Rhithymna or Rithymna (Greek: Ῥίθυμνα) or Rhithymnia (Greek: Ῥιθυμνία), was an ancient town on the island of Crete, Greece, which became a medieval bishopric under the name Retimo (as in Italian), which was suppressed and turned into a Latin Catholic titular see, which was later also suppressed.
Rhithymna is mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder as the first town on the north coast to the east of Amphimalla, and is spoken of as a Cretan city by Stephanus of Byzantium, in whose text its name is written Rhithymnia; Stephanus gives the city's ethnonyms as Ῥιθυμνιάτης and Ῥιθύμνιος). It is also alluded to by Lycophron (76). Modern Rethymno retains the name of the ancient city, upon whose site it stands. Rhithymna minted coins in antiquity; maritime emblems are found on them.
The bishopric was established around 1250 AD as Diocese of Retimo (Italian) / Rhithymnen(sis) (Latin).
On 5 November 1551, it was renamed as Diocese of Retimo–Ario (Italian) / Rhithymnen(sis)–Arien(sis) (Latin) and gained territory from the suppressed Roman Catholic Diocese of Ario.
Around 1650?, the residential diocese was suppressed and listed as Titular bishopric of Rhithymna (latin) / Retimo (Italian).
In 1936, the titular see was suppressed, having has had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :
- Francesco Trevisan Suarez (1728.11.15 – 1738.11.24)
- José Ignacio Cienfuegos Arteaga (1828.12.15 – 1832.12.17)
- Marco Antonio Maiz (1844.07.25 – 1848.05.15)
- William Wareing (1858.12.21 – 1865.12.26)
- James David Richards (1871.01.13 – 1893.11.30)
- Paul Pellet, Society of African Missions (S.M.A.) (1895.01.15 – 1914.03.11)
- Americo Bevilacqua (1915.01.22 – 1918.02.02), previously Bishop of Alatri (Italy) (1909.04.29 – 1915.01.22); later Titular Archbishop of Scythopolis (1918.02.02 – death 1926.03.20)
- António Antunes (1919.09.12 – 1936.03.01)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), p. 60.
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