Rhizopus arrhizus

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Rhizopus arrhizus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Mucoromycota
Order: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae
Genus: Rhizopus
R. arrhizus
Binomial name
Rhizopus arrhizus

Rhizopus arrhizus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae, characterized by sporangiophores that arise from nodes at the point where the rhizoids are formed and by a hemispherical columella. It is the most common cause of mucormycosis in humans and occasionally infects other animals.

Rhizopus arrhizus spores contain ribosomes as a spore ultrastructure.[1]

Metabolism in the fungus changes from aerobic to fermentation at various points in its life cycle.[2]


R. arrhizus produces siderophores which are also usable to adjacent plants.[3] Holzberg & Artis 1983 finds a hydroxamate siderophore and Shenker et al 1992 provides a method for detection of a carboxylate.[3]

Plant diseases[edit]


R. arrhizus does not infect grape first or alone but is instead secondary.[4] This fungus colonizes grape after another pathogen has begun degrading tissues and as such is better diagnosed by molecular diagnostics, especially in early stages when the difference between single and complex infection is not visually tractable.[4]


Howell & Stipanovic 1983 find gliovirin is not effective against R. arrhizus.[5]


Rhizopus arrhizus can be used for bio-remediation, i.e., is useful in treating uranium and thorium-affected soils.[6]


  1. ^ Buckley, Patricia M.; Sommer, N. F.; Matsumoto, T. T. (June 1968). "Ultrastructural Details in Germinating Sporangiospores of Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus". Journal of Bacteriology. 95 (6): 2365–2373. doi:10.1128/JB.95.6.2365-2373.1968. PMC 315172. PMID 4876136. One detail of spore ultrastructure not previously emphasized in studies of these fungi is the appearance of ribosomes. After chrome-osmium postfixation, it was possible to observe dense, approximately round, cytoplasmic particles which lay apparently free throughout the cells
  2. ^ Lawler, George C.; Weber, Darrell L. (1980). "Metabolism During Asexual Sporulation in Rhizopus arrhizus (Fischer)" (PDF). Journal of General Microbiology. 117 (2): 465–474. doi:10.1099/00221287-117-2-465. The metabolism of Rhizopus arrhizus (Fischer) during growth and asexual sporulation was investigated. Aerobic respiration occurred during spore germination but changed to fermentation during the initial stages of growth. During the later stages of growth and sporulation, the respiration again became aerobic.
  3. ^ a b Saha, Maumita; Sarkar, Subhasis; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Bipin Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Tribedi, Prosun (2015-03-12). "Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 23 (5): 3984–3999. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4294-0. ISSN 0944-1344.
  4. ^ a b Crandall, Sharifa G.; Spychalla, Jamie; Crouch, Uma; Acevedo, Flor; Naegele, Rachel P.; Miles, Timothy D. (2022-02-02). "Rotting grapes don't improve with age: cluster rot disease complexes, management, and future prospects". Plant Disease. American Phytopathological Society: 1363–1383. doi:10.1094/pdis-04-21-0695-fe. ISSN 0191-2917. PMID 15757173. S2CID 20561417.
  5. ^ Howell, C. R. (2003). "Mechanisms Employed by Trichoderma Species in the Biological Control of Plant Diseases: The History and Evolution of Current Concepts". Plant Disease. American Phytopathological Society. 87 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1094/pdis.2003.87.1.4. ISSN 0191-2917.
  6. ^ "Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research Vol.64, February 2005, pp 93-100 Fungus — An alternative for bioremediation of heavy metal containing wastewater: A review" (PDF).