 1939
  • Rhipicaphalus annulatus caudatus Neumann, 1897
  • Rhipicaphalus australis Fuller, 1899
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus argentinensis Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus argentinus Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus australis Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus caudatus Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus microplus Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus annulatus microplus Neumann, 1901
  • Rhipicephalus caudatus Fuller, 1899
  • Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrini, 1890
  • Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) argentinus Neumann, 1904
  • Uroboophilus australis Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus caudatus Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus cyclops Schulze, 1936
  • Uroboophilus distans Schulze, 1935
  • Uroboophilus fallax Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus indicus Minning, 1936
  • Uroboophilus krijgsmani Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus longiscutatus Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus microplus Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus occidentalis Minning, 1936
  • Uroboophilus rotundiscutatus Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus sharifi Kishida, 1939
  • Uroboophilus sinensis Schulze, 1935

The Asian blue tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) is an economically important tick that parasitises a variety of livestock species[1] especially cattle, on which it is the most economically significant ectoparasite in the world.[2] It is known as the Australian cattle tick, southern cattle tick, Cuban tick, Madagascar blue tick, and Porto Rican Texas fever tick.[3]


It has been recorded on "cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, deer, pigs, dogs, buffalo and some wild animals".[1]


Nearly a cosmopolitan species, Asian blue tick is found in Costa Rica, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Brazil, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Argentina, Colombia, Cote D'Ivoire, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands (U.S.), Zambia and Zimbabwe.[4]

Tick populations in Australia once thought to belong to R. microplus are now recognized to belong to R. australis, which was reinstated as a sibling species of R. microplus in 2012.[5]

Having formerly been present in the United States, it has since been eradicated there, except for sporadic occurrences in a buffer zone along the Mexican border.[1]

In Louisiana, Governor Ruffin Pleasant in 1917 signed legislation sponsored by freshman State Senator Norris C. Williamson of East Carroll Parish to authorize state funding to eradicate the cattle tick.[6]

Life cycle[edit]

It has a one-host lifecycle.


Acaricides and pyrethroids are commonly used however this has led to the development of acaricide and pyrethroid resistance.[2] Acaricide resistance in R. microplus is mediated by para sodium channel mutants.[2] Such alleles can be rapidly detected in a border livestock inspection by PCR High Resolution Melt testing.[2] This is especially useful on the United States-Mexico border where the US has almost eradicated R. microplus, but Mexico has a high prevalence and a high prevalence of acaricide resistance.[2] This technique could also be applied in other countries where pyrethroid resistance R. microplus is a common problem.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Southern Cattle Tick, Cattle Tick" (PDF). Iowa State University. February 20, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Klafke, Guilherme M.; Miller, Robert J.; Tidwell, Jason P.; Thomas, Donald B.; Sanchez, Daniela; Feria Arroyo, Teresa P.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A. (2019). "High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis for detection of SNPs associated with pyrethroid resistance in the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)". International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. Elsevier BV. 9: 100–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2019.03.001. ISSN 2211-3207. PMC 6423475. PMID 30889438.
  3. ^ "Species Details : Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrini, 1888". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  4. ^ "Rhipicephalus spp". Tick importance - disease transmission. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  5. ^ Estrada-Peña, A., J. M. Venzal, S. Nava, A. Mangold, A. A. Guglielmone, M. B. Labruna, and J. D. L. Fuente. 2012. Reinstatement of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Acari: Ixodidae) with redescription of the adult and larval stages. Journal of Medical Entomology 49:794-802.
  6. ^ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, April 1918, p. 639. Ithaca, New York: American Veterinary Medical Association, 1918. 1918. Retrieved July 25, 2013.


External links[edit]

  1. ^ La especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari-Ixodidae) Canestrini, 1888 conocida comúnmente como la garrapata común del bovino, es sin dudas la más dañina de las garrapatas y el más dañino de los ectoparásitos, que afectan al ganado bovino, ya que provoca daños en la piel, anemias, baja condición física, alteraciones reproductivas, decrecimiento en la producción de leche y carne, mortalidad de los animales y parálisis. Además es agente transmisor de hemoparásitos <r<NCBI. National Center for Biotechnology Information. NCBI Taxonomy browser https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy/?term=ixodidae.></Barker, S. Murrel, A. 2008. Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names. Ticks: Biology disease and control Eds. A. Bowman y P. Nuttal. Cambridge University Press. 39 p.>Nari, A. 1995. Strategies for the control of one-host ticks and relationship with tick-borne diseases in South America. Veterinary Parasitology. 57:153-165>