Rhizobiales

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Rhizobiales
Bartonella.jpg
Bartonella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alpha Proteobacteria
Order: Rhizobiales
Kuykendall 2006
Families
Synonyms

Hyphomicrobiales

Rhizobiales is an order of alpha proteobacteria. They are Gram-negative.

The rhizobia, which fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots, appear in several different families. The four families Bradyrhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae contain at least six genera of nitrogen-fixing, legume-nodulating, microsymbiotic bacteria. Examples are the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. Species of Methylocystaceae are methanotrophs; they use methanol (CH3OH) or methane (CH4) as their sole energy and carbon sources. Other important genera are Bartonella (pathogen) and Agrobacterium (genetic engineering).

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature[2] and National Center for Biotechnology Information[3] and the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences.[4]













Brucellaceae

Brucella Meyer and Shaw 1920



Ochrobactrum Holmes et al. 1988



Bartonellaceae

Bartonella Strong et al. 1915 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Brenner et al. 1993



Phyllobacteriaceae


Mesorhizobium Jarvis et al. 1997



Hoeflea Peix et al. 2005




Chelativorans Doronina et al. 2010




Rhizobiaceae



Rhizobium Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Young et al. 2001



Agrobacterium Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Sawada et al. 1993





Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988 emend. De Lajudie et al. 1994



Ensifer Casida 1982






Candidatus Liberibacter corrig. Jagoueix et al. 1994



Candidatus Hodgkinia McCutcheon et al. 2009





Aurantimonadaceae

Aurantimonas Denner et al. 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011



Fulvimarina Cho and Giovannoni 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011




Hyphomicrobiaceae pro parte


Cucumibacter Hwang and Cho 2008



Maritalea Hwang et al. 2009




Pelagibacterium Xu et al. 2011






Amorphus Zeevi Ben Yosef et al. 2008



Pleomorphomonas Hwang et al. 2009[b]





Kaistia Im et al. 2005[c]





Bradyrhizobiaceae



Bradyrhizobium Jordan 1982



Nitrobacter Winogradsky 1892




Rhodopseudomonas Czurda and Maresch 1937





Oligotropha Meyer et al. 1994



Afipia Brenner et al. 1992




Xanthobacteraceae


Ancylobacter Raj 1983



Starkeya Kelly et al. 2000





Xanthobacter Wiegel et al. 1978



Azorhizobium Dreyfus et al. 1988







Methylobacteriaceae

Methylobacterium Methylobacterium Patt et al. 1976 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Green and Bousfield 1983



Balneimonas corrig. Takeda et al. 2004[d]




Beijerinckiaceae



Methylocapsa Dedysh et al. 2002



Methylocella Dedysh et al. 2000 emend. Dunfield et al. 2003




Beijerinckia Derx 1950




Methyloferula Vorobev et al. 2011



Methylocystaceae

Methylocystis (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993 emend. Dedysh et al. 2007



Methylosinus (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993







Hyphomicrobiaceae pro parte

Hyphomicrobium Stutzer and Hartleb 1899



Rhodomicrobium Duchow and Douglas 1949 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff et al. 1984




Rhodobiaceae

Parvibaculum Schleheck et al. 2004




Meganema Thomsen et al. 2006[e]




Sphingomonas Yabuuchi et al. 1990 emend. Yabuuchi et al. 1999 (outgroup)



Further reading[edit]

  • Kuykendall, L. D. and Dazzo, F.B. 2005. Allorhizobium. In Brenner, Krieg, Staley and Garrity (Editors), The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria, The Proteobacteria, Part C, Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd. Ed., Vol. 2, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 345–346.
  • Kuykendall, L. D. 2005 Genus Azorhizobium. In Brenner, Krieg, Staley and Garrity (Editors), The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria, The Proteobacteria, Part C, Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd. Ed.,Vol. 2, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 505–506.
  • Kuykendall, L.D. 2005. Genus Bradyrhizobium, family Bradyrhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 438–443.
  • Chen, W. X., E.T. Wang, and L.D. Kuykendall. 2005. Genus Mesorhizobium, Family Photobacteriaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 403–408.,
  • Kuykendall, L.D., J.M. Young, E. Martínez-Romero, A. Kerr, and H. Sawada. 2005. Genus Rhizobium, a highly divergent genus in a revised family, the Rhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 324–340.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b These families have been proposed but not yet validly published according to the rules of the Bacteriological Code.
  2. ^ Pleomorphomonas is currently included in Methylocystaceae.
  3. ^ Kaistia is currently included in Rhizobiaceae.
  4. ^ Balneimonas is currently included in Bradyrhizobiaceae.
  5. ^ Meganema is currently included in Methylobacteriaceae.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Beck, D. A. C.; McTaggart, T. L.; Setboonsarng, U.; Vorobev, A.; Goodwin, L.; Shapiro, N.; Woyke, T.; Kalyuzhnaya, M. G.; Lidstrom, M. E.; Chistoserdova, L. (2015). "Multiphyletic origins of methylotrophy in Alphaproteobacteria, exemplified by comparative genomics of Lake Washington isolates". Environmental Microbiology 17 (3): 547–54. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12736. PMID 25683159. 
  2. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiales)". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  3. ^ "Rhizobiales". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  4. ^ Collapsed from the tree built by PATRIC. Access date: 2012-05-02.